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How To Design A Balanced Scored Card : Job

Design, Job Analysis, JD, Competency Mapping, KPI

From "wowow" : Can any one help me understand clearly the
process of Job design, Job analysis, Competency Mapping, KPIs
In my understanding, any organization will start the process from
Business Process => Org. Chart => Job Design => Job Analysis =>
Competency Mapping => KRA => KPA => KPI. I wonder if my
understanding is correct. Please correct me!
24th March 2013 From Vietnam, Hanoi


The drill down is correct. Thats how vision is followed, from the
organisation level to what every employee deliver. What is the
project that you are working upon ? It seems to be pretty
interesting .

Hi 1979,
I am a member of a HR Project to develop a professional HR system
in my organization with about 5,000 employees. Therefore, we are
finding the right way and approach to do it. One more thing I am
concerning about is Vision, Mission, Core Value are really necessary
to my organization. Because, I understand that the HR system
needs to link to the strategy of the organization. That means the
starting point should be Vision. So the full and completed process
should be:
Vision => Mission => Core Values => Business Process => Org.
Chart => Job Design => Job Analysis => Competency Mapping =>
KRA => KPA => KPI.
If there is no Vision, Mission, Core Values the remaining things are
still meaningful?
Moreover, I would like to have the tools to implement the above
mentioned process. Could you please help me with these tools?
24th March 2013 From Vietnam, Hanoi

A business leader once told me that Vision and Mission is always

there, still no one will see it , unless you put it on a poster :)
This was during the National Health Week drive , where we had to
get our employees attend the health check-ups organised within the
office premises.
Jokes apart, you have a fairly big project in hand. Have you
considered Balanced Score Card and its feasibility to implement it in
your firm ?
The due diligence will remain vital , check for the duration and the
cost of implementation including the training and its audit. If you
involve any good consultant , you will find the standardised process,
no sooner.

If your organization has 5000 employees, it is apparent that they

would have been recruited for some 'Job Positions' which had pre-
defined 'Job Descriptions'. Your exercise, it seems, is the alignment
of people to the business objectives, thus ensuring goal based
accountability at all levels. Balance Score Card (BSC) is the tool
utilized by most organizations to achieve such an alignment.
Coupled to that, attitudinal transformation may be needed in some
people where resistance to change is the vital problem to be

The approach discussed above by you & Mr (Cite Contribution) is

meaningful since to achieve any worthwhile alignment Vision,
Mission & Values have to be the start point. But Job design & job
analysis, leading to competency gap analysis of employees, need
not be the next step. May be the identification of 'Core
Competencies' as per the business of your organization is the next
step. These are the competencies required for all 'white collar jobs'.
For the same competency, the definition, however, may vary as per
the job levels. For example, if 'Drive for Results' is a core
competency, it may have a 'strategic focus' when applied to higher
level job positions (like CFO, COO, Corporate Head HR & other
Functional Heads) as compared to junior level executives (in
different departments) where the focus may be purely operational.
For middle level positions, the definition of the competency 'Drive
for Results' may cater for 20 - 30 % as strategic & the balance as
operational role. Like this, one may pick up about 6 - 7 Core
competencies initially and create training programs to develop these
competencies for Junior/ middle/ Senior level employees in the

In addition to the core competencies, 2 - 3 special skills required for

people in each department need to be identified. And training
programs to develop these skills have to be designed.

While the design of B S C for your organization is being progressed

by experts, training of people on Core competencies & Special skills
has to begin simultaneously, so that a message travels across the
organization about the launch of 'strategic change process' by the

Well, you do need automated systems to manage these change

initiatives. 'EmpXtrack' is one such system which has already helped
many organizations to successfully achieve alignment of people to
the organizational objectives.

Any queries that you may have on the approach suggested above
may be shared to get responses based on experience of experts.
25th March 2013 From India, Delhi

Thanks you all for your comments and advices. There are some
more things that I need you to continue helping me understand
1 - Where the BSC appears and plays its role in the process Vision
=> Mission => Core Values => Business Process => Org. Chart =>
Job Design => Job Analysis => Competency Mapping => KRA =>
2 - As B K BHATIA commented that our company is doing the
alignment of people to the business objectives, thus ensuring goal
based accountability at all levels, I would like to explain more
details: our company now starts the project to develop competency
framework, KPI, and so on. It has JDs for every positions already,
but only JDs, not competencies and KPIs. Therefore, it considers
that its HR system is not effective and good enough.
With above concerns, I do hope to have your supports.
25th March 2013 From Vietnam, Hanoi
ASIFBD_2012 37

Dear Wowow, I would like to add some FUNDAMENTALS of BALANCE



that enables organizations to translate a company's VISION and
STRATEGY into implementation. It usually works from 4





This allows the MONITORING of present PERFORMANCE, but the

method also tries to capture information about how well the
organization is POSITIONED to PERFORM in the FUTURE.
For each PERSPECTIVE of the BALANCED SCORECARD 4 things are
MONITORED (scored):

1. OBJECTIVES: major objectives to be achieved, for example,

profitable growth.

2. MEASURES: the OBSERVABLE parameters that will be used to

measure PROGRESS toward reaching the objective. For example,
the objective of profitable growth might be measured by growth in
net margin.

3. TARGETS: the specific target VALUES for the measures, for

example, 7% annual decline in manufacturing disruptions.

4. INITIATIVES: PROJECTS or PROGRAMS to be initiated in order to

meet the objective.


You tend to get what you MEASURE. People will work to ACHIEVE
the EXPLICIT targets which are set. For example, emphasizing
traditional financial measures may encourage short-term thinking.
The CORE GROUP THEORY by Kleiner provides further CLUES on the
mechanisms behind this. Kaplan and Norton recognize this, and
urge for a more balanced set of measurements. But still, people will
work to achieve their scorecard goals, and may IGNORE important
things which have no place on their scorecard.


In 2002, COBBOLD and LAWRIE developed a classification of

BALANCED SCORECARD designs based upon the INTENDED method
of use within an organization. They describe how the BALANCED
SCORECARD can be used to support 3 DISTINCT management
activities, the first 2 being MANAGEMENT CONTROL and STRATEGIC
CONTROL. They assert that due to DIFFERENCES in the
PERFORMANCE data requirements of these applications, PLANNED
use should influence the type of BSC design adopted. Later that
year the same authors reviewed the EVOLUTION of the BALANCED
SCORECARD as shown through the use of STRATEGY MAPS as a
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT tool, recognizing 3 DISTINCT generations

[SOURCE: Book: Robert S. Kaplan, David P. Norton - The BSC:

Translating Strategy into Action]


25th March 2013 From Bangladesh
Attached Images

BSC.jpg (77.3 KB, 496 views)


In the drill down you had indicated, Balanced Score Card will be
crucial and will take a place next to Business Process.
It is an excellent tool to implement strategy and will be very useful
in identifying Org Structure required, Competency required and
KRAs and KPAs.
In fact, your exercise will be complete only when you implement
some sort of Balanced Score Card. Some find it difficult to
implement all aspects of BSC but organisations have succeeded in
implementing BSC fully.
25th March 2013 From India, Chennai

Thank you all for your kind support. To conclude the process in
implementation of HRM linked to strategic management, the
standard flow is:
Vision => Mission => Core Values => BSC => Business Process =>
Org. Chart => Job Design => Job Analysis => Competency
Mapping => KRA => KPA => KPI
However, the Job Design and Job Analysis will exchange their places
based upon the context of the organization. That means if the
organization want to do re-engineering or re-structuring so the Job
Analysis should follow the Job Design.
One more crucial thing that I am still looking for your help is how to
do competency mapping, KRAs and KPIs setting up with the current
JDs of my organization while we have 5000 employees?
26th March 2013 From Vietnam, Hanoi

Dear Wowwow
Let me add a little bit on the job description part.
In my company I have used two methods (Competency Mapping) :
DACUM & CUDBAS. I can't attach any material here due to company
restrictions, but do look it up in the net to get some idea. CUDBAS
gives a quicker process, especially for the technical group.
It took me two years to do this for my former company of 4000 pax.
Hope this helps.
Best Regards
Audi Narasingam
ASM Technologies
Malaysia/ Singapore
27th March 2013 From Singapore, Singapore
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Dear Wowow,
Please find herewith the attached files, where it helps you in
designing JD and understand competency.
Vani M
27th March 2013 From India, Bangalore

Attached Files

competency-iceberg-model.pptx (6.92 MB, 480 views)

Writing A Job Description.docx (21.2 KB, 298 views)

Competency Mapping - Techniques and Models.ppt (179.0 KB,


You, Cite Contribution, mahaseshadri and 7 others Appreciated this.



Dear Wowow,
You may follow link below in order to get clarification on how to
map competencies and KRA and KPI.
How To Identify The Competencies Of The Employees Working In
Different Platform
In addition try to make groups of these people ex:
Department/Section, Position/Designation, similar kind of work
etc, sounds easy but is not, then you may arrive at a smaller
number for which you have to map competencies.
And one more thing start mapping competencies from top to
bottom, i:e, from CEO/MD/CMD > Directors >HOD and down
below, this will help to keep your competencies alined to
organisations Vision and Mission.
Vicky Rathod
28th March 2013 From India, Mumbai

Cite Contribution, vishaldudhate and wowow Appreciated this.




You are approaching it right. The idea is to align organisation
Vision, Values and Mission with business results. This is required
as we want all employees to do ceratin things in a particular
manner which require a level of profeciency in a set of
Thus organisation structure has to first asnwer the question -
Why this role and what are the outcomes expected of this role.
In order to do this role what skills and demonstrated behaviours
will be required. If this question is answered the rest is coining
them as JD, KPI, KRA etc..
With a competency map available then the process is of assesing
and developing people to be abLe to do those roles well. This can
be attempted through skill programs or behavioural programs.
The competency map itself should be reviewed in 3-5 years time
since the business envoirnment is chnaging all the time.
30th March 2013 From India, New Delhi

Cite Contribution, S.VIJAYASIMHARAO and wowow Appreciated this.

R_KUL #14


Dear Wowow,

We need to understand there are three different stages:

1.Vision, mission & core values.

Team to sit with: Entrepreneur-either the Chairman, MD,

Strategy Head and few associated people.

2.Business process, Jod design & analysis, Job description -this

shall bring our job-related skills and behavioral skills, which
reflect competency for the job.

Team to sit with: MD, Business Head and departmental Heads.

3.Competency mapping, KRA,KPA & KPI. This shall define and

measure the existing staff skills & competency areas.

Team to sit with: Dept. Heads & Line Managers.

These three need to be aligned and implemented.

Implementation: This involves Behavioral skills training (to a

large extent), job-related skills (to a lesser extent), re-shuffle of

Most important-Training needs to start from bottom.

Justification: Entrepreneur has started business from bottom and

now sits at the top.

One more thing which I should add-this exercise is iterative; as it

needs to be re-aligned every few years and this structural need
calls for BSC /tools.

Thank you.

Warm regards.
6th December 2014 From India, Mumbai




Vision and Mission need to be spelt out, documented else

everyone has his/her own interpretation. It also needs to be
mentioned again and again.
if you want a proof just go out and ask people in any
organization. No two answers will be same. (Most of all may not
even know if such things existed in their organization)
8th January 2015




We seem to be mixing up issues. If the requirement is alignment

of individual goals to the organizational objectives & the purpose
is to improve accountability at all levels, B S C is the right
approach. To achieve this, you need to conduct (through subject
experts) multiple workshops, starting initially with a workshop
for the senior/ top management to decide the organizational
objectives (Financial, Customer, Business Processes, Learning &
Growth), and also the initiatives to be launched across the
organization to achieve these objectives. Some of these
initiatives directly become the goals for specific departments,
while others require contribution by more than one department.
Thus inter department teams get constituted. This process of
allocating initiatives & laying down the measuring yardsticks
(KPIs) for each initiative is discussed & decided in the remaining
workshops. The eventual outcome is a balanced score card for
each function/ department. The functional/ departmental head,
thereafter allocates the initiatives assigned to them (or the goals
based on these initiatives) to teams/ individuals in their
respective domains. Each goal/ KRA/ Initiative is clearly defined
in terms of its measurable outcome & the targets to be achieved
by teams/ individuals in specific time periods. This completes the
alignment process. But to make it operational, Goal Sheets for
each employee & an effective on-line tracking system is needed.
This can not be done through a manual process. 'EmpXtrack'
offers an effective automated tool which is being used
internationally by many organizations.

The second aspect is 'employee development' to achieve the

assigned goals. This relates to competencies & skills. While skills
refer to 'special job skills' required for different job positions, and
are more applicable at the workers level, the competency
framework applies at the executive/ manager level. A preferred
approach is to decide & list out the 'core competencies' while
conducting the first workshop on B S C. A definition of each
competency needs to be documented in terms of (i) what the
competency means (ii) to whom all it is applicable (iii) what is
the measure/ KPI for the same and (iv) list of programs which
help in developing this competency.

How the above two aspects are related? When an employee is

unable to achieve the assigned goals/ KRAs, it becomes
necessary to do 'competency gap analysis' so that appropriate
'development plan' can be created & implemented for each
employee. An organization with sufficient maturity (whose
managers are highly objective and can identify competency gaps
in their subordinates) can do this exercise internally through
their TNI (training needs identification) process, which may be a
part of their PMS (performance management system) or TMS
(training management system). 'EmpXtrack' offers the right
solution. When the organizations are yet to acquire the desired
level of maturity, services of experts in the Assessment &
Development Centers (ADCs) are hired to do competency gap
analysis. This is an expensive & time consuming exercise, but is
always encouraged, especially for the Senior Managers
(irrespective of the maturity level of the organization).

Hope the above viewpoint adds some clarity to the issue being