- Endurance Glider
- Full Text 01
- c2000 Carolus Schneider In2000-391
- 11889_2018_00_PRO_05_NONCLEANPOLAR.pdf
- Matteo Scalchi 1040030 - Tesi Di Laurea Magistrale
- zaglupavca1.pdf
- (International Edition) John J. Bertin, Russell M. Cummings-Aerodynamics for Engineers,-Pearson (2013).pdf
- Lecture.7
- Aerodynamics Lab 3 - Direct Measurements of Airfoil Lift and Drag
- IJER_2014_704
- Aeroacoustic analysis of wind turbine blades: Turbulent boundary layer trailing edge noise
- An Experimental Study of the Laminar Flow Separation on a Low-Reynolds-Number Airfoil
- Lab3
- FEM_FINAL
- Bubble Burst Control Using Smart Structure Sensor Actuators for Stall Suppression
- NACA4-5-6families
- DNV-RP-C104
- lab2
- Flight Control Using Synthetic Jets on a Cessna 182 Model
- ADP011114.pdf
- The Initial Stall in Span Wise Direction
- Blade Design-NREL
- Problems in dimensional analysis and airfoil theory
- Introduction to Vortex Panel Method
- Shahmari-FinalEdition2
- Projectile Motion.pdf
- Vortex Lattice Prediction of Subsonic Aerodynamics of Hypersonic Vehicle Concepts
- Aerispace Engineering (GATE 2014)
- Exam_Oct_08
- External Flow
- MAE 360 hwk3
- MAE 462
- Lab3
- M-3
- mae318bonus
- Problem 1

J. Murray

Aerospace Engineering Student, Lab Section 1007, Tempe, AZ, 85287

**The experiment was preformed to examine what effect a change in the Reynolds number
**

would have on the lift and drag characteristics of the NACA 0012 wing section. The wing

profile is common and well studied. It has well documented properties that provide precise

data to compare with the experimental data. The results of this lab showed the lift and drag

characteristics of the wing section. These results were a maximum coefficient of lift was

about .8, and happened at 9 to 10 degrees. The drag and lift increase together until around

10 degrees where lift no longer increases but drag does. The lift and angle of attack are

linearly related up to point of stall. The results also show that the drag on the wing section

increases as the angle of attack increased. The wing section was tested at three data points.

These were Reynolds numbers of 50000, 100000, and 150000. The Reynolds numbers were

set by the velocity and air density inside the wind tunnel. The data produced a very small

error for the results. Because of historical data it was known before the experiment that low

Reynolds numbers produce erroneous data. This is caused by premature stall of the wing

section. This result was present in our data, even with these results the experiment provided

data that is accurate and expected.

Nomenclature

A

AOA

Cd

Cl

Cy

c

D

L

l

q

Re

UCd

Ud

Uq

URe

v

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

**area of the wing section
**

angle of attack

coefficient of drag

coefficient of life

force coefficient in the y direction

chord

Drag

Lift

chord length

dynamic pressure

Reynolds number

uncertainty of the coefficient of drag

uncertainty of drag

uncertainty of total pressure

uncertainty of Reynolds number

velocity

atmospheric density

viscous forces

I.

Introduction

**The laboratory procedure was an exploration of the aerodynamic lift and drag forces experienced by a NACA
**

0012 wing section at low Reynolds numbers. The model experienced a low speed uniform free stream velocity. This

velocity was set by using specific Reynolds numbers. When low Reynolds numbers are used, the data for the

velocities will show the characteristics of the laminar-separation bubble on the top surface of the wing section. This

**laminar-separation is caused by low velocities and is not representative of actual results found at Reynolds numbers
**

that the wing section would experience in normal operational conditions.

The coefficients of lift and drag that are calculated show the increase in these values in response to the increase

in AOA, and also the point at which the laminar-separation occurs. Laminar separation can also be referred to as

wing stall. The equations to calculate these forces are the Coefficient of Lift (1), and the Coefficient of Drag (2).

Cl

L

qA

(1)

Cd

D

qA

(2)

The coefficient for lift shows the point of separation where the lift curve levels off or falls when it is plotted against

the AOA. The separation point is the maximum value of the plot line. The separation occurred when the lift falls

suddenly after this point.

The polar plot is a plot of Cd versus Cl that shows the best climb or sink rate that the wing section has at the

specific Reynolds number. To find the best climb rate of the wing section in this experiment a tangential line is

drawn from the origin of the plot to the plot line. This point is the best climb rate the wing section has for the

Reynolds number it is being evaluated at.

Although we know the Reynolds number that we are testing at, the true number needs to be found for the sake of

accuracy. To do this equation (3) is used.

Re

vl

(3)

To find in this equation it is necessary to use Sutherland’s equation (4).

air 1.458 10 6

3

2

T

T 110.4

(4)

**This allowed the calculation of the Reynolds number for each data set.
**

Once all of these values have been found it is important to know what the uncertainty of each one is. To do this,

the equation for the uncertainty of drag is (5)

U DU a DU q

2

d

2

qA qA q A

2

U Cd

2

2

(5)

To find the uncertainty of the coefficient of lift the equation used is (6)

U LU a LU q

2

l

2

qA qA q A

2

U Cl

2

2

(6)

Then the uncertainty of the Reynolds number was found using the equation (7)

Re vl

2

(7)

These numbers make it possible to evaluate the lift and drag at the different Reynolds numbers and to see how they

change with the possible error as the number increase.

II.

Procedure

**The Equipment used to perform the lab:
**

NACA 0012 wing section

NACA 0012 wing pylon

Low speed wind tunnel

Computer with LABView program installed

Barometer

Thermometer

Pressure transducer

Load Cell

The experiment was conducted by first recording the ambient temperature and pressure. This was done using a

barometer and thermometer. These values were then entered into the computer which was running the program

LABView, with the experiment already programmed into it. The chord length and the span width of the wing

section were also recorded and entered into the program. The type of wing section at this time was also noted as

being a NACA 0012.

The wing section was then placed into the wind tunnel test section. The wing section was fastened onto a pylon

that had a cross section that was a NACA 0012. This pylon was attached to a pressure gauge that would measure the

force of lift created by the wing section. The pitch of the wing section was then adjusted so that the AOA was zero

degrees. The pitch angle was adjusted by a knob that was located underneath the pylon and outside of the wind

tunnel.

The next step was to calculate the ambient temperature and viscosity. To calculate this Bernoulli’s equation was

used for the pressures, and Sutherland’s equation was used to find the viscousity. The data was acquired with a pitot

tube in the test section and a thermometer. This data was used to determine the dynamic pressure in the wind tunnel

at each Reynolds number. The data was entered into LABView for automatic calculation of the required values.

These calculations used the equations (1), (2), (3), and (4).

The wind tunnel was then turned on and adjusted until LABView had a Reynolds number reading of 50000.

Once this value was reached and the value that the pressure gauge was recording settled the measurement was

written into LABView. This procedure was done for all angles from negative 10 to positive 15 with each step being

one degree. The data acquisition was carried out the same way for each Reynolds number that was evaluated. These

Reynolds numbers were 50000, 100000, and 150000. All the steps were repeated until the complete data sets were

acquired.

III.

Results

The results of this experiment were very precise and matched what was expected very closely. The Reynolds

numbers were found using equation (3). The true value for each measurement was used to create an average value

for the setting. The calculated average value for 50000 was 50356 +/-690. For the setting of 100000 the calculated

average value was 100300 +/- 1374. And for the setting of 150000 the calculated average value was 149710 +/2050.5. These values are shown in table (10) in the appendix. The error for these values is close to one percent. This

is not a very significant error at the low Reynolds numbers but can become significant if the numbers get close to the

realistic values that the wing section would encounter.

The lift was plotted against the AOA for each Reynolds number. This provided a plot that shows what the lift on

the wing is at each AOA for the specific Reynolds number. This is shown in figure (1).

**Coefficient of Lift versus Angle of Attack
**

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

Cl

0.2

0

-0.2

50000

50000

100000

100000

150000

150000

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-15

-10

-5

0

5

Angle of Attack

Reynolds number

Renolds number error bar

Reynolds number

Reynolds number error bar

Reynolds number

Reynolds number error bar

10

15

20

**Figure 1: Coefficient of lift versus Angle of Attack
**

The plot clearly shows that as the angle of attack increases so does the lift of the wing section. The plot also shows

the laminar-separation at an AOA of 9 and 10 degrees. The plot also shows that laminar-separation is smaller as the

Reynolds number increases. This is because as the Reynolds number increases, the air becomes more viscous. The

viscosity in turn keeps the boundary layer attached to the wing surface. With the laminar flow being smoother over

the wing surface the lift is greater as the Reynolds number increases. This separation can be seen in figure (3).

Figure 3: Laminar-separation

The coefficient of drag was plotted against the coefficient of lift for figure (2). This plot shows that as the lift

increases so does drag.

Cd versus Cl

0.35

50000 Reynolds number

50000 Reynolds number error bar

100000 Reynolds number

100000 Reynolds number error bar

150000 Reynolds number

150000 Reynolds number error bar

0.3

0.25

Cd

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Cl

**Figure 2: Coefficient of Drag versus Coefficient of Lift
**

Also in figure (2) the plot shows when laminar-separation occurs. This is between the coefficients of lift of .7 to .9.

At this value the NACA 0012 wing section no longer provides anymore lift but is creating a large amount of drag.

The plot shows that both drag and lift are related. The two coefficients are related by the equation (8).

C d C do KCl

(8)

This equation describes that the drag coefficient increases as the parasite drag increases and the coefficient of lift is

added to this value.

IV.

Conclusion

The experiment has shown that as the AOA increases so does lift until laminar-separation occurs. The

relation between lift and AOA is linear until laminar-separation starts to occur. The experiment data does not match

the data from the NACA 0012 data. This is because of the low Reynolds number. If the number was closer to normal

conditions the results would match very closely.

The lift and drag also increase together as the AOA of the wing section changes. This suddenly changes with

laminar-separation. At this point the wing section no longer produces more lift but it does increase the drag as more

frontal area of the wing section is exposed to the constant velocity.

The errors that happened in the experiment were very obvious in figure (2). The data point that causes a spike

does not belong in the set. It could possibly be from recording the data before the velocity stream settled or the

vibrations from the wing section settled. It is too far out to have been from a degree adjustment. Where the lift vs.

AOA plot has an increase in lift at -1 AOA could possibly be from a mistaken angle adjustment that was not

corrected, or it could have been from the adjustment knob not being used accurately. These errors did not prove to

be large enough to affect the required outcome of the experiment.

References

Anderson, J.D. A History of Aerodynamics and Its Impact on Flying Machines,Chapter 7 pp. 308.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/6/67/Flow_separation.jpg

&imgrefurl=http://www.answers.com/topic/flowseparation&h=189&w=320&sz=12&hl=en&start=7&um=1&tbnid=doUK_kpUoFyVcM:&tbnh=70&tbnw=118&pr

ev=/images%3Fq%3Dlaminar%2Bflow%2Bseparation%2Bon%2Ba%2Bwing%2Bsurface%26svnum%3D10%26u

m%3D1%26hl%3Den

Appendix A

Table A.1: Data set from 50000 Reynolds number

Lift (N)

Drag

(N)

Temp

(K)

DyPres

(Pa)

0.11

0.18

0.42

0.74

0.89

1

1.14

1.27

1.38

1.46

1.74

1.5

1.42

1.38

1.38

1.38

0.14

0.04

-0.22

-0.47

-0.68

-0.78

0.12

0.14

0.17

0.18

0.19

0.21

0.23

0.27

0.28

0.31

0.13

0.43

0.48

0.53

0.59

0.65

0.11

0.1

0.09

0.08

0.08

0.07

310.18

309.92

310.13

310.95

311.07

310.99

311.09

311.39

311.29

311.13

310.81

310.2

310.48

310.26

310.32

310.47

310.3

310.39

310.92

310.55

311.03

310.93

67.71

67.52

66.98

66.29

66.38

67.28

67.24

67.1

67.07

66.51

65.78

65.07

64.99

65.63

65.71

66.79

67.34

67.61

67.58

67.49

67.06

66.4

Ambient

Pres

(Pa)

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

Angle of

attack

Renumber

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

50720.11

50761.38

50440.12

50197.04

50048.35

50469.94

50574.89

50210.14

50349.39

50184.36

49988.88

49751.92

49709.91

49926.27

50002.92

50341.16

50657.43

50664.95

50699.85

50675.4

50389.84

50033.63

-0.89

-1

-1.13

-1.21

Lift (N)

0.69

1.86

2.35

2.9

3.57

4.81

5.28

5.71

6.19

6.56

6.09

5.88

5.86

5.89

5.79

5.86

0.09

-0.68

-1.42

-2.13

-2.8

-3.35

-3.85

-4.38

-4.72

-5.35

Lift (N)

2.32

7.06

8.14

9.31

10.48

11.55

12.47

13.55

14.49

0.07

0.07

0.07

0.07

311.13

310.8

311.06

311.11

66.95

67.16

67.26

67.63

96500

96500

96500

96500

-7

-8

-9

-10

**Table A.2: Data set from 50000 Reynolds number
**

Ambient

Angle

Drag

Temp

Dy Pres

Pres

of

(N)

(K)

(Pa)

(Pa)

attack

0.48

310.69

268.69

96500

0

0.54

310.86

268.42

96500

1

0.58

310.82

267.8

96500

2

0.59

310.17

265.58

96500

3

0.7

310.47

264.56

96500

4

0.86

310.77

261.79

96500

5

0.94

310.86

264

96500

6

1.02

311.25

263.01

96500

7

1.15

310.8

262.25

96500

8

1.26

311.34

260.97

96500

9

1.79

311.29

260.36

96500

10

2.04

311.48

264.84

96500

11

2.25

311.54

268.37

96500

12

2.47

311.57

268.67

96500

13

2.6

311.95

267.3

96500

14

2.83

312.21

266.97

96500

15

0.42

311.68

268.23

96500

-1

0.39

311.75

268.16

96500

-2

0.35

311.64

267.87

96500

-3

0.31

312.28

268.28

96500

-4

0.31

312

268.18

96500

-5

0.29

312.15

267.19

96500

-6

0.3

312.26

266.36

96500

-7

0.31

311.88

267.34

96500

-8

0.32

312.14

265.63

96500

-9

0.37

312.49

266.56

96500

-10

Table A.3: Data Set for 150000 Reynolds number

Ambient

Angle

Drag

Temp

Dy Pres

Pres

of

(N)

(K)

(Pa)

(Pa)

attack

0.98

311.47

593.67

96500

0

1.34

311.53

588.95

96500

1

1.46

311.14

588.8

96500

2

1.59

311.33

585.16

96500

3

1.74

310.97

585.22

96500

4

1.9

310.78

584.64

96500

5

2.04

310.95

582.95

96500

6

2.23

310.85

582.78

96500

7

2.4

311.17

579.47

96500

8

50264.53

50456.63

50459.38

50528.61

Re

number

100954.5

100850.1

100922.6

100856.4

100438.5

99976.99

99871.72

99605.3

99714.39

99457

99110.12

99884.32

100494.5

100831

100122.7

99965.75

100400.3

100388.1

100413

100083.5

100123.8

100205.8

99970.83

100173

100100.1

100010.5

Re

number

149290.8

148800

148837.3

148777.1

148862.5

148882.2

148659.8

148565.9

148200.8

15.49

13.73

13.37

13.39

13.24

13.31

13.16

1.08

-2.26

-3.72

-5.71

-6.85

-7.97

-9.22

-10.54

-11.59

-12.81

2.67

4.18

4.71

5.1

5.65

6.04

6.3

0.9

0.78

0.71

0.66

0.65

0.61

0.61

0.62

0.66

0.73

311.43

310.87

311.23

311.48

311.48

311.62

311.14

311.43

311.26

310.61

310.85

311.23

311.2

311.42

312.09

311.78

311.62

581.51

582.51

586.74

591.16

589.57

590.99

589.22

593.2

596.51

594.11

593.07

595.78

594.4

595.07

594.41

596.59

596.65

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

96500

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

-7

-8

-9

-10

148109.5

148362.6

148676.1

149075.9

149525.9

149317

149111.9

149443.9

150182.1

150060.6

149999.4

149820.5

149894.3

149831.3

149337.7

149384.6

150047.7

Appendix B

Equations used

L

qA

D

Cd

qA

vl

Re

Cl

air 1.458 10 6

3

2

T

T 110.4

U DU a DU q

2

d

2

qA qA q A

Re vl

2

Re vl

2

2

U Cd

2

2

P

err U P U T

RT

2

2

Appendix C

Table C.1: Density and Density error

Density

for

Re=50000

Density for

Re=100000

Density for

Re=150000

Density

error for

Re=50000

Density

error for

Re=100000

Density

error for

Re=150000

1.0848

1.0857

1.0849

1.0821

1.0816

1.0819

1.0816

1.0805

1.0809

1.0814

1.0825

1.0847

1.0837

1.0845

1.0843

1.0837

1.0843

1.084

1.0822

1.0835

1.0818

1.0821

1.0814

1.0826

1.0817

1.0852

1.0846

1.0848

1.087

1.086

1.0849

1.0846

1.0832

1.0848

1.0829

1.0831

1.0824

1.0823

1.0822

1.0808

1.0799

1.0818

1.0815

1.0819

1.0797

1.0807

1.0801

1.0798

1.0811

1.0802

1.0862

1.0859

1.0873

1.0866

1.0878

1.0885

1.0879

1.0882

1.087

1.0862

1.0881

1.0869

1.0861

1.0861

1.0856

1.0873

1.0863

1.0869

1.0892

1.0883

1.087

1.0871

1.0863

1.084

1.0851

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

**Table C.2: Velocity and velocity error
**

Velocity

for

Re=50000

Velocity for

Re=100000

Velocity for

Re=150000

Velocity

error for

Re=50000

Velocity

error for

Re=100000

Velocity

error for

Re=150000

11.1731

11.1527

11.1118

11.0691

11.0787

11.1521

11.1506

11.1444

11.1401

11.0907

11.024

10.9536

22.2525

22.2474

22.2203

22.1051

22.0734

21.9685

22.064

22.0365

21.9888

21.9542

21.9269

22.121

33.0629

32.9352

32.9104

32.8191

32.8018

32.7757

32.7375

32.7275

32.6518

32.7225

32.721

32.8579

0.131

0.1312

0.1317

0.1324

0.1324

0.1315

0.1316

0.1318

0.1318

0.1323

0.1329

0.1335

0.0832

0.0831

0.0832

0.0834

0.0834

0.0834

0.0833

0.0832

0.0834

0.0833

0.0833

0.0831

0.0895

0.0892

0.0895

0.0892

0.0894

0.0895

0.0893

0.0894

0.0891

0.089

0.0894

0.0893

10.9518

11.0017

11.0094

11.1022

11.1447

11.1686

11.1757

11.1616

11.1346

11.0779

11.1273

11.1388

11.1517

11.1832

22.2696

22.2831

22.2399

22.2355

22.2688

22.2684

22.2525

22.2923

22.2782

22.2425

22.2119

22.2391

22.1773

22.2284

32.9939

32.9498

32.9966

32.9221

33.0478

33.1302

33.0294

33.0134

33.1085

33.0688

33.099

33.1163

33.1601

33.1533

0.1336

0.1329

0.1329

0.1319

0.1314

0.1312

0.1313

0.1313

0.1318

0.1323

0.1319

0.1316

0.1316

0.1313

0.083

0.083

0.0829

0.0829

0.083

0.0829

0.083

0.0828

0.0829

0.0829

0.0829

0.0829

0.0829

0.0828

0.0894

0.0893

0.0893

0.0895

0.0895

0.0897

0.09

0.0898

0.0897

0.0897

0.0896

0.0891

0.0894

0.0895

**Table C.3: Calculated Reynolds numbers and calculated errors
**

reynolds reynolds

Reynolds Reynolds Reynolds

reynolds

number number

number

number

number

number

error for error for

for

for

for

error

150000

100000

150000

100000

50000

50816

101120

150090

696.388

1385.5

2055.6

50798

101000

149450

696.1899 1383.8

2046.8

50551

100900

149670

692.7709 1382.4

2050

2042

50123

100750

149090

686.7629 1380.5

2045.2

50132

100430

149310

686.8751 1376.1

2045.9

50488

99780

149350

691.7563 1367.1

50452

100170

149030

691.2535 1372.3

2041.4

2042

50338

99820

149070

689.6446 1367.4

2033.3

50348

99860

148450

689.7862 1368.1

2034.7

50169

99390

148560

687.3706 1361.6

49958

99300

149030

684.5262 1360.3

2041.3

49811

100070

149350

682.61

1370.8

2045.6

2051.1

49723

100710

149760

681.3677 1379.6

2048.4

50013

100760

149560

685.3655 1380.2

50031

100350

149660

685.6061 1374.4

2049.6

1372

2050.7

50410

100180

149720

690.7743

2055.1

50652

100630

150050

694.1224 1378.4

2062.4

50735

100590

150580

695.2438 1377.8

50615

100580

150670

693.5063 1377.7

2064

1375

2060

50657

10040

150390

694.1478

50397

100490

150500

690.505

1376.4

2061.4

1373

2059.2

50169

100240

150350

687.3919

50335

100040

150300

689.6419 1370.2

2058.5

2051.4

50482

100380

149810

691.7034 1374.9

1369

2057.9

50466

99960

150270

691.4455

50594

99990

150380

693.197

1369.3

2059.4

Table C.4: Coefficient of lift and coefficient of lift error

Coefficient

of lift

50000

Coefficient

of lift

100000

Coefficient

of lift

150000

Coefficient

of lift error

for 50000

-0.5632

-0.5289

-0.4687

-0.4185

-0.3698

-0.3192

-0.2192

-0.1025

0.0186

0.0654

0.0511

0.0839

0.1974

0.3514

0.422

0.4679

0.5337

0.5958

0.6477

0.691

0.8327

0.7256

0.6878

0.6619

0.6611

0.6504

-0.6318

-0.5593

-0.5157

-0.455

-0.3947

-0.3287

-0.2499

-0.1669

-0.0798

0.0106

0.0808

0.2181

0.2762

0.3437

0.4248

0.5784

0.6296

0.6834

0.743

0.7913

0.7363

0.6989

0.6873

0.6901

0.6819

0.6909

-0.6758

-0.6115

-0.5582

-0.4877

-0.4221

-0.3619

-0.3031

-0.1971

-0.1193

0.0573

0.123

0.3773

0.4352

0.5008

0.5637

0.6219

0.6734

0.7319

0.7871

0.8385

0.742

0.7173

0.713

0.7069

0.7089

0.7031

0.0023

0.0023

0.0024

0.0025

0.0026

0.0026

0.0027

0.0028

0.0029

0.0029

0.0032

0.003

0.003

0.0029

0.0029

0.0029

0.0023

0.0023

0.0023

0.0024

0.0025

0.0025

0.0026

0.0026

0.0027

0.0027

Coefficient

of lift error

for

100000

0.0006

0.0008

0.0009

0.001

0.0012

0.0016

0.0017

0.0018

0.002

0.0021

0.0019

0.0018

0.0018

0.0018

0.0018

0.0018

0.0006

0.0006

0.0007

0.0009

0.001

0.0011

0.0013

0.0014

0.0015

0.0017

Coefficient

of lift error

for

150000

0.0004

0.001

0.0011

0.0013

0.0014

0.0016

0.0017

0.0018

0.002

0.0021

0.0019

0.0018

0.0018

0.0018

0.0018

0.0018

0.0003

0.0004

0.0006

0.0008

0.0009

0.0011

0.0012

0.0014

0.0016

0.0017

**Table C.5: Coefficient of drag and coefficient of drag error
**

Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient

Coefficient

Coefficient

Coefficient

of drag

of drag

of drag

of drag

of drag

of lift

error

error

error

error

150000

100000

50000

0.0326

0.0434

0.0387

0.0023

0.0006

0.2952

0.0326

0.0376

0.035

0.0023

0.0006

0.3217

0.0326

0.0364

0.0327

0.0024

0.0006

0.3309

0.0327

0.0352

0.0324

0.0024

0.0006

0.3436

0.033

0.0342

0.0326

0.0024

0.0006

0.3564

0.0383

0.0365

0.0346

0.0024

0.0007

0.3713

0.0384

0.0363

0.0352

0.0024

0.0007

0.3856

0.0436

0.0411

0.0378

0.0024

0.0007

0.4044

0.0484

0.0464

0.0418

0.0024

0.0007

0.4242

0.0526

0.0508

0.0486

0.0024

0.0007

0.4514

0.0558

0.0562

0.052

0.0024

0.0008

0.6259

0.0653

0.0633

0.0716

0.0025

0.0008

0.6862

0.0799

0.0682

0.0781

0.0025

0.0009

0.7291

0.0855

0.0699

0.0855

0.0025

0.0009

0.7998

0.0901

0.0833

0.0936

0.0025

0.001

0.847

0.0983

0.1077

0.1267

0.1314

0.1467

0.0622

0.208

0.2325

0.2542

0.2826

0.3063

0.1034

0.1121

0.1221

0.138

0.152

0.2164

0.2425

0.2639

0.2894

0.3062

0.3337

0.1023

0.1102

0.1205

0.1304

0.1445

0.2259

0.2527

0.2716

0.3017

0.3217

0.3366

0.0025

0.0023

0.0023

0.0023

0.0023

0.0023

0.0024

0.0024

0.0023

0.0023

0.0023

0.001

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

0.0006

**Table C.6: Calculated Reynolds numbers
**

Reynolds Reynolds

Reynolds

number

number

number

at

at

at 50000

100000

150000

50816

101120

150090

50798

101000

149450

50551

100900

149670

50123

100750

149090

50132

100430

149310

50488

99780

149350

50452

100170

149030

50338

99820

149070

50348

99860

148450

50169

99390

148560

49958

99300

149030

49811

100070

149350

49723

100710

149760

50013

100760

149560

50031

100350

149660

50410

100180

149720

50652

100630

150050

50735

100590

150580

50615

100580

150670

50657

100400

150390

50397

100490

150500

50169

100240

150350

50335

100040

150300

50482

100380

149810

50466

99960

150270

50594

999900

150380

Average

50356

100300

1497100

0.8826

0.2909

0.2832

0.2811

0.2795

0.2778

0.2768

0.2765

0.2772

0.2778

0.2808

**The MATLab Code:
**

function lab2=lift()

clc;

clear;

load lift1.txt;

load lift2.txt;

load lift3.txt;

Chord=.0794;%m

Ucord=.001;%m

Span=.4001;%m

Uspan=.001;%m

Ulift=.001;%N

Utemp=.1;%C

Upress=.01;%1 percent

A=Chord*Span;

% Calculate Re

Temp=lift1(:,3);

Temptwo=lift2(:,3);

Tempthree=lift3(:,3);

L=lift1(:,1);

z=length(L);

Ltwo=lift2(:,1);

Lthree=lift3(:,1);

D=lift1(:,2);

Dtwo=lift2(:,2);

Dthree=lift3(:,2);

R=287;

t=length(Temp);

P_atm=lift1(:,5);

P_atmtwo=lift2(:,5);

P_atmthree=lift3(:,5);

q=lift1(:,4);

qtwo=lift2(:,4);

qthree=lift3(:,4);

P=P_atm + q;

Ptwo=P_atmtwo + qtwo;

Pthree=P_atmthree + qthree;

rho=zeros(size(P));

l=Chord;

Vf=zeros(size(Temp));

mu=1.458e-6;

for i = 1:t

Vf(i)=(mu*(Temp(i)^1.5))/(Temp(i)+110.4);

Vftwo(i)=(mu*(Temptwo(i)^1.5))/(Temptwo(i)+110.4);

Vfthree(i)=(mu*(Tempthree(i)^1.5))/(Tempthree(i)+110.4);

rho(i)=P(i)/(R*Temp(i));

rhotwo(i)=Ptwo(i)/(R*Temptwo(i));

rhothree(i)=Pthree(i)/(R*Tempthree(i));

V(i)=sqrt((2*q(i))/rho(i));

Vtwo(i)=sqrt((2*qtwo(i))/rhotwo(i));

Vthree(i)=sqrt((2*qthree(i))/rhothree(i));

Re(i)=(rho(i)*V(i)*l)/Vf(i);

Retwo(i)=(rhotwo(i)*Vtwo(i)*l)/Vftwo(i);

Rethree(i)=(rhothree(i)*Vthree(i)*l)/Vfthree(i);

i=i+1;

end

Reynolds_Number =sum(Re)/z;

Reynolds_Number_two = sum(Retwo)/z;

Reynolds_Number_three = sum(Rethree)/z;

**%Calculate Re with error positive
**

Temp=lift1(:,3);

Temptwo=lift2(:,3);

Tempthree=lift3(:,3);

R=287;

t=length(Temp);

t=length(Temptwo);

t=length(Tempthree);

P_atm=lift1(:,5);

P_atmtwo=lift2(:,5);

P_atmthree=lift3(:,5);

q=lift1(:,4);

qtwo=lift2(:,4);

qthree=lift3(:,4);

P=P_atm + q;

Ptwo=P_atmtwo + qtwo;

Pthree=P_atmthree + qthree;

rho=zeros(size(P));

rhotwo=zeros(size(Ptwo));

rhothree=zeros(size(Pthree));

l=Chord;

Vf=zeros(size(Temp));

Vftwo=zeros(size(Temptwo));

Vfthree=zeros(size(Tempthree));

mu=1.458e-6;

for i = 1:t

Ua=sqrt((.0794*.001)^2+(.4001*.001^2)^2);

Vf(i)=(mu*(Temp(i)^1.5))/(Temp(i)+110.4);

Vftwo(i)=(mu*(Temptwo(i)^1.5))/(Temptwo(i)+110.4);

Vfthree(i)=(mu*(Tempthree(i)^1.5))/(Tempthree(i)+110.4);

rho(i)=P(i)/(R*Temp(i));

rhotwo(i)=Ptwo(i)/(R*Temptwo(i));

rhothree(i)=Pthree(i)/(R*Tempthree(i));

V(i)=sqrt((2*q(i))/rho(i));

Vtwo(i)=sqrt((2*qtwo(i))/rhotwo(i));

Vthree(i)=sqrt((2*qthree(i))/rhothree(i));

Upatm(i)=P_atm(i)*.01+P_atm(i);

Upatmtwo(i)=P_atmtwo(i)*.01+P_atmtwo(i);

Upatmthree(i)=P_atmthree(i)*.01+P_atmthree(i);

Utemp(i)=Temp(i)+.1;

Utemptwo(i)=Temptwo(i)+.1;

Utempthree(i)=Tempthree(i)+.1;

Uchord=Chord*.001+Chord;

Uspan=Span*.001+Span;

Ulift=.005;

Udrag=.005;

Uq(i)=.001*.001*q(i);

Uqtwo(i)=.001*.001*qtwo(i);

Uqthree(i)=.001*.001*qthree(i);

Umu(i)=((.000002187*(Utemp(i))^.5)/(Utemp(i)+110.4)-(.000001458*Utemp(i)^1.5/(Utemp(i)+110.4)^2)*.1);

Umutwo(i)=((.000002187*(Utemptwo(i))^.5)/(Utemptwo(i)+110.4)-(.000001458*Utemptwo(i)^1.5/(Utemptwo(i)+110.4)^2)*.1);

Umuthree(i)=((.000002187*(Utempthree(i))^.5)/(Utempthree(i)+110.4)(.000001458*Utempthree(i)^1.5/(Utempthree(i)+110.4)^2)*.1);

Urho(i)=sqrt((-Upatm(i)/(R*(Temp(i))^2)*.1)^2+(1/(R*Utemp(i)))*1.1^2);

Urhotwo(i)=sqrt((-Upatmtwo(i)/(R*(Temptwo(i))^2)*.1)^2+(1/(R*Utemptwo(i)))*1.1^2);

Urhothree(i)=sqrt((-Upatmthree(i)/(R*(Tempthree(i))^2)*.1)^2+(1/(R*Utempthree(i)))*1.1^2);

Uv(i)=sqrt(.5*(sqrt(2)/(sqrt(q(i)/rho(i))*rho(i))*1.1)^2+(-.5*(sqrt(2)*q(i)/(sqrt(q(i)/rho(i)))*(rho(i))^2)*Urho(i))^2);

Uvtwo(i)=sqrt(.5*(sqrt(2)/(sqrt(qtwo(i)/rhotwo(i))*rhotwo(i))*1.1)^2+(.5*(sqrt(2)*qtwo(i)/(sqrt(qtwo(i)/rhotwo(i)))*(rhotwo(i))^2)*Urhotwo(i))^2);

Uvthree(i)=sqrt(.5*(sqrt(2)/(sqrt(qthree(i)/rhothree(i))*rhothree(i))*1.1)^2+(.5*(sqrt(2)*qthree(i)/(sqrt(qthree(i)/rhothree(i)))*(rhothree(i))^2)*Urhothree(i))^2);

UCl(i)=sqrt((Ulift/(q(i) * A))^2 + ((-L(i) * Ua)/(q(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-L(i) * Uq(i))/(A * q(i)^2))^2);

UCltwo(i)=sqrt((Ulift/(qtwo(i) * A))^2 + ((-Ltwo(i) * Ua)/(qtwo(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Ltwo(i) * Uqtwo(i))/(A * qtwo(i)^2))^2);

UClthree(i)=sqrt((Ulift/(qthree(i) * A))^2 + ((-Lthree(i) * Ua)/(qthree(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Lthree(i) * Uqthree(i))/(A * qthree(i)^2))^2);

UCd(i)=sqrt((Udrag/(q(i) * A))^2 + ((-D(i) * Ua)/(q(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-D(i) * Uq(i))/(A * q(i)^2))^2);

UCdtwo(i)=sqrt((Udrag/(qtwo(i) * A))^2 + ((-Dtwo(i) * Ua)/(qtwo(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Dtwo(i) * Uqtwo(i))/(A * qtwo(i)^2))^2);

UCdthree(i)=sqrt((Udrag/(qthree(i) * A))^2 + ((-Dthree(i) * Ua)/(qthree(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Dthree(i) * Uqthree(i))/(A * qthree(i)^2))^2);

Urerho(i)=(((V(i)*.0749)/Vf(i))*Urho(i))^2;

Urerhotwo(i)=(((Vtwo(i)*.0749)/Vftwo(i))*Urhotwo(i))^2;

Urerhothree(i)=(((Vthree(i)*.0749)/Vfthree(i))*Urhothree(i))^2;

UreV(i)=(((Urho(i)*.0749)/Vf(i))*Uv(i))^2;

UreVtwo(i)=(((Urhotwo(i)*.0749)/Vftwo(i))*Uvtwo(i))^2;

UreVthree(i)=(((Urhothree(i)*.0749)/Vfthree(i))*Uvthree(i))^2;

UreUl(i)=(((rho(i)*V(i))/Vf(i))*.001)^2;

UreUltwo(i)=(((rhotwo(i)*Vtwo(i))/Vftwo(i))*.001)^2;

**UreUlthree(i)=(((rhothree(i)*Vthree(i))/Vfthree(i))*.001)^2;
**

UreUmu(i)=(((-rho(i)*V(i)*.0749)/(Vf(i)^2))*Umu(i))^2;

UreUmutwo(i)=(((-rhotwo(i)*Vtwo(i)*.0749)/(Vftwo(i)^2))*Umutwo(i))^2;

UreUmuthree(i)=(((-rhothree(i)*Vthree(i)*.0749)/(Vfthree(i)^2))*Umuthree(i))^2;

Ure(i)=sqrt(Urerho(i)+UreV(i)+UreUl(i)+UreUmu(i));

Uretwo(i)=sqrt(Urerhotwo(i)+UreVtwo(i)+UreUltwo(i)+UreUmutwo(i));

Urethree(i)=sqrt(Urerhothree(i)+UreVthree(i)+UreUlthree(i)+UreUmuthree(i));

i=i+1;

end

uncertainty_Reynolds_Number = sum(Ure)/z

uncertainty_Reynolds_Number_two = sum(Uretwo)/z

uncertainty_Reynolds_Number_three = sum(Urethree)/z

% Cl vs. Angle of Attack

AOA=lift1(:,6);

AOAtwo=lift2(:,6);

AOAthree=lift3(:,6);

AOApositive=zeros(size(16));

Lpositive=zeros(size(16));

AOAnegative=zeros(size(10));

Lnegative=zeros(size(10));

for i = 1:16

AOApositive(i)=AOA(i);

AOApositivetwo(i)=AOAtwo(i);

AOApositivethree(i)=AOAthree(i);

Lpositive(i)=L(i);

Lpositivetwo(i)=Ltwo(i);

Lpositivethree(i)=Lthree(i);

i=1+i;

end

for i = 1:10

AOAnegative(i)=AOA(i+16);

AOAnegativetwo(i)=AOAtwo(i+16);

AOAnegativethree(i)=AOAthree(i+16);

Lnegative(i)=L(i+16);

Lnegativetwo(i)=Ltwo(i+16);

Lnegativethree(i)=Lthree(i+16);

i=1+1;

end

%Coefficient of lift

Clpositive=zeros(size(16));

for i = 1:16

Clpositive(i)=Lpositive(i)/(q(i)*A);

Clpositivetwo(i)=Lpositivetwo(i)/(qtwo(i)*A);

Clpositivethree(i)=Lpositivethree(i)/(qthree(i)*A);

i=1+i;

end

Clnegative=zeros(size(10));

for i = 1:10

Clnegative(i)=Lnegative(i)/(q(i+16)*A);

Clnegativetwo(i)=Lnegativetwo(i)/(qtwo(i+16)*A);

Clnegativethree(i)=Lnegativethree(i)/(qthree(i+16)*A);

i=i+1;

end

FCln=fliplr(Clnegative);

FClntwo=fliplr(Clnegativetwo);

FClnthree=fliplr(Clnegativethree);

FAOAn=fliplr(AOAnegative);

FAOAntwo=fliplr(AOAnegativetwo);

FAOAnthree=fliplr(AOAnegativethree);

Cltotal= [FCln Clpositive];

Cltotaltwo= [FClntwo Clpositivetwo];

Cltotalthree= [FClnthree Clpositivethree];

AOAtotal=[FAOAn AOApositive];

AOAtotaltwo=[FAOAntwo AOApositivetwo];

AOAtotalthree=[FAOAnthree AOApositivethree];

figure(1)

hold on

**plot(AOAtotal,Cltotal,'r');
**

errorbar(AOAtotal,Cltotal,Ulift,'r');

plot(AOAtotaltwo,Cltotaltwo,'g');

errorbar(AOAtotaltwo,Cltotaltwo,Ulift,'g');

plot(AOAtotalthree,Cltotalthree);

errorbar(AOAtotalthree,Cltotalthree,Ulift);

**% Coefficient of drag Vs. Coefficient of lift
**

Dpositive=zeros(size(16));

Dnegative=zeros(size(10));

for i = 1:16

Dpositive(i)=D(i);

Dpositivetwo(i)=Dtwo(i);

Dpositivethree(i)=Dthree(i);

i=1+i;

end

for i = 1:10

Dnegative(i)=D(i+16);

Dnegativetwo(i)=Dtwo(i+16);

Dnegativethree(i)=Dthree(i+16);

i=1+1;

end

%Coefficient of Drag

Cdpositive=zeros(size(16));

for i = 1:16

Cdpositive(i)=Dpositive(i)/(q(i)*A);

Cdpositivetwo(i)=Dpositivetwo(i)/(qtwo(i)*A);

Cdpositivethree(i)=Dpositivethree(i)/(qthree(i)*A);

i=1+i;

end

Cdnegative=zeros(size(10));

for i = 1:10

Cdnegative(i)=Dnegative(i)/(q(i+10)*A);

Cdnegativetwo(i)=Dnegativetwo(i)/(qtwo(i+10)*A);

Cdnegativethree(i)=Dnegativethree(i)/(qthree(i+10)*A);

i=i+1;

end

FCdn=fliplr(Cdnegative);

FCdntwo=fliplr(Cdnegativetwo);

FCdnthree=fliplr(Cdnegativethree);

Cdtotal= [FCdn Cdpositive];

Cdtotaltwo= [FCdntwo Cdpositivetwo];

Cdtotalthree= [FCdnthree Cdpositivethree];

figure(3)

Hold on

plot(Cltotal,Cdtotal,'r');

errorbar(Cltotal, Cdtotal, UCd,'r');

plot(Cltotaltwo,Cdtotaltwo,'g');

errorbar(Cltotaltwo, Cdtotaltwo, UCdtwo,'g');

plot(Cltotalthree,Cdtotalthree);

errorbar(Cltotalthree, Cdtotalthree, UCdthree);

end

Abstract

An abstract appears at the beginning of Full-Length Papers (Survey and Design Forum Papers, History of Key

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