Low Speed Lift and Drag for a NACA 0012 Wing Section

J. Murray
Aerospace Engineering Student, Lab Section 1007, Tempe, AZ, 85287

The experiment was preformed to examine what effect a change in the Reynolds number
would have on the lift and drag characteristics of the NACA 0012 wing section. The wing
profile is common and well studied. It has well documented properties that provide precise
data to compare with the experimental data. The results of this lab showed the lift and drag
characteristics of the wing section. These results were a maximum coefficient of lift was
about .8, and happened at 9 to 10 degrees. The drag and lift increase together until around
10 degrees where lift no longer increases but drag does. The lift and angle of attack are
linearly related up to point of stall. The results also show that the drag on the wing section
increases as the angle of attack increased. The wing section was tested at three data points.
These were Reynolds numbers of 50000, 100000, and 150000. The Reynolds numbers were
set by the velocity and air density inside the wind tunnel. The data produced a very small
error for the results. Because of historical data it was known before the experiment that low
Reynolds numbers produce erroneous data. This is caused by premature stall of the wing
section. This result was present in our data, even with these results the experiment provided
data that is accurate and expected.

Nomenclature
A
AOA
Cd
Cl
Cy
c
D
L
l
q
Re
UCd
Ud
Uq
URe
v



=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

area of the wing section
angle of attack
coefficient of drag
coefficient of life
force coefficient in the y direction
chord
Drag
Lift
chord length
dynamic pressure
Reynolds number
uncertainty of the coefficient of drag
uncertainty of drag
uncertainty of total pressure
uncertainty of Reynolds number
velocity
atmospheric density
viscous forces

I.

Introduction

The laboratory procedure was an exploration of the aerodynamic lift and drag forces experienced by a NACA
0012 wing section at low Reynolds numbers. The model experienced a low speed uniform free stream velocity. This
velocity was set by using specific Reynolds numbers. When low Reynolds numbers are used, the data for the
velocities will show the characteristics of the laminar-separation bubble on the top surface of the wing section. This

laminar-separation is caused by low velocities and is not representative of actual results found at Reynolds numbers
that the wing section would experience in normal operational conditions.
The coefficients of lift and drag that are calculated show the increase in these values in response to the increase
in AOA, and also the point at which the laminar-separation occurs. Laminar separation can also be referred to as
wing stall. The equations to calculate these forces are the Coefficient of Lift (1), and the Coefficient of Drag (2).

Cl 

L
qA

(1)

Cd 

D
qA

(2)

The coefficient for lift shows the point of separation where the lift curve levels off or falls when it is plotted against
the AOA. The separation point is the maximum value of the plot line. The separation occurred when the lift falls
suddenly after this point.
The polar plot is a plot of Cd versus Cl that shows the best climb or sink rate that the wing section has at the
specific Reynolds number. To find the best climb rate of the wing section in this experiment a tangential line is
drawn from the origin of the plot to the plot line. This point is the best climb rate the wing section has for the
Reynolds number it is being evaluated at.
Although we know the Reynolds number that we are testing at, the true number needs to be found for the sake of
accuracy. To do this equation (3) is used.

Re 

vl

(3)

To find  in this equation it is necessary to use Sutherland’s equation (4).

 air  1.458  10 6 

3
2

T
T  110.4

(4)

This allowed the calculation of the Reynolds number for each data set.
Once all of these values have been found it is important to know what the uncertainty of each one is. To do this,
the equation for the uncertainty of drag is (5)

 U    DU a    DU q
   2
  d   
2
 qA   qA   q A
2

U Cd

2




2

(5)

To find the uncertainty of the coefficient of lift the equation used is (6)

 U    LU a    LU q
   2
  l   
2 
 qA   qA   q A
2

U Cl

2




2

(6)

Then the uncertainty of the Reynolds number was found using the equation (7)

 Re  vl

2


(7)

These numbers make it possible to evaluate the lift and drag at the different Reynolds numbers and to see how they
change with the possible error as the number increase.

II.

Procedure

The Equipment used to perform the lab:
NACA 0012 wing section
NACA 0012 wing pylon
Low speed wind tunnel
Computer with LABView program installed
Barometer
Thermometer
Pressure transducer
Load Cell
The experiment was conducted by first recording the ambient temperature and pressure. This was done using a
barometer and thermometer. These values were then entered into the computer which was running the program
LABView, with the experiment already programmed into it. The chord length and the span width of the wing
section were also recorded and entered into the program. The type of wing section at this time was also noted as
being a NACA 0012.
The wing section was then placed into the wind tunnel test section. The wing section was fastened onto a pylon
that had a cross section that was a NACA 0012. This pylon was attached to a pressure gauge that would measure the
force of lift created by the wing section. The pitch of the wing section was then adjusted so that the AOA was zero

degrees. The pitch angle was adjusted by a knob that was located underneath the pylon and outside of the wind
tunnel.
The next step was to calculate the ambient temperature and viscosity. To calculate this Bernoulli’s equation was
used for the pressures, and Sutherland’s equation was used to find the viscousity. The data was acquired with a pitot
tube in the test section and a thermometer. This data was used to determine the dynamic pressure in the wind tunnel
at each Reynolds number. The data was entered into LABView for automatic calculation of the required values.
These calculations used the equations (1), (2), (3), and (4).
The wind tunnel was then turned on and adjusted until LABView had a Reynolds number reading of 50000.
Once this value was reached and the value that the pressure gauge was recording settled the measurement was
written into LABView. This procedure was done for all angles from negative 10 to positive 15 with each step being
one degree. The data acquisition was carried out the same way for each Reynolds number that was evaluated. These
Reynolds numbers were 50000, 100000, and 150000. All the steps were repeated until the complete data sets were
acquired.

III.

Results

The results of this experiment were very precise and matched what was expected very closely. The Reynolds
numbers were found using equation (3). The true value for each measurement was used to create an average value
for the setting. The calculated average value for 50000 was 50356 +/-690. For the setting of 100000 the calculated
average value was 100300 +/- 1374. And for the setting of 150000 the calculated average value was 149710 +/2050.5. These values are shown in table (10) in the appendix. The error for these values is close to one percent. This
is not a very significant error at the low Reynolds numbers but can become significant if the numbers get close to the
realistic values that the wing section would encounter.
The lift was plotted against the AOA for each Reynolds number. This provided a plot that shows what the lift on
the wing is at each AOA for the specific Reynolds number. This is shown in figure (1).

Coefficient of Lift versus Angle of Attack
1
0.8
0.6
0.4

Cl

0.2
0
-0.2

50000
50000
100000
100000
150000
150000

-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-15

-10

-5

0
5
Angle of Attack

Reynolds number
Renolds number error bar
Reynolds number
Reynolds number error bar
Reynolds number
Reynolds number error bar
10

15

20

Figure 1: Coefficient of lift versus Angle of Attack
The plot clearly shows that as the angle of attack increases so does the lift of the wing section. The plot also shows
the laminar-separation at an AOA of 9 and 10 degrees. The plot also shows that laminar-separation is smaller as the
Reynolds number increases. This is because as the Reynolds number increases, the air becomes more viscous. The
viscosity in turn keeps the boundary layer attached to the wing surface. With the laminar flow being smoother over
the wing surface the lift is greater as the Reynolds number increases. This separation can be seen in figure (3).

Figure 3: Laminar-separation

The coefficient of drag was plotted against the coefficient of lift for figure (2). This plot shows that as the lift
increases so does drag.

Cd versus Cl
0.35
50000 Reynolds number
50000 Reynolds number error bar
100000 Reynolds number
100000 Reynolds number error bar
150000 Reynolds number
150000 Reynolds number error bar

0.3

0.25

Cd

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Cl

Figure 2: Coefficient of Drag versus Coefficient of Lift
Also in figure (2) the plot shows when laminar-separation occurs. This is between the coefficients of lift of .7 to .9.
At this value the NACA 0012 wing section no longer provides anymore lift but is creating a large amount of drag.
The plot shows that both drag and lift are related. The two coefficients are related by the equation (8).

C d  C do  KCl

(8)

This equation describes that the drag coefficient increases as the parasite drag increases and the coefficient of lift is
added to this value.

IV.

Conclusion

The experiment has shown that as the AOA increases so does lift until laminar-separation occurs. The
relation between lift and AOA is linear until laminar-separation starts to occur. The experiment data does not match
the data from the NACA 0012 data. This is because of the low Reynolds number. If the number was closer to normal
conditions the results would match very closely.
The lift and drag also increase together as the AOA of the wing section changes. This suddenly changes with
laminar-separation. At this point the wing section no longer produces more lift but it does increase the drag as more
frontal area of the wing section is exposed to the constant velocity.
The errors that happened in the experiment were very obvious in figure (2). The data point that causes a spike
does not belong in the set. It could possibly be from recording the data before the velocity stream settled or the
vibrations from the wing section settled. It is too far out to have been from a degree adjustment. Where the lift vs.

AOA plot has an increase in lift at -1 AOA could possibly be from a mistaken angle adjustment that was not
corrected, or it could have been from the adjustment knob not being used accurately. These errors did not prove to
be large enough to affect the required outcome of the experiment.

References
Anderson, J.D. A History of Aerodynamics and Its Impact on Flying Machines,Chapter 7 pp. 308.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/6/67/Flow_separation.jpg
&imgrefurl=http://www.answers.com/topic/flowseparation&h=189&w=320&sz=12&hl=en&start=7&um=1&tbnid=doUK_kpUoFyVcM:&tbnh=70&tbnw=118&pr
ev=/images%3Fq%3Dlaminar%2Bflow%2Bseparation%2Bon%2Ba%2Bwing%2Bsurface%26svnum%3D10%26u
m%3D1%26hl%3Den

Appendix A
Table A.1: Data set from 50000 Reynolds number

Lift (N)

Drag
(N)

Temp
(K)

DyPres
(Pa)

0.11
0.18
0.42
0.74
0.89
1
1.14
1.27
1.38
1.46
1.74
1.5
1.42
1.38
1.38
1.38
0.14
0.04
-0.22
-0.47
-0.68
-0.78

0.12
0.14
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.27
0.28
0.31
0.13
0.43
0.48
0.53
0.59
0.65
0.11
0.1
0.09
0.08
0.08
0.07

310.18
309.92
310.13
310.95
311.07
310.99
311.09
311.39
311.29
311.13
310.81
310.2
310.48
310.26
310.32
310.47
310.3
310.39
310.92
310.55
311.03
310.93

67.71
67.52
66.98
66.29
66.38
67.28
67.24
67.1
67.07
66.51
65.78
65.07
64.99
65.63
65.71
66.79
67.34
67.61
67.58
67.49
67.06
66.4

Ambient
Pres
(Pa)
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500

Angle of
attack

Renumber

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6

50720.11
50761.38
50440.12
50197.04
50048.35
50469.94
50574.89
50210.14
50349.39
50184.36
49988.88
49751.92
49709.91
49926.27
50002.92
50341.16
50657.43
50664.95
50699.85
50675.4
50389.84
50033.63

-0.89
-1
-1.13
-1.21

Lift (N)
0.69
1.86
2.35
2.9
3.57
4.81
5.28
5.71
6.19
6.56
6.09
5.88
5.86
5.89
5.79
5.86
0.09
-0.68
-1.42
-2.13
-2.8
-3.35
-3.85
-4.38
-4.72
-5.35

Lift (N)
2.32
7.06
8.14
9.31
10.48
11.55
12.47
13.55
14.49

0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07

311.13
310.8
311.06
311.11

66.95
67.16
67.26
67.63

96500
96500
96500
96500

-7
-8
-9
-10

Table A.2: Data set from 50000 Reynolds number
Ambient
Angle
Drag
Temp
Dy Pres
Pres
of
(N)
(K)
(Pa)
(Pa)
attack
0.48
310.69
268.69
96500
0
0.54
310.86
268.42
96500
1
0.58
310.82
267.8
96500
2
0.59
310.17
265.58
96500
3
0.7
310.47
264.56
96500
4
0.86
310.77
261.79
96500
5
0.94
310.86
264
96500
6
1.02
311.25
263.01
96500
7
1.15
310.8
262.25
96500
8
1.26
311.34
260.97
96500
9
1.79
311.29
260.36
96500
10
2.04
311.48
264.84
96500
11
2.25
311.54
268.37
96500
12
2.47
311.57
268.67
96500
13
2.6
311.95
267.3
96500
14
2.83
312.21
266.97
96500
15
0.42
311.68
268.23
96500
-1
0.39
311.75
268.16
96500
-2
0.35
311.64
267.87
96500
-3
0.31
312.28
268.28
96500
-4
0.31
312
268.18
96500
-5
0.29
312.15
267.19
96500
-6
0.3
312.26
266.36
96500
-7
0.31
311.88
267.34
96500
-8
0.32
312.14
265.63
96500
-9
0.37
312.49
266.56
96500
-10
Table A.3: Data Set for 150000 Reynolds number
Ambient
Angle
Drag
Temp
Dy Pres
Pres
of
(N)
(K)
(Pa)
(Pa)
attack
0.98
311.47
593.67
96500
0
1.34
311.53
588.95
96500
1
1.46
311.14
588.8
96500
2
1.59
311.33
585.16
96500
3
1.74
310.97
585.22
96500
4
1.9
310.78
584.64
96500
5
2.04
310.95
582.95
96500
6
2.23
310.85
582.78
96500
7
2.4
311.17
579.47
96500
8

50264.53
50456.63
50459.38
50528.61

Re
number
100954.5
100850.1
100922.6
100856.4
100438.5
99976.99
99871.72
99605.3
99714.39
99457
99110.12
99884.32
100494.5
100831
100122.7
99965.75
100400.3
100388.1
100413
100083.5
100123.8
100205.8
99970.83
100173
100100.1
100010.5

Re
number
149290.8
148800
148837.3
148777.1
148862.5
148882.2
148659.8
148565.9
148200.8

15.49
13.73
13.37
13.39
13.24
13.31
13.16
1.08
-2.26
-3.72
-5.71
-6.85
-7.97
-9.22
-10.54
-11.59
-12.81

2.67
4.18
4.71
5.1
5.65
6.04
6.3
0.9
0.78
0.71
0.66
0.65
0.61
0.61
0.62
0.66
0.73

311.43
310.87
311.23
311.48
311.48
311.62
311.14
311.43
311.26
310.61
310.85
311.23
311.2
311.42
312.09
311.78
311.62

581.51
582.51
586.74
591.16
589.57
590.99
589.22
593.2
596.51
594.11
593.07
595.78
594.4
595.07
594.41
596.59
596.65

96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500
96500

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10

148109.5
148362.6
148676.1
149075.9
149525.9
149317
149111.9
149443.9
150182.1
150060.6
149999.4
149820.5
149894.3
149831.3
149337.7
149384.6
150047.7

Appendix B
Equations used

L
qA
D
Cd 
qA
vl
Re 

Cl 

 air  1.458  10 6 

3
2

T
T  110.4

 U    DU a    DU q
   2
  d   
2
 qA   qA   q A
 Re  vl


2
 Re  vl


2
2

U Cd

2

2




       
P

 err   U P    U T 
RT
       

2

2

Appendix C
Table C.1: Density and Density error
Density
for
Re=50000

Density for
Re=100000

Density for
Re=150000

Density
error for
Re=50000

Density
error for
Re=100000

Density
error for
Re=150000

1.0848
1.0857
1.0849
1.0821
1.0816
1.0819
1.0816
1.0805
1.0809
1.0814
1.0825
1.0847
1.0837
1.0845
1.0843
1.0837
1.0843
1.084
1.0822
1.0835
1.0818
1.0821
1.0814
1.0826
1.0817

1.0852
1.0846
1.0848
1.087
1.086
1.0849
1.0846
1.0832
1.0848
1.0829
1.0831
1.0824
1.0823
1.0822
1.0808
1.0799
1.0818
1.0815
1.0819
1.0797
1.0807
1.0801
1.0798
1.0811
1.0802

1.0862
1.0859
1.0873
1.0866
1.0878
1.0885
1.0879
1.0882
1.087
1.0862
1.0881
1.0869
1.0861
1.0861
1.0856
1.0873
1.0863
1.0869
1.0892
1.0883
1.087
1.0871
1.0863
1.084
1.0851

0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037

0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037

0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037
0.0037

Table C.2: Velocity and velocity error
Velocity
for
Re=50000

Velocity for
Re=100000

Velocity for
Re=150000

Velocity
error for
Re=50000

Velocity
error for
Re=100000

Velocity
error for
Re=150000

11.1731
11.1527
11.1118
11.0691
11.0787
11.1521
11.1506
11.1444
11.1401
11.0907
11.024
10.9536

22.2525
22.2474
22.2203
22.1051
22.0734
21.9685
22.064
22.0365
21.9888
21.9542
21.9269
22.121

33.0629
32.9352
32.9104
32.8191
32.8018
32.7757
32.7375
32.7275
32.6518
32.7225
32.721
32.8579

0.131
0.1312
0.1317
0.1324
0.1324
0.1315
0.1316
0.1318
0.1318
0.1323
0.1329
0.1335

0.0832
0.0831
0.0832
0.0834
0.0834
0.0834
0.0833
0.0832
0.0834
0.0833
0.0833
0.0831

0.0895
0.0892
0.0895
0.0892
0.0894
0.0895
0.0893
0.0894
0.0891
0.089
0.0894
0.0893

10.9518
11.0017
11.0094
11.1022
11.1447
11.1686
11.1757
11.1616
11.1346
11.0779
11.1273
11.1388
11.1517
11.1832

22.2696
22.2831
22.2399
22.2355
22.2688
22.2684
22.2525
22.2923
22.2782
22.2425
22.2119
22.2391
22.1773
22.2284

32.9939
32.9498
32.9966
32.9221
33.0478
33.1302
33.0294
33.0134
33.1085
33.0688
33.099
33.1163
33.1601
33.1533

0.1336
0.1329
0.1329
0.1319
0.1314
0.1312
0.1313
0.1313
0.1318
0.1323
0.1319
0.1316
0.1316
0.1313

0.083
0.083
0.0829
0.0829
0.083
0.0829
0.083
0.0828
0.0829
0.0829
0.0829
0.0829
0.0829
0.0828

0.0894
0.0893
0.0893
0.0895
0.0895
0.0897
0.09
0.0898
0.0897
0.0897
0.0896
0.0891
0.0894
0.0895

Table C.3: Calculated Reynolds numbers and calculated errors
reynolds reynolds
Reynolds Reynolds Reynolds
reynolds
number number
number
number
number
number
error for error for
for
for
for
error
150000
100000
150000
100000
50000
50816
101120
150090
696.388
1385.5
2055.6
50798
101000
149450
696.1899 1383.8
2046.8
50551
100900
149670
692.7709 1382.4
2050
2042
50123
100750
149090
686.7629 1380.5
2045.2
50132
100430
149310
686.8751 1376.1
2045.9
50488
99780
149350
691.7563 1367.1
50452
100170
149030
691.2535 1372.3
2041.4
2042
50338
99820
149070
689.6446 1367.4
2033.3
50348
99860
148450
689.7862 1368.1
2034.7
50169
99390
148560
687.3706 1361.6
49958
99300
149030
684.5262 1360.3
2041.3
49811
100070
149350
682.61
1370.8
2045.6
2051.1
49723
100710
149760
681.3677 1379.6
2048.4
50013
100760
149560
685.3655 1380.2
50031
100350
149660
685.6061 1374.4
2049.6
1372
2050.7
50410
100180
149720
690.7743
2055.1
50652
100630
150050
694.1224 1378.4
2062.4
50735
100590
150580
695.2438 1377.8
50615
100580
150670
693.5063 1377.7
2064
1375
2060
50657
10040
150390
694.1478
50397
100490
150500
690.505
1376.4
2061.4
1373
2059.2
50169
100240
150350
687.3919
50335
100040
150300
689.6419 1370.2
2058.5
2051.4
50482
100380
149810
691.7034 1374.9
1369
2057.9
50466
99960
150270
691.4455
50594
99990
150380
693.197
1369.3
2059.4

Table C.4: Coefficient of lift and coefficient of lift error

Coefficient
of lift
50000

Coefficient
of lift
100000

Coefficient
of lift
150000

Coefficient
of lift error
for 50000

-0.5632
-0.5289
-0.4687
-0.4185
-0.3698
-0.3192
-0.2192
-0.1025
0.0186
0.0654
0.0511
0.0839
0.1974
0.3514
0.422
0.4679
0.5337
0.5958
0.6477
0.691
0.8327
0.7256
0.6878
0.6619
0.6611
0.6504

-0.6318
-0.5593
-0.5157
-0.455
-0.3947
-0.3287
-0.2499
-0.1669
-0.0798
0.0106
0.0808
0.2181
0.2762
0.3437
0.4248
0.5784
0.6296
0.6834
0.743
0.7913
0.7363
0.6989
0.6873
0.6901
0.6819
0.6909

-0.6758
-0.6115
-0.5582
-0.4877
-0.4221
-0.3619
-0.3031
-0.1971
-0.1193
0.0573
0.123
0.3773
0.4352
0.5008
0.5637
0.6219
0.6734
0.7319
0.7871
0.8385
0.742
0.7173
0.713
0.7069
0.7089
0.7031

0.0023
0.0023
0.0024
0.0025
0.0026
0.0026
0.0027
0.0028
0.0029
0.0029
0.0032
0.003
0.003
0.0029
0.0029
0.0029
0.0023
0.0023
0.0023
0.0024
0.0025
0.0025
0.0026
0.0026
0.0027
0.0027

Coefficient
of lift error
for
100000
0.0006
0.0008
0.0009
0.001
0.0012
0.0016
0.0017
0.0018
0.002
0.0021
0.0019
0.0018
0.0018
0.0018
0.0018
0.0018
0.0006
0.0006
0.0007
0.0009
0.001
0.0011
0.0013
0.0014
0.0015
0.0017

Coefficient
of lift error
for
150000
0.0004
0.001
0.0011
0.0013
0.0014
0.0016
0.0017
0.0018
0.002
0.0021
0.0019
0.0018
0.0018
0.0018
0.0018
0.0018
0.0003
0.0004
0.0006
0.0008
0.0009
0.0011
0.0012
0.0014
0.0016
0.0017

Table C.5: Coefficient of drag and coefficient of drag error
Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient
Coefficient
Coefficient
Coefficient
of drag
of drag
of drag
of drag
of drag
of lift
error
error
error
error
150000
100000
50000
0.0326
0.0434
0.0387
0.0023
0.0006
0.2952
0.0326
0.0376
0.035
0.0023
0.0006
0.3217
0.0326
0.0364
0.0327
0.0024
0.0006
0.3309
0.0327
0.0352
0.0324
0.0024
0.0006
0.3436
0.033
0.0342
0.0326
0.0024
0.0006
0.3564
0.0383
0.0365
0.0346
0.0024
0.0007
0.3713
0.0384
0.0363
0.0352
0.0024
0.0007
0.3856
0.0436
0.0411
0.0378
0.0024
0.0007
0.4044
0.0484
0.0464
0.0418
0.0024
0.0007
0.4242
0.0526
0.0508
0.0486
0.0024
0.0007
0.4514
0.0558
0.0562
0.052
0.0024
0.0008
0.6259
0.0653
0.0633
0.0716
0.0025
0.0008
0.6862
0.0799
0.0682
0.0781
0.0025
0.0009
0.7291
0.0855
0.0699
0.0855
0.0025
0.0009
0.7998
0.0901
0.0833
0.0936
0.0025
0.001
0.847

0.0983
0.1077
0.1267
0.1314
0.1467
0.0622
0.208
0.2325
0.2542
0.2826
0.3063

0.1034
0.1121
0.1221
0.138
0.152
0.2164
0.2425
0.2639
0.2894
0.3062
0.3337

0.1023
0.1102
0.1205
0.1304
0.1445
0.2259
0.2527
0.2716
0.3017
0.3217
0.3366

0.0025
0.0023
0.0023
0.0023
0.0023
0.0023
0.0024
0.0024
0.0023
0.0023
0.0023

0.001
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006

Table C.6: Calculated Reynolds numbers
Reynolds Reynolds
Reynolds
number
number
number
at
at
at 50000
100000
150000
50816
101120
150090
50798
101000
149450
50551
100900
149670
50123
100750
149090
50132
100430
149310
50488
99780
149350
50452
100170
149030
50338
99820
149070
50348
99860
148450
50169
99390
148560
49958
99300
149030
49811
100070
149350
49723
100710
149760
50013
100760
149560
50031
100350
149660
50410
100180
149720
50652
100630
150050
50735
100590
150580
50615
100580
150670
50657
100400
150390
50397
100490
150500
50169
100240
150350
50335
100040
150300
50482
100380
149810
50466
99960
150270
50594
999900
150380
Average
50356
100300
1497100

0.8826
0.2909
0.2832
0.2811
0.2795
0.2778
0.2768
0.2765
0.2772
0.2778
0.2808

The MATLab Code:
function lab2=lift()
clc;
clear;
load lift1.txt;
load lift2.txt;
load lift3.txt;
Chord=.0794;%m
Ucord=.001;%m
Span=.4001;%m
Uspan=.001;%m
Ulift=.001;%N
Utemp=.1;%C
Upress=.01;%1 percent
A=Chord*Span;
% Calculate Re
Temp=lift1(:,3);
Temptwo=lift2(:,3);
Tempthree=lift3(:,3);
L=lift1(:,1);
z=length(L);
Ltwo=lift2(:,1);
Lthree=lift3(:,1);
D=lift1(:,2);
Dtwo=lift2(:,2);
Dthree=lift3(:,2);
R=287;
t=length(Temp);
P_atm=lift1(:,5);
P_atmtwo=lift2(:,5);
P_atmthree=lift3(:,5);
q=lift1(:,4);
qtwo=lift2(:,4);
qthree=lift3(:,4);
P=P_atm + q;
Ptwo=P_atmtwo + qtwo;
Pthree=P_atmthree + qthree;
rho=zeros(size(P));
l=Chord;
Vf=zeros(size(Temp));
mu=1.458e-6;
for i = 1:t
Vf(i)=(mu*(Temp(i)^1.5))/(Temp(i)+110.4);
Vftwo(i)=(mu*(Temptwo(i)^1.5))/(Temptwo(i)+110.4);
Vfthree(i)=(mu*(Tempthree(i)^1.5))/(Tempthree(i)+110.4);
rho(i)=P(i)/(R*Temp(i));
rhotwo(i)=Ptwo(i)/(R*Temptwo(i));
rhothree(i)=Pthree(i)/(R*Tempthree(i));
V(i)=sqrt((2*q(i))/rho(i));
Vtwo(i)=sqrt((2*qtwo(i))/rhotwo(i));
Vthree(i)=sqrt((2*qthree(i))/rhothree(i));
Re(i)=(rho(i)*V(i)*l)/Vf(i);
Retwo(i)=(rhotwo(i)*Vtwo(i)*l)/Vftwo(i);
Rethree(i)=(rhothree(i)*Vthree(i)*l)/Vfthree(i);
i=i+1;
end
Reynolds_Number =sum(Re)/z;
Reynolds_Number_two = sum(Retwo)/z;
Reynolds_Number_three = sum(Rethree)/z;

%Calculate Re with error positive
Temp=lift1(:,3);
Temptwo=lift2(:,3);
Tempthree=lift3(:,3);
R=287;

t=length(Temp);
t=length(Temptwo);
t=length(Tempthree);
P_atm=lift1(:,5);
P_atmtwo=lift2(:,5);
P_atmthree=lift3(:,5);
q=lift1(:,4);
qtwo=lift2(:,4);
qthree=lift3(:,4);
P=P_atm + q;
Ptwo=P_atmtwo + qtwo;
Pthree=P_atmthree + qthree;
rho=zeros(size(P));
rhotwo=zeros(size(Ptwo));
rhothree=zeros(size(Pthree));
l=Chord;
Vf=zeros(size(Temp));
Vftwo=zeros(size(Temptwo));
Vfthree=zeros(size(Tempthree));
mu=1.458e-6;
for i = 1:t
Ua=sqrt((.0794*.001)^2+(.4001*.001^2)^2);
Vf(i)=(mu*(Temp(i)^1.5))/(Temp(i)+110.4);
Vftwo(i)=(mu*(Temptwo(i)^1.5))/(Temptwo(i)+110.4);
Vfthree(i)=(mu*(Tempthree(i)^1.5))/(Tempthree(i)+110.4);
rho(i)=P(i)/(R*Temp(i));
rhotwo(i)=Ptwo(i)/(R*Temptwo(i));
rhothree(i)=Pthree(i)/(R*Tempthree(i));
V(i)=sqrt((2*q(i))/rho(i));
Vtwo(i)=sqrt((2*qtwo(i))/rhotwo(i));
Vthree(i)=sqrt((2*qthree(i))/rhothree(i));
Upatm(i)=P_atm(i)*.01+P_atm(i);
Upatmtwo(i)=P_atmtwo(i)*.01+P_atmtwo(i);
Upatmthree(i)=P_atmthree(i)*.01+P_atmthree(i);
Utemp(i)=Temp(i)+.1;
Utemptwo(i)=Temptwo(i)+.1;
Utempthree(i)=Tempthree(i)+.1;
Uchord=Chord*.001+Chord;
Uspan=Span*.001+Span;
Ulift=.005;
Udrag=.005;
Uq(i)=.001*.001*q(i);
Uqtwo(i)=.001*.001*qtwo(i);
Uqthree(i)=.001*.001*qthree(i);
Umu(i)=((.000002187*(Utemp(i))^.5)/(Utemp(i)+110.4)-(.000001458*Utemp(i)^1.5/(Utemp(i)+110.4)^2)*.1);
Umutwo(i)=((.000002187*(Utemptwo(i))^.5)/(Utemptwo(i)+110.4)-(.000001458*Utemptwo(i)^1.5/(Utemptwo(i)+110.4)^2)*.1);
Umuthree(i)=((.000002187*(Utempthree(i))^.5)/(Utempthree(i)+110.4)(.000001458*Utempthree(i)^1.5/(Utempthree(i)+110.4)^2)*.1);
Urho(i)=sqrt((-Upatm(i)/(R*(Temp(i))^2)*.1)^2+(1/(R*Utemp(i)))*1.1^2);
Urhotwo(i)=sqrt((-Upatmtwo(i)/(R*(Temptwo(i))^2)*.1)^2+(1/(R*Utemptwo(i)))*1.1^2);
Urhothree(i)=sqrt((-Upatmthree(i)/(R*(Tempthree(i))^2)*.1)^2+(1/(R*Utempthree(i)))*1.1^2);
Uv(i)=sqrt(.5*(sqrt(2)/(sqrt(q(i)/rho(i))*rho(i))*1.1)^2+(-.5*(sqrt(2)*q(i)/(sqrt(q(i)/rho(i)))*(rho(i))^2)*Urho(i))^2);
Uvtwo(i)=sqrt(.5*(sqrt(2)/(sqrt(qtwo(i)/rhotwo(i))*rhotwo(i))*1.1)^2+(.5*(sqrt(2)*qtwo(i)/(sqrt(qtwo(i)/rhotwo(i)))*(rhotwo(i))^2)*Urhotwo(i))^2);
Uvthree(i)=sqrt(.5*(sqrt(2)/(sqrt(qthree(i)/rhothree(i))*rhothree(i))*1.1)^2+(.5*(sqrt(2)*qthree(i)/(sqrt(qthree(i)/rhothree(i)))*(rhothree(i))^2)*Urhothree(i))^2);
UCl(i)=sqrt((Ulift/(q(i) * A))^2 + ((-L(i) * Ua)/(q(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-L(i) * Uq(i))/(A * q(i)^2))^2);
UCltwo(i)=sqrt((Ulift/(qtwo(i) * A))^2 + ((-Ltwo(i) * Ua)/(qtwo(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Ltwo(i) * Uqtwo(i))/(A * qtwo(i)^2))^2);
UClthree(i)=sqrt((Ulift/(qthree(i) * A))^2 + ((-Lthree(i) * Ua)/(qthree(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Lthree(i) * Uqthree(i))/(A * qthree(i)^2))^2);
UCd(i)=sqrt((Udrag/(q(i) * A))^2 + ((-D(i) * Ua)/(q(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-D(i) * Uq(i))/(A * q(i)^2))^2);
UCdtwo(i)=sqrt((Udrag/(qtwo(i) * A))^2 + ((-Dtwo(i) * Ua)/(qtwo(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Dtwo(i) * Uqtwo(i))/(A * qtwo(i)^2))^2);
UCdthree(i)=sqrt((Udrag/(qthree(i) * A))^2 + ((-Dthree(i) * Ua)/(qthree(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Dthree(i) * Uqthree(i))/(A * qthree(i)^2))^2);
Urerho(i)=(((V(i)*.0749)/Vf(i))*Urho(i))^2;
Urerhotwo(i)=(((Vtwo(i)*.0749)/Vftwo(i))*Urhotwo(i))^2;
Urerhothree(i)=(((Vthree(i)*.0749)/Vfthree(i))*Urhothree(i))^2;
UreV(i)=(((Urho(i)*.0749)/Vf(i))*Uv(i))^2;
UreVtwo(i)=(((Urhotwo(i)*.0749)/Vftwo(i))*Uvtwo(i))^2;
UreVthree(i)=(((Urhothree(i)*.0749)/Vfthree(i))*Uvthree(i))^2;
UreUl(i)=(((rho(i)*V(i))/Vf(i))*.001)^2;
UreUltwo(i)=(((rhotwo(i)*Vtwo(i))/Vftwo(i))*.001)^2;

UreUlthree(i)=(((rhothree(i)*Vthree(i))/Vfthree(i))*.001)^2;
UreUmu(i)=(((-rho(i)*V(i)*.0749)/(Vf(i)^2))*Umu(i))^2;
UreUmutwo(i)=(((-rhotwo(i)*Vtwo(i)*.0749)/(Vftwo(i)^2))*Umutwo(i))^2;
UreUmuthree(i)=(((-rhothree(i)*Vthree(i)*.0749)/(Vfthree(i)^2))*Umuthree(i))^2;
Ure(i)=sqrt(Urerho(i)+UreV(i)+UreUl(i)+UreUmu(i));
Uretwo(i)=sqrt(Urerhotwo(i)+UreVtwo(i)+UreUltwo(i)+UreUmutwo(i));
Urethree(i)=sqrt(Urerhothree(i)+UreVthree(i)+UreUlthree(i)+UreUmuthree(i));
i=i+1;
end
uncertainty_Reynolds_Number = sum(Ure)/z
uncertainty_Reynolds_Number_two = sum(Uretwo)/z
uncertainty_Reynolds_Number_three = sum(Urethree)/z
% Cl vs. Angle of Attack
AOA=lift1(:,6);
AOAtwo=lift2(:,6);
AOAthree=lift3(:,6);
AOApositive=zeros(size(16));
Lpositive=zeros(size(16));
AOAnegative=zeros(size(10));
Lnegative=zeros(size(10));
for i = 1:16
AOApositive(i)=AOA(i);
AOApositivetwo(i)=AOAtwo(i);
AOApositivethree(i)=AOAthree(i);
Lpositive(i)=L(i);
Lpositivetwo(i)=Ltwo(i);
Lpositivethree(i)=Lthree(i);
i=1+i;
end
for i = 1:10
AOAnegative(i)=AOA(i+16);
AOAnegativetwo(i)=AOAtwo(i+16);
AOAnegativethree(i)=AOAthree(i+16);
Lnegative(i)=L(i+16);
Lnegativetwo(i)=Ltwo(i+16);
Lnegativethree(i)=Lthree(i+16);
i=1+1;
end
%Coefficient of lift
Clpositive=zeros(size(16));
for i = 1:16
Clpositive(i)=Lpositive(i)/(q(i)*A);
Clpositivetwo(i)=Lpositivetwo(i)/(qtwo(i)*A);
Clpositivethree(i)=Lpositivethree(i)/(qthree(i)*A);
i=1+i;
end
Clnegative=zeros(size(10));
for i = 1:10
Clnegative(i)=Lnegative(i)/(q(i+16)*A);
Clnegativetwo(i)=Lnegativetwo(i)/(qtwo(i+16)*A);
Clnegativethree(i)=Lnegativethree(i)/(qthree(i+16)*A);
i=i+1;
end
FCln=fliplr(Clnegative);
FClntwo=fliplr(Clnegativetwo);
FClnthree=fliplr(Clnegativethree);
FAOAn=fliplr(AOAnegative);
FAOAntwo=fliplr(AOAnegativetwo);
FAOAnthree=fliplr(AOAnegativethree);
Cltotal= [FCln Clpositive];
Cltotaltwo= [FClntwo Clpositivetwo];
Cltotalthree= [FClnthree Clpositivethree];
AOAtotal=[FAOAn AOApositive];
AOAtotaltwo=[FAOAntwo AOApositivetwo];
AOAtotalthree=[FAOAnthree AOApositivethree];
figure(1)
hold on

plot(AOAtotal,Cltotal,'r');
errorbar(AOAtotal,Cltotal,Ulift,'r');
plot(AOAtotaltwo,Cltotaltwo,'g');
errorbar(AOAtotaltwo,Cltotaltwo,Ulift,'g');
plot(AOAtotalthree,Cltotalthree);
errorbar(AOAtotalthree,Cltotalthree,Ulift);

% Coefficient of drag Vs. Coefficient of lift
Dpositive=zeros(size(16));
Dnegative=zeros(size(10));
for i = 1:16
Dpositive(i)=D(i);
Dpositivetwo(i)=Dtwo(i);
Dpositivethree(i)=Dthree(i);
i=1+i;
end
for i = 1:10
Dnegative(i)=D(i+16);
Dnegativetwo(i)=Dtwo(i+16);
Dnegativethree(i)=Dthree(i+16);
i=1+1;
end
%Coefficient of Drag
Cdpositive=zeros(size(16));
for i = 1:16
Cdpositive(i)=Dpositive(i)/(q(i)*A);
Cdpositivetwo(i)=Dpositivetwo(i)/(qtwo(i)*A);
Cdpositivethree(i)=Dpositivethree(i)/(qthree(i)*A);
i=1+i;
end
Cdnegative=zeros(size(10));
for i = 1:10
Cdnegative(i)=Dnegative(i)/(q(i+10)*A);
Cdnegativetwo(i)=Dnegativetwo(i)/(qtwo(i+10)*A);
Cdnegativethree(i)=Dnegativethree(i)/(qthree(i+10)*A);
i=i+1;
end
FCdn=fliplr(Cdnegative);
FCdntwo=fliplr(Cdnegativetwo);
FCdnthree=fliplr(Cdnegativethree);
Cdtotal= [FCdn Cdpositive];
Cdtotaltwo= [FCdntwo Cdpositivetwo];
Cdtotalthree= [FCdnthree Cdpositivethree];
figure(3)
Hold on
plot(Cltotal,Cdtotal,'r');
errorbar(Cltotal, Cdtotal, UCd,'r');
plot(Cltotaltwo,Cdtotaltwo,'g');
errorbar(Cltotaltwo, Cdtotaltwo, UCdtwo,'g');
plot(Cltotalthree,Cdtotalthree);
errorbar(Cltotalthree, Cdtotalthree, UCdthree);
end

Abstract
An abstract appears at the beginning of Full-Length Papers (Survey and Design Forum Papers, History of Key
Technologies Papers, invited lectures, and Technical/Engineering Notes do not include abstracts). The abstract is
one paragraph long (not an introduction) and complete in itself (no reference numbers). It should indicate subjects

dealt with in the paper and state the objectives of the investigation. Newly observed facts and conclusions of the
experiment or argument discussed in the paper must be stated in summary form; readers should not have to read the
paper to understand the abstract. Format the abstract bold, indented 3 picas (1/2”) on each side, and separated from
the rest of the document by two blank lines