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Oct 02, 2007

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J. Murray

Aerospace Engineering Student, Lab Section 1007, Tempe, AZ, 85287

The experiment was preformed to examine what effect a change in the Reynolds number

would have on the lift and drag characteristics of the NACA 0012 wing section. The wing

profile is common and well studied. It has well documented properties that provide precise

data to compare with the experimental data. The results of this lab showed the lift and drag

characteristics of the wing section. These results were a maximum coefficient of lift was

about .8, and happened at 9 to 10 degrees. The drag and lift increase together until around

10 degrees where lift no longer increases but drag does. The lift and angle of attack are

linearly related up to point of stall. The results also show that the drag on the wing section

increases as the angle of attack increased. The wing section was tested at three data points.

These were Reynolds numbers of 50000, 100000, and 150000. The Reynolds numbers were

set by the velocity and air density inside the wind tunnel. The data produced a very small

error for the results. Because of historical data it was known before the experiment that low

Reynolds numbers produce erroneous data. This is caused by premature stall of the wing

section. This result was present in our data, even with these results the experiment provided

data that is accurate and expected.

Nomenclature

A = area of the wing section

AOA = angle of attack

Cd = coefficient of drag

Cl = coefficient of life

Cy = force coefficient in the y direction

c = chord

D = Drag

L = Lift

l = chord length

q = dynamic pressure

Re = Reynolds number

UCd = uncertainty of the coefficient of drag

Ud = uncertainty of drag

Uq = uncertainty of total pressure

URe = uncertainty of Reynolds number

v = velocity

= atmospheric density

= viscous forces

I. Introduction

The laboratory procedure was an exploration of the aerodynamic lift and drag forces experienced by a NACA

0012 wing section at low Reynolds numbers. The model experienced a low speed uniform free stream velocity. This

velocity was set by using specific Reynolds numbers. When low Reynolds numbers are used, the data for the

velocities will show the characteristics of the laminar-separation bubble on the top surface of the wing section. This

laminar-separation is caused by low velocities and is not representative of actual results found at Reynolds numbers

The coefficients of lift and drag that are calculated show the increase in these values in response to the increase

in AOA, and also the point at which the laminar-separation occurs. Laminar separation can also be referred to as

wing stall. The equations to calculate these forces are the Coefficient of Lift (1), and the Coefficient of Drag (2).

L

Cl (1)

qA

D

Cd (2)

qA

The coefficient for lift shows the point of separation where the lift curve levels off or falls when it is plotted against

the AOA. The separation point is the maximum value of the plot line. The separation occurred when the lift falls

The polar plot is a plot of Cd versus Cl that shows the best climb or sink rate that the wing section has at the

specific Reynolds number. To find the best climb rate of the wing section in this experiment a tangential line is

drawn from the origin of the plot to the plot line. This point is the best climb rate the wing section has for the

Although we know the Reynolds number that we are testing at, the true number needs to be found for the sake of

vl

Re (3)

3

2

T

air 1.458 10 6 (4)

T 110.4

This allowed the calculation of the Reynolds number for each data set.

Once all of these values have been found it is important to know what the uncertainty of each one is. To do this,

2

U DU a DU q

2 2

U Cd d 2 (5)

qA qA q A

2

To find the uncertainty of the coefficient of lift the equation used is (6)

U LU a LU q

2 2 2

U Cl l 2

2

(6)

qA qA q A

Then the uncertainty of the Reynolds number was found using the equation (7)

Re vl

(7)

2

These numbers make it possible to evaluate the lift and drag at the different Reynolds numbers and to see how they

II. Procedure

Barometer

Thermometer

Pressure transducer

Load Cell

The experiment was conducted by first recording the ambient temperature and pressure. This was done using a

barometer and thermometer. These values were then entered into the computer which was running the program

LABView, with the experiment already programmed into it. The chord length and the span width of the wing

section were also recorded and entered into the program. The type of wing section at this time was also noted as

The wing section was then placed into the wind tunnel test section. The wing section was fastened onto a pylon

that had a cross section that was a NACA 0012. This pylon was attached to a pressure gauge that would measure the

force of lift created by the wing section. The pitch of the wing section was then adjusted so that the AOA was zero

degrees. The pitch angle was adjusted by a knob that was located underneath the pylon and outside of the wind

tunnel.

The next step was to calculate the ambient temperature and viscosity. To calculate this Bernoulli’s equation was

used for the pressures, and Sutherland’s equation was used to find the viscousity. The data was acquired with a pitot

tube in the test section and a thermometer. This data was used to determine the dynamic pressure in the wind tunnel

at each Reynolds number. The data was entered into LABView for automatic calculation of the required values.

These calculations used the equations (1), (2), (3), and (4).

The wind tunnel was then turned on and adjusted until LABView had a Reynolds number reading of 50000.

Once this value was reached and the value that the pressure gauge was recording settled the measurement was

written into LABView. This procedure was done for all angles from negative 10 to positive 15 with each step being

one degree. The data acquisition was carried out the same way for each Reynolds number that was evaluated. These

Reynolds numbers were 50000, 100000, and 150000. All the steps were repeated until the complete data sets were

acquired.

III. Results

The results of this experiment were very precise and matched what was expected very closely. The Reynolds

numbers were found using equation (3). The true value for each measurement was used to create an average value

for the setting. The calculated average value for 50000 was 50356 +/-690. For the setting of 100000 the calculated

average value was 100300 +/- 1374. And for the setting of 150000 the calculated average value was 149710 +/-

2050.5. These values are shown in table (10) in the appendix. The error for these values is close to one percent. This

is not a very significant error at the low Reynolds numbers but can become significant if the numbers get close to the

The lift was plotted against the AOA for each Reynolds number. This provided a plot that shows what the lift on

the wing is at each AOA for the specific Reynolds number. This is shown in figure (1).

Coefficient of Lift versus Angle of Attack

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Cl

0

50000 Renolds number error bar

-0.4 100000 Reynolds number

100000 Reynolds number error bar

-0.6 150000 Reynolds number

150000 Reynolds number error bar

-0.8

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

Angle of Attack

The plot clearly shows that as the angle of attack increases so does the lift of the wing section. The plot also shows

the laminar-separation at an AOA of 9 and 10 degrees. The plot also shows that laminar-separation is smaller as the

Reynolds number increases. This is because as the Reynolds number increases, the air becomes more viscous. The

viscosity in turn keeps the boundary layer attached to the wing surface. With the laminar flow being smoother over

the wing surface the lift is greater as the Reynolds number increases. This separation can be seen in figure (3).

Figure 3: Laminar-separation

The coefficient of drag was plotted against the coefficient of lift for figure (2). This plot shows that as the lift

Cd versus Cl

0.35

50000 Reynolds number

50000 Reynolds number error bar

0.3 100000 Reynolds number

100000 Reynolds number error bar

0.25 150000 Reynolds number

150000 Reynolds number error bar

0.2

Cd

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

-0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Cl

Also in figure (2) the plot shows when laminar-separation occurs. This is between the coefficients of lift of .7 to .9.

At this value the NACA 0012 wing section no longer provides anymore lift but is creating a large amount of drag.

The plot shows that both drag and lift are related. The two coefficients are related by the equation (8).

C d C do KCl (8)

This equation describes that the drag coefficient increases as the parasite drag increases and the coefficient of lift is

IV. Conclusion

The experiment has shown that as the AOA increases so does lift until laminar-separation occurs. The

relation between lift and AOA is linear until laminar-separation starts to occur. The experiment data does not match

the data from the NACA 0012 data. This is because of the low Reynolds number. If the number was closer to normal

The lift and drag also increase together as the AOA of the wing section changes. This suddenly changes with

laminar-separation. At this point the wing section no longer produces more lift but it does increase the drag as more

The errors that happened in the experiment were very obvious in figure (2). The data point that causes a spike

does not belong in the set. It could possibly be from recording the data before the velocity stream settled or the

vibrations from the wing section settled. It is too far out to have been from a degree adjustment. Where the lift vs.

AOA plot has an increase in lift at -1 AOA could possibly be from a mistaken angle adjustment that was not

corrected, or it could have been from the adjustment knob not being used accurately. These errors did not prove to

References

Anderson, J.D. A History of Aerodynamics and Its Impact on Flying Machines,Chapter 7 pp. 308.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/6/67/Flow_separation.jpg

&imgrefurl=http://www.answers.com/topic/flow-

separation&h=189&w=320&sz=12&hl=en&start=7&um=1&tbnid=doUK_kpUoFyVcM:&tbnh=70&tbnw=118&pr

ev=/images%3Fq%3Dlaminar%2Bflow%2Bseparation%2Bon%2Ba%2Bwing%2Bsurface%26svnum%3D10%26u

m%3D1%26hl%3Den

Appendix A

Ambient

Drag Temp DyPres Angle of

Lift (N) Pres Renumber

(N) (K) (Pa) attack

(Pa)

0.11 0.12 310.18 67.71 96500 0 50720.11

0.18 0.14 309.92 67.52 96500 1 50761.38

0.42 0.17 310.13 66.98 96500 2 50440.12

0.74 0.18 310.95 66.29 96500 3 50197.04

0.89 0.19 311.07 66.38 96500 4 50048.35

1 0.21 310.99 67.28 96500 5 50469.94

1.14 0.23 311.09 67.24 96500 6 50574.89

1.27 0.27 311.39 67.1 96500 7 50210.14

1.38 0.28 311.29 67.07 96500 8 50349.39

1.46 0.31 311.13 66.51 96500 9 50184.36

1.74 0.13 310.81 65.78 96500 10 49988.88

1.5 0.43 310.2 65.07 96500 11 49751.92

1.42 0.48 310.48 64.99 96500 12 49709.91

1.38 0.53 310.26 65.63 96500 13 49926.27

1.38 0.59 310.32 65.71 96500 14 50002.92

1.38 0.65 310.47 66.79 96500 15 50341.16

0.14 0.11 310.3 67.34 96500 -1 50657.43

0.04 0.1 310.39 67.61 96500 -2 50664.95

-0.22 0.09 310.92 67.58 96500 -3 50699.85

-0.47 0.08 310.55 67.49 96500 -4 50675.4

-0.68 0.08 311.03 67.06 96500 -5 50389.84

-0.78 0.07 310.93 66.4 96500 -6 50033.63

-0.89 0.07 311.13 66.95 96500 -7 50264.53

-1 0.07 310.8 67.16 96500 -8 50456.63

-1.13 0.07 311.06 67.26 96500 -9 50459.38

-1.21 0.07 311.11 67.63 96500 -10 50528.61

Ambient Angle

Drag Temp Dy Pres Re

Lift (N) Pres of

(N) (K) (Pa) number

(Pa) attack

0.69 0.48 310.69 268.69 96500 0 100954.5

1.86 0.54 310.86 268.42 96500 1 100850.1

2.35 0.58 310.82 267.8 96500 2 100922.6

2.9 0.59 310.17 265.58 96500 3 100856.4

3.57 0.7 310.47 264.56 96500 4 100438.5

4.81 0.86 310.77 261.79 96500 5 99976.99

5.28 0.94 310.86 264 96500 6 99871.72

5.71 1.02 311.25 263.01 96500 7 99605.3

6.19 1.15 310.8 262.25 96500 8 99714.39

6.56 1.26 311.34 260.97 96500 9 99457

6.09 1.79 311.29 260.36 96500 10 99110.12

5.88 2.04 311.48 264.84 96500 11 99884.32

5.86 2.25 311.54 268.37 96500 12 100494.5

5.89 2.47 311.57 268.67 96500 13 100831

5.79 2.6 311.95 267.3 96500 14 100122.7

5.86 2.83 312.21 266.97 96500 15 99965.75

0.09 0.42 311.68 268.23 96500 -1 100400.3

-0.68 0.39 311.75 268.16 96500 -2 100388.1

-1.42 0.35 311.64 267.87 96500 -3 100413

-2.13 0.31 312.28 268.28 96500 -4 100083.5

-2.8 0.31 312 268.18 96500 -5 100123.8

-3.35 0.29 312.15 267.19 96500 -6 100205.8

-3.85 0.3 312.26 266.36 96500 -7 99970.83

-4.38 0.31 311.88 267.34 96500 -8 100173

-4.72 0.32 312.14 265.63 96500 -9 100100.1

-5.35 0.37 312.49 266.56 96500 -10 100010.5

Ambient Angle

Drag Temp Dy Pres Re

Lift (N) Pres of

(N) (K) (Pa) number

(Pa) attack

2.32 0.98 311.47 593.67 96500 0 149290.8

7.06 1.34 311.53 588.95 96500 1 148800

8.14 1.46 311.14 588.8 96500 2 148837.3

9.31 1.59 311.33 585.16 96500 3 148777.1

10.48 1.74 310.97 585.22 96500 4 148862.5

11.55 1.9 310.78 584.64 96500 5 148882.2

12.47 2.04 310.95 582.95 96500 6 148659.8

13.55 2.23 310.85 582.78 96500 7 148565.9

14.49 2.4 311.17 579.47 96500 8 148200.8

15.49 2.67 311.43 581.51 96500 9 148109.5

13.73 4.18 310.87 582.51 96500 10 148362.6

13.37 4.71 311.23 586.74 96500 11 148676.1

13.39 5.1 311.48 591.16 96500 12 149075.9

13.24 5.65 311.48 589.57 96500 13 149525.9

13.31 6.04 311.62 590.99 96500 14 149317

13.16 6.3 311.14 589.22 96500 15 149111.9

1.08 0.9 311.43 593.2 96500 -1 149443.9

-2.26 0.78 311.26 596.51 96500 -2 150182.1

-3.72 0.71 310.61 594.11 96500 -3 150060.6

-5.71 0.66 310.85 593.07 96500 -4 149999.4

-6.85 0.65 311.23 595.78 96500 -5 149820.5

-7.97 0.61 311.2 594.4 96500 -6 149894.3

-9.22 0.61 311.42 595.07 96500 -7 149831.3

-10.54 0.62 312.09 594.41 96500 -8 149337.7

-11.59 0.66 311.78 596.59 96500 -9 149384.6

-12.81 0.73 311.62 596.65 96500 -10 150047.7

Appendix B

Equations used

L

Cl

qA

D

Cd

qA

vl

Re

3

2

T

air 1.458 10 6

T 110.4

2

U DU a DU q

2 2

U Cd d 2

qA qA q A

2

Re vl

2

Re vl

2

2 2

P

err U P U T

RT

Appendix C

Density Density Density Density

Density for Density for

for error for error for error for

Re=100000 Re=150000

Re=50000 Re=50000 Re=100000 Re=150000

1.0857 1.0846 1.0859 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0849 1.0848 1.0873 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0821 1.087 1.0866 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0816 1.086 1.0878 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0819 1.0849 1.0885 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0816 1.0846 1.0879 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0805 1.0832 1.0882 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0809 1.0848 1.087 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0814 1.0829 1.0862 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0825 1.0831 1.0881 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0847 1.0824 1.0869 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0837 1.0823 1.0861 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0845 1.0822 1.0861 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0843 1.0808 1.0856 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0837 1.0799 1.0873 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0843 1.0818 1.0863 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.084 1.0815 1.0869 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0822 1.0819 1.0892 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0835 1.0797 1.0883 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0818 1.0807 1.087 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0821 1.0801 1.0871 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0814 1.0798 1.0863 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0826 1.0811 1.084 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

1.0817 1.0802 1.0851 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037

Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity

Velocity for Velocity for

for error for error for error for

Re=100000 Re=150000

Re=50000 Re=50000 Re=100000 Re=150000

11.1527 22.2474 32.9352 0.1312 0.0831 0.0892

11.1118 22.2203 32.9104 0.1317 0.0832 0.0895

11.0691 22.1051 32.8191 0.1324 0.0834 0.0892

11.0787 22.0734 32.8018 0.1324 0.0834 0.0894

11.1521 21.9685 32.7757 0.1315 0.0834 0.0895

11.1506 22.064 32.7375 0.1316 0.0833 0.0893

11.1444 22.0365 32.7275 0.1318 0.0832 0.0894

11.1401 21.9888 32.6518 0.1318 0.0834 0.0891

11.0907 21.9542 32.7225 0.1323 0.0833 0.089

11.024 21.9269 32.721 0.1329 0.0833 0.0894

10.9536 22.121 32.8579 0.1335 0.0831 0.0893

10.9518 22.2696 32.9939 0.1336 0.083 0.0894

11.0017 22.2831 32.9498 0.1329 0.083 0.0893

11.0094 22.2399 32.9966 0.1329 0.0829 0.0893

11.1022 22.2355 32.9221 0.1319 0.0829 0.0895

11.1447 22.2688 33.0478 0.1314 0.083 0.0895

11.1686 22.2684 33.1302 0.1312 0.0829 0.0897

11.1757 22.2525 33.0294 0.1313 0.083 0.09

11.1616 22.2923 33.0134 0.1313 0.0828 0.0898

11.1346 22.2782 33.1085 0.1318 0.0829 0.0897

11.0779 22.2425 33.0688 0.1323 0.0829 0.0897

11.1273 22.2119 33.099 0.1319 0.0829 0.0896

11.1388 22.2391 33.1163 0.1316 0.0829 0.0891

11.1517 22.1773 33.1601 0.1316 0.0829 0.0894

11.1832 22.2284 33.1533 0.1313 0.0828 0.0895

Reynolds Reynolds Reynolds reynolds reynolds

reynolds

number number number number number

number

for for for error for error for

error

50000 100000 150000 100000 150000

50816 101120 150090 696.388 1385.5 2055.6

50798 101000 149450 696.1899 1383.8 2046.8

50551 100900 149670 692.7709 1382.4 2050

50123 100750 149090 686.7629 1380.5 2042

50132 100430 149310 686.8751 1376.1 2045.2

50488 99780 149350 691.7563 1367.1 2045.9

50452 100170 149030 691.2535 1372.3 2041.4

50338 99820 149070 689.6446 1367.4 2042

50348 99860 148450 689.7862 1368.1 2033.3

50169 99390 148560 687.3706 1361.6 2034.7

49958 99300 149030 684.5262 1360.3 2041.3

49811 100070 149350 682.61 1370.8 2045.6

49723 100710 149760 681.3677 1379.6 2051.1

50013 100760 149560 685.3655 1380.2 2048.4

50031 100350 149660 685.6061 1374.4 2049.6

50410 100180 149720 690.7743 1372 2050.7

50652 100630 150050 694.1224 1378.4 2055.1

50735 100590 150580 695.2438 1377.8 2062.4

50615 100580 150670 693.5063 1377.7 2064

50657 10040 150390 694.1478 1375 2060

50397 100490 150500 690.505 1376.4 2061.4

50169 100240 150350 687.3919 1373 2059.2

50335 100040 150300 689.6419 1370.2 2058.5

50482 100380 149810 691.7034 1374.9 2051.4

50466 99960 150270 691.4455 1369 2057.9

50594 99990 150380 693.197 1369.3 2059.4

Coefficient Coefficient

Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient

of lift error of lift error

of lift of lift of lift of lift error

for for

50000 100000 150000 for 50000

100000 150000

-0.5632 -0.6318 -0.6758 0.0023 0.0006 0.0004

-0.5289 -0.5593 -0.6115 0.0023 0.0008 0.001

-0.4687 -0.5157 -0.5582 0.0024 0.0009 0.0011

-0.4185 -0.455 -0.4877 0.0025 0.001 0.0013

-0.3698 -0.3947 -0.4221 0.0026 0.0012 0.0014

-0.3192 -0.3287 -0.3619 0.0026 0.0016 0.0016

-0.2192 -0.2499 -0.3031 0.0027 0.0017 0.0017

-0.1025 -0.1669 -0.1971 0.0028 0.0018 0.0018

0.0186 -0.0798 -0.1193 0.0029 0.002 0.002

0.0654 0.0106 0.0573 0.0029 0.0021 0.0021

0.0511 0.0808 0.123 0.0032 0.0019 0.0019

0.0839 0.2181 0.3773 0.003 0.0018 0.0018

0.1974 0.2762 0.4352 0.003 0.0018 0.0018

0.3514 0.3437 0.5008 0.0029 0.0018 0.0018

0.422 0.4248 0.5637 0.0029 0.0018 0.0018

0.4679 0.5784 0.6219 0.0029 0.0018 0.0018

0.5337 0.6296 0.6734 0.0023 0.0006 0.0003

0.5958 0.6834 0.7319 0.0023 0.0006 0.0004

0.6477 0.743 0.7871 0.0023 0.0007 0.0006

0.691 0.7913 0.8385 0.0024 0.0009 0.0008

0.8327 0.7363 0.742 0.0025 0.001 0.0009

0.7256 0.6989 0.7173 0.0025 0.0011 0.0011

0.6878 0.6873 0.713 0.0026 0.0013 0.0012

0.6619 0.6901 0.7069 0.0026 0.0014 0.0014

0.6611 0.6819 0.7089 0.0027 0.0015 0.0016

0.6504 0.6909 0.7031 0.0027 0.0017 0.0017

Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient

Coefficient

Coefficient Coefficient of drag of drag of drag

of drag

of drag of lift error error error

error

50000 100000 150000

0.0326 0.0434 0.0387 0.0023 0.0006 0.2952

0.0326 0.0376 0.035 0.0023 0.0006 0.3217

0.0326 0.0364 0.0327 0.0024 0.0006 0.3309

0.0327 0.0352 0.0324 0.0024 0.0006 0.3436

0.033 0.0342 0.0326 0.0024 0.0006 0.3564

0.0383 0.0365 0.0346 0.0024 0.0007 0.3713

0.0384 0.0363 0.0352 0.0024 0.0007 0.3856

0.0436 0.0411 0.0378 0.0024 0.0007 0.4044

0.0484 0.0464 0.0418 0.0024 0.0007 0.4242

0.0526 0.0508 0.0486 0.0024 0.0007 0.4514

0.0558 0.0562 0.052 0.0024 0.0008 0.6259

0.0653 0.0633 0.0716 0.0025 0.0008 0.6862

0.0799 0.0682 0.0781 0.0025 0.0009 0.7291

0.0855 0.0699 0.0855 0.0025 0.0009 0.7998

0.0901 0.0833 0.0936 0.0025 0.001 0.847

0.0983 0.1034 0.1023 0.0025 0.001 0.8826

0.1077 0.1121 0.1102 0.0023 0.0006 0.2909

0.1267 0.1221 0.1205 0.0023 0.0006 0.2832

0.1314 0.138 0.1304 0.0023 0.0006 0.2811

0.1467 0.152 0.1445 0.0023 0.0006 0.2795

0.0622 0.2164 0.2259 0.0023 0.0006 0.2778

0.208 0.2425 0.2527 0.0024 0.0006 0.2768

0.2325 0.2639 0.2716 0.0024 0.0006 0.2765

0.2542 0.2894 0.3017 0.0023 0.0006 0.2772

0.2826 0.3062 0.3217 0.0023 0.0006 0.2778

0.3063 0.3337 0.3366 0.0023 0.0006 0.2808

Reynolds Reynolds

Reynolds

number number

number

at at

at 50000

100000 150000

50816 101120 150090

50798 101000 149450

50551 100900 149670

50123 100750 149090

50132 100430 149310

50488 99780 149350

50452 100170 149030

50338 99820 149070

50348 99860 148450

50169 99390 148560

49958 99300 149030

49811 100070 149350

49723 100710 149760

50013 100760 149560

50031 100350 149660

50410 100180 149720

50652 100630 150050

50735 100590 150580

50615 100580 150670

50657 100400 150390

50397 100490 150500

50169 100240 150350

50335 100040 150300

50482 100380 149810

50466 99960 150270

50594 999900 150380

Average 50356 100300 1497100

The MATLab Code:

function lab2=lift()

clc;

clear;

load lift1.txt;

load lift2.txt;

load lift3.txt;

Chord=.0794;%m

Ucord=.001;%m

Span=.4001;%m

Uspan=.001;%m

Ulift=.001;%N

Utemp=.1;%C

Upress=.01;%1 percent

A=Chord*Span;

% Calculate Re

Temp=lift1(:,3);

Temptwo=lift2(:,3);

Tempthree=lift3(:,3);

L=lift1(:,1);

z=length(L);

Ltwo=lift2(:,1);

Lthree=lift3(:,1);

D=lift1(:,2);

Dtwo=lift2(:,2);

Dthree=lift3(:,2);

R=287;

t=length(Temp);

P_atm=lift1(:,5);

P_atmtwo=lift2(:,5);

P_atmthree=lift3(:,5);

q=lift1(:,4);

qtwo=lift2(:,4);

qthree=lift3(:,4);

P=P_atm + q;

Ptwo=P_atmtwo + qtwo;

Pthree=P_atmthree + qthree;

rho=zeros(size(P));

l=Chord;

Vf=zeros(size(Temp));

mu=1.458e-6;

for i = 1:t

Vf(i)=(mu*(Temp(i)^1.5))/(Temp(i)+110.4);

Vftwo(i)=(mu*(Temptwo(i)^1.5))/(Temptwo(i)+110.4);

Vfthree(i)=(mu*(Tempthree(i)^1.5))/(Tempthree(i)+110.4);

rho(i)=P(i)/(R*Temp(i));

rhotwo(i)=Ptwo(i)/(R*Temptwo(i));

rhothree(i)=Pthree(i)/(R*Tempthree(i));

V(i)=sqrt((2*q(i))/rho(i));

Vtwo(i)=sqrt((2*qtwo(i))/rhotwo(i));

Vthree(i)=sqrt((2*qthree(i))/rhothree(i));

Re(i)=(rho(i)*V(i)*l)/Vf(i);

Retwo(i)=(rhotwo(i)*Vtwo(i)*l)/Vftwo(i);

Rethree(i)=(rhothree(i)*Vthree(i)*l)/Vfthree(i);

i=i+1;

end

Reynolds_Number =sum(Re)/z;

Reynolds_Number_two = sum(Retwo)/z;

Reynolds_Number_three = sum(Rethree)/z;

Temp=lift1(:,3);

Temptwo=lift2(:,3);

Tempthree=lift3(:,3);

R=287;

t=length(Temp);

t=length(Temptwo);

t=length(Tempthree);

P_atm=lift1(:,5);

P_atmtwo=lift2(:,5);

P_atmthree=lift3(:,5);

q=lift1(:,4);

qtwo=lift2(:,4);

qthree=lift3(:,4);

P=P_atm + q;

Ptwo=P_atmtwo + qtwo;

Pthree=P_atmthree + qthree;

rho=zeros(size(P));

rhotwo=zeros(size(Ptwo));

rhothree=zeros(size(Pthree));

l=Chord;

Vf=zeros(size(Temp));

Vftwo=zeros(size(Temptwo));

Vfthree=zeros(size(Tempthree));

mu=1.458e-6;

for i = 1:t

Ua=sqrt((.0794*.001)^2+(.4001*.001^2)^2);

Vf(i)=(mu*(Temp(i)^1.5))/(Temp(i)+110.4);

Vftwo(i)=(mu*(Temptwo(i)^1.5))/(Temptwo(i)+110.4);

Vfthree(i)=(mu*(Tempthree(i)^1.5))/(Tempthree(i)+110.4);

rho(i)=P(i)/(R*Temp(i));

rhotwo(i)=Ptwo(i)/(R*Temptwo(i));

rhothree(i)=Pthree(i)/(R*Tempthree(i));

V(i)=sqrt((2*q(i))/rho(i));

Vtwo(i)=sqrt((2*qtwo(i))/rhotwo(i));

Vthree(i)=sqrt((2*qthree(i))/rhothree(i));

Upatm(i)=P_atm(i)*.01+P_atm(i);

Upatmtwo(i)=P_atmtwo(i)*.01+P_atmtwo(i);

Upatmthree(i)=P_atmthree(i)*.01+P_atmthree(i);

Utemp(i)=Temp(i)+.1;

Utemptwo(i)=Temptwo(i)+.1;

Utempthree(i)=Tempthree(i)+.1;

Uchord=Chord*.001+Chord;

Uspan=Span*.001+Span;

Ulift=.005;

Udrag=.005;

Uq(i)=.001*.001*q(i);

Uqtwo(i)=.001*.001*qtwo(i);

Uqthree(i)=.001*.001*qthree(i);

Umu(i)=((.000002187*(Utemp(i))^.5)/(Utemp(i)+110.4)-(.000001458*Utemp(i)^1.5/(Utemp(i)+110.4)^2)*.1);

Umutwo(i)=((.000002187*(Utemptwo(i))^.5)/(Utemptwo(i)+110.4)-(.000001458*Utemptwo(i)^1.5/(Utemptwo(i)+110.4)^2)*.1);

Umuthree(i)=((.000002187*(Utempthree(i))^.5)/(Utempthree(i)+110.4)-

(.000001458*Utempthree(i)^1.5/(Utempthree(i)+110.4)^2)*.1);

Urho(i)=sqrt((-Upatm(i)/(R*(Temp(i))^2)*.1)^2+(1/(R*Utemp(i)))*1.1^2);

Urhotwo(i)=sqrt((-Upatmtwo(i)/(R*(Temptwo(i))^2)*.1)^2+(1/(R*Utemptwo(i)))*1.1^2);

Urhothree(i)=sqrt((-Upatmthree(i)/(R*(Tempthree(i))^2)*.1)^2+(1/(R*Utempthree(i)))*1.1^2);

Uv(i)=sqrt(.5*(sqrt(2)/(sqrt(q(i)/rho(i))*rho(i))*1.1)^2+(-.5*(sqrt(2)*q(i)/(sqrt(q(i)/rho(i)))*(rho(i))^2)*Urho(i))^2);

Uvtwo(i)=sqrt(.5*(sqrt(2)/(sqrt(qtwo(i)/rhotwo(i))*rhotwo(i))*1.1)^2+(-

.5*(sqrt(2)*qtwo(i)/(sqrt(qtwo(i)/rhotwo(i)))*(rhotwo(i))^2)*Urhotwo(i))^2);

Uvthree(i)=sqrt(.5*(sqrt(2)/(sqrt(qthree(i)/rhothree(i))*rhothree(i))*1.1)^2+(-

.5*(sqrt(2)*qthree(i)/(sqrt(qthree(i)/rhothree(i)))*(rhothree(i))^2)*Urhothree(i))^2);

UCl(i)=sqrt((Ulift/(q(i) * A))^2 + ((-L(i) * Ua)/(q(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-L(i) * Uq(i))/(A * q(i)^2))^2);

UCltwo(i)=sqrt((Ulift/(qtwo(i) * A))^2 + ((-Ltwo(i) * Ua)/(qtwo(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Ltwo(i) * Uqtwo(i))/(A * qtwo(i)^2))^2);

UClthree(i)=sqrt((Ulift/(qthree(i) * A))^2 + ((-Lthree(i) * Ua)/(qthree(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Lthree(i) * Uqthree(i))/(A * qthree(i)^2))^2);

UCd(i)=sqrt((Udrag/(q(i) * A))^2 + ((-D(i) * Ua)/(q(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-D(i) * Uq(i))/(A * q(i)^2))^2);

UCdtwo(i)=sqrt((Udrag/(qtwo(i) * A))^2 + ((-Dtwo(i) * Ua)/(qtwo(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Dtwo(i) * Uqtwo(i))/(A * qtwo(i)^2))^2);

UCdthree(i)=sqrt((Udrag/(qthree(i) * A))^2 + ((-Dthree(i) * Ua)/(qthree(i) * A^2))^2 + ((-Dthree(i) * Uqthree(i))/(A * qthree(i)^2))^2);

Urerho(i)=(((V(i)*.0749)/Vf(i))*Urho(i))^2;

Urerhotwo(i)=(((Vtwo(i)*.0749)/Vftwo(i))*Urhotwo(i))^2;

Urerhothree(i)=(((Vthree(i)*.0749)/Vfthree(i))*Urhothree(i))^2;

UreV(i)=(((Urho(i)*.0749)/Vf(i))*Uv(i))^2;

UreVtwo(i)=(((Urhotwo(i)*.0749)/Vftwo(i))*Uvtwo(i))^2;

UreVthree(i)=(((Urhothree(i)*.0749)/Vfthree(i))*Uvthree(i))^2;

UreUl(i)=(((rho(i)*V(i))/Vf(i))*.001)^2;

UreUltwo(i)=(((rhotwo(i)*Vtwo(i))/Vftwo(i))*.001)^2;

UreUlthree(i)=(((rhothree(i)*Vthree(i))/Vfthree(i))*.001)^2;

UreUmu(i)=(((-rho(i)*V(i)*.0749)/(Vf(i)^2))*Umu(i))^2;

UreUmutwo(i)=(((-rhotwo(i)*Vtwo(i)*.0749)/(Vftwo(i)^2))*Umutwo(i))^2;

UreUmuthree(i)=(((-rhothree(i)*Vthree(i)*.0749)/(Vfthree(i)^2))*Umuthree(i))^2;

Ure(i)=sqrt(Urerho(i)+UreV(i)+UreUl(i)+UreUmu(i));

Uretwo(i)=sqrt(Urerhotwo(i)+UreVtwo(i)+UreUltwo(i)+UreUmutwo(i));

Urethree(i)=sqrt(Urerhothree(i)+UreVthree(i)+UreUlthree(i)+UreUmuthree(i));

i=i+1;

end

uncertainty_Reynolds_Number = sum(Ure)/z

uncertainty_Reynolds_Number_two = sum(Uretwo)/z

uncertainty_Reynolds_Number_three = sum(Urethree)/z

AOA=lift1(:,6);

AOAtwo=lift2(:,6);

AOAthree=lift3(:,6);

AOApositive=zeros(size(16));

Lpositive=zeros(size(16));

AOAnegative=zeros(size(10));

Lnegative=zeros(size(10));

for i = 1:16

AOApositive(i)=AOA(i);

AOApositivetwo(i)=AOAtwo(i);

AOApositivethree(i)=AOAthree(i);

Lpositive(i)=L(i);

Lpositivetwo(i)=Ltwo(i);

Lpositivethree(i)=Lthree(i);

i=1+i;

end

for i = 1:10

AOAnegative(i)=AOA(i+16);

AOAnegativetwo(i)=AOAtwo(i+16);

AOAnegativethree(i)=AOAthree(i+16);

Lnegative(i)=L(i+16);

Lnegativetwo(i)=Ltwo(i+16);

Lnegativethree(i)=Lthree(i+16);

i=1+1;

end

%Coefficient of lift

Clpositive=zeros(size(16));

for i = 1:16

Clpositive(i)=Lpositive(i)/(q(i)*A);

Clpositivetwo(i)=Lpositivetwo(i)/(qtwo(i)*A);

Clpositivethree(i)=Lpositivethree(i)/(qthree(i)*A);

i=1+i;

end

Clnegative=zeros(size(10));

for i = 1:10

Clnegative(i)=Lnegative(i)/(q(i+16)*A);

Clnegativetwo(i)=Lnegativetwo(i)/(qtwo(i+16)*A);

Clnegativethree(i)=Lnegativethree(i)/(qthree(i+16)*A);

i=i+1;

end

FCln=fliplr(Clnegative);

FClntwo=fliplr(Clnegativetwo);

FClnthree=fliplr(Clnegativethree);

FAOAn=fliplr(AOAnegative);

FAOAntwo=fliplr(AOAnegativetwo);

FAOAnthree=fliplr(AOAnegativethree);

Cltotal= [FCln Clpositive];

Cltotaltwo= [FClntwo Clpositivetwo];

Cltotalthree= [FClnthree Clpositivethree];

AOAtotal=[FAOAn AOApositive];

AOAtotaltwo=[FAOAntwo AOApositivetwo];

AOAtotalthree=[FAOAnthree AOApositivethree];

figure(1)

hold on

plot(AOAtotal,Cltotal,'r');

errorbar(AOAtotal,Cltotal,Ulift,'r');

plot(AOAtotaltwo,Cltotaltwo,'g');

errorbar(AOAtotaltwo,Cltotaltwo,Ulift,'g');

plot(AOAtotalthree,Cltotalthree);

errorbar(AOAtotalthree,Cltotalthree,Ulift);

Dpositive=zeros(size(16));

Dnegative=zeros(size(10));

for i = 1:16

Dpositive(i)=D(i);

Dpositivetwo(i)=Dtwo(i);

Dpositivethree(i)=Dthree(i);

i=1+i;

end

for i = 1:10

Dnegative(i)=D(i+16);

Dnegativetwo(i)=Dtwo(i+16);

Dnegativethree(i)=Dthree(i+16);

i=1+1;

end

%Coefficient of Drag

Cdpositive=zeros(size(16));

for i = 1:16

Cdpositive(i)=Dpositive(i)/(q(i)*A);

Cdpositivetwo(i)=Dpositivetwo(i)/(qtwo(i)*A);

Cdpositivethree(i)=Dpositivethree(i)/(qthree(i)*A);

i=1+i;

end

Cdnegative=zeros(size(10));

for i = 1:10

Cdnegative(i)=Dnegative(i)/(q(i+10)*A);

Cdnegativetwo(i)=Dnegativetwo(i)/(qtwo(i+10)*A);

Cdnegativethree(i)=Dnegativethree(i)/(qthree(i+10)*A);

i=i+1;

end

FCdn=fliplr(Cdnegative);

FCdntwo=fliplr(Cdnegativetwo);

FCdnthree=fliplr(Cdnegativethree);

Cdtotal= [FCdn Cdpositive];

Cdtotaltwo= [FCdntwo Cdpositivetwo];

Cdtotalthree= [FCdnthree Cdpositivethree];

figure(3)

Hold on

plot(Cltotal,Cdtotal,'r');

errorbar(Cltotal, Cdtotal, UCd,'r');

plot(Cltotaltwo,Cdtotaltwo,'g');

errorbar(Cltotaltwo, Cdtotaltwo, UCdtwo,'g');

plot(Cltotalthree,Cdtotalthree);

errorbar(Cltotalthree, Cdtotalthree, UCdthree);

end

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dealt with in the paper and state the objectives of the investigation. Newly observed facts and conclusions of the

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