=CHAPTER 7= WORK RELATED STRESS & STRESS MANAGEMENT

Submitted by:

Group 2
Villena, Nelia Mae S. Gaston, Rechelle Ann Cañete, Karine Joy Catacutan, Shantal Cabornay, Wyeth Regner, Julie Mae

Submitted to:

Mrs. Victoria Labadlabad-Ymbong
BA 12N Teacher

What is STRESS? Stress is your body's way of responding to any kind of demand. It can be caused by both good and bad experiences. Stress in humans results from interactions between persons and their environment that are perceived as straining or exceeding their adaptive capacities and threatening their well-being. The element of perception indicates that human stress responses reflect differences in personality, as well as differences in physical strength or general health. Eustress and Distress Where stress enhances function (physical or mental, such as through strength training or challenging work) it may be considered eustress. Persistent stress that is not resolved through coping or adaptation, deemed distress, may lead to anxiety or withdrawal (depression) behavior. General Adaptation Syndrome When people feel stressed by something going on around them, their bodies react by releasing chemicals into the blood. These chemicals give people more energy and strength, which can be a good thing if their stress is caused by physical danger. But this can also be a bad thing, if their stress is in response to something emotional and there is no outlet for this extra energy and strength. Alarm is the first stage. When the threat or stressor is identified or realized, the body's stress response is a state of alarm. During this stage adrenaline will be produced in order to bring about the fight-or-flight response. Resistance is the second stage. If the stressor persists, it becomes necessary to attempt some means of coping with the stress. Although the body begins to try to adapt to the strains or demands of the environment, the body cannot keep this up indefinitely, so its resources are gradually depleted. Exhaustion is the third and final stage in the GAS model. At this point, all of the body's resources are eventually depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function. The initial autonomic nervous system symptoms may reappear (sweating, raised heart rate etc.). If stage three is extended, long term damage may result as the capacity of glands, especially the adrenal gland, and the immune system is exhausted and function is impaired resulting in decompensation. The result can manifest itself in obvious illnesses such as ulcers, depression, diabetes, trouble with the digestive system or even cardiovascular problems, along with other mental illnesses.

STRESSORS: Causes of Stress

Stressors are the causes of stress -- any environmental condition that places a physical or emotional demand on the person. INTERPERSONAL STRESSORS ‡ ‡ Considered the most common group of workplace stressors Include: ± Team dynamics ± Organizational politics ± Bad bosses ± Workplace violence ± Psychological and sexual harassment

Psychological Harassment Repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions or gestures, that affect an employee's dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that result in a harmful work environment for the employee Sexual Harassment Unwelcome conduct -- detrimental effect on work environment or job performance ‡ ‡ Quid pro quo ± employment or job performance is conditional on unwanted sexual relations Hostile work environment

±

an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment

ROLE-RELATED STRESSORS ‡ Role conflict ± Incongruity or incompatibility of expectations associated with the person s role ± Occurs when two roles conflict with each other ± Occurs when personal values conflict with work roles ‡ Role ambiguity ± uncertain task and social expectations ‡ Work overload ± increased hours and intensity TASK CONTROL STRESSORS ‡ Stress increases when employees lack control over: ± How and when tasks are performed ± Pace of work activity Low task control is a higher stressor when job also has high responsibility

‡

ORGANIZATIONAL AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT STRESSORS ‡ Organizational ± Most prevalent is downsizing, which affects layoff survivors ‡ reduced job security ‡ chaos of change ‡ additional workloads ‡ guilt of having a job as others lose theirs Physical Environment ± Due to excessive noise, poor lighting and hazards

‡

WORK-NON WORK STRESSORS ‡ Time-based conflict ± due to business travel, inflexible and/or rotating work schedules ± for women -- still do most household chores Strain-based conflict ± work stress affects home, and vice versa Role behavior conflict ± incompatible work and family roles

‡ ‡

STRESS AND OCCUPATIONS

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN STRESS 1. Different threshold levels of resistance to stressor 2. Use different stress coping strategies 3. Perceive the situation differently ± Knowledge and skill ± Natural optimism and confidence (resilience) Individual Differences Resilience ‡ ‡ Capability of individuals to cope successfully in the face of significant change, adversity, or risk Personality traits ± extroversion, low neuroticism, internal locus of control, high tolerance of change, and high self-esteem Adaptability to stressors ± high emotional intelligence ± good problem-solving skills ± productive coping strategies Inner strength/sense of purpose ± Workplace spirituality

‡

‡

Workaholism ‡ Work addicts (classic workaholics) ± Highly involved in work

‡ ‡

± High drive to succeed ± Low enjoyment of work ± Have Type A behavior pattern -- impatient, competitive, temper, interrupts others Enthusiastic workaholics ± Highly involved in work, high drive to succeed, and high enjoyment of work Work enthusiasts ± High work involvement and work enjoyment, but LOW drive to succeed JOB BURN-OUT PROCESS

CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS

STRESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

Remove the Strategies ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Stress audits -- investigate sources of stress Change corporate culture and reward system Provide environment that supports empowerment Person-job matching Work-life balance initiatives

Work-Life Balance ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Flexible work time Job sharing Teleworking Personal leave Childcare support

Withdraw from the Stress ‡ ‡ Permanent withdrawal ± Remove employees from jobs not aligned with their competencies Temporary withdrawal ± Coffee/lunch breaks ± Karaoke breaks (photo) ± Sabbaticals

Other Stress Management Strategies ‡ ‡ Change stress perceptions ± Self-confidence, self-leadership Control stress consequences ± Relaxation and meditation ± Fitness and wellness programs Social support ± Emotional and informational

‡

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful