You are on page 1of 41


Safety Safety Safety


The Necessity of Programs

Safety and health programs are recommended for Then there are the costs related to schedule
all general industry businesses, but, at this point, delays, added administrative time, lower morale,
are voluntary. increased absenteeism, and poorer customer
relations. These are the indirect costs of
Accidents are more expensive than most people accidents.
realize because of the hidden costs. Some costs
are obvious for example, Workers
Compensation claims which cover medical costs
and indemnity payments for an injured or ill
worker. These are the direct costs of accidents.

But what about the costs to train and compensate

a replacement worker, repair damaged property,
investigate the accident and implement corrective
action, and to maintain insurance coverage? 3
Safety Culture

The best Safety and Health Programs involve 3. Each person accepts personal responsibility
every level of the organization, instilling a safety for ensuring his or her own safety and health.
culture that reduces accidents for workers and
improves the bottom line for managers. 4. Everyone believes he or she has a duty to
protect the safety and health of others.
What are the common characteristics of a safety
and health culture?

1. Management believes that safety and health

on the job is as important a company goal as
other organizational objectives, such as cost
control, quality, and productivity.

2. Individuals within the organization believe

they have a right to a safe and healthy
workplace. 4
Benefits of Effective Safety and Health Programs

1. Reduce work related injuries and illnesses

2. Improve morale and productivity

3. Reduce workers compensation costs 5
Major Elements

An effective occupational safety and health

program includes the following four elements:

2 4
Management Hazard
commitment prevention and
Worksite Safety and
and employee control
analysis health training

1 3 6
Survey Homework

Each Joynus representative must complete a

survey on one designated client agreed upon with
your direct supervisor.

A comprehensive survey is completed to review

each clients safety and health programs. Topics to
be included are:

1. Management & Employee Involvement

2. Worksite Analysis

3. Hazard Prevention & Control

4. Safety and Health Training

Each of these topics are discussed in more depth

in the proceeding sections. 7
Questions 8
Commitment & Involvement

1. Managements commitment and the

employees involvement are complementary
elements that are tied together because one
is not effective without the other.
A plant manager can be totally EMPLOYEES
committed, but if employees follow
blindly or are not involved, problems
will only temporarily be solved.

2. Managements commitment provides

motivation and resources.

3. Employees involvement allows workers to

develop express commitment to safety and
health. 10
Management vs. Employees

Below are 3 steps that management must do in Employees must commit to safety and health
order to carry out the safety and health program. protection for themselves and fellow workers by:

1. Clearly state a worksite safety and health 1. Encouraging employees to get involved in the
policy program and in decisions that affect their
safety and health
2. Establish and communicate a clear goal and
objective for the safety and health program 2. Communicating responsibility for all program
aspects; examples:
3. Involve top management in implementing
the program Inspection or hazard analysis teams

Developing or revising safe work rules

Training new hires or co-workers

Assisting in accident investigations. 11
Questions 12
Worksite Analysis

Pinpointing hazards in the worksite and, once

found, eliminating or controlling those hazards is
essential. A worksite analysis initiated by
management is instrumental.

The Worksite Analysis should at least target these


1. Hazard Identification

2. Hazard Reporting

3. Accident/Incident Investigation 14
Routine Inspections

Routine site safety and health inspections are

designed to catch hazards missed at other stages.
This type of inspection should be done at regular
intervals, generally on a weekly basis. In addition,
procedures should be established that provide a
daily inspection of the work area. 15

You can use a checklist already developed or make They should be done at regular intervals
your own, based on:
In-house inspectors should be trained to
Past problems recognize and control hazards

Standards that apply to your industry Identified hazards should be tracked to

Input from everyone involved
Information from inspections should be used to
Your company's safety practices or rules improve the hazard prevention and control
Important things to remember about inspections

Inspections should cover every part of the

worksite 16
Incident Investigation Reasoning

Six key questions should be answered in the

accident investigation and report: who, what,
when, where, why, and how. Though interviews
with all involved parties are necessary, the
primary purpose of the investigation is to prevent
future occurrences. Therefore, the results of the
investigation should be used to initiate corrective
action. 17
Incident Investigation Additions

1. Investigate accidents and near miss

accidents so that their causes and means for
prevention are identified

2. Analyze injury and illness trends so that

common cause patterns can be identified and
prevented 18
OSHAs Consultation Service: FYI

For small businesses, OSHA-funded, state-run

consultation services which can conduct a
comprehensive survey at no cost. Many workers
compensation carriers and other insurance
companies offer expert services to help their
clients evaluate safety and health hazards. Larger
businesses may find the needed expertise at the
company or corporate level.

See for

more information 19
Questions 20
Hazard Control and Prevention

1. Start by determining that a hazard or

potential hazard exists

2. Where feasible, prevent hazards by effective

design of the job or job site

3. If the hazard cannot be eliminated, use

hazard controls

4. Eliminate or control hazards in a timely

manner 22
Controlling the Hazards

To prevent and control hazards you should use:

1. Engineering controls

2. Administrative controls

3. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

4. Safe work practices communicated:

via training, positive reinforcement

correction of unsafe performance and

enforcement 23
Engineering Controls

Where feasible and appropriate, the first and best

strategy is to control the hazard at its source.
Engineering controls do this, unlike other controls
that generally focus on the employee exposed to
the hazard. The basic concept is that the work
environment and the job itself should be designed
to eliminate hazards or reduce exposure to
hazards. 24
Administrative Controls

Administrative Controls includes exercise breaks

and rotation of workers. These types of controls
are normally used in conjunction with other
controls 25
Personal Protective Equipment

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is a

supplementary method of control via clothing or
equipment when hazard exposure cannot be
engineered completely out, and when other
forms of controls cannot provide sufficient
additional protection.

Remember, PPE is the last level of control! 26
Safe Work Practices

Safe Work Practices includes your companys

general workplace rules and other operation-
specific rules. For example, even when a hazard is
enclosed, exposure can occur when maintenance
is necessary. 27
Questions 28
Safety and Health Training

Training is the backbone of this system. For

management to lead, for personnel to analyze the
worksite for hazards, and for hazards to be
eliminated or controlled, everyone involved must
be trained. The scope of the training depends on
the size and complexity of the worksite and the
hazards involved.

1. Addresses the safety and health

responsibilities of all personnel

2. Incorporate it into other training and job

performance and practices 30
Who Needs Training

1. Target new hires, contract workers, 5. The entire workforce needs periodic
employees who wear PPE and workers in refresher training in responding to
high risk areas. Managers and supervisors emergencies.
should also be included in the training plan.

2. Manager training should emphasize their

important role in visibly supporting the safety
and health program and setting a good

3. Supervisor training should cover company

policies and procedures, hazard detection
and control, accident investigation, handling
of emergencies, and how to train and
reinforce training.

4. Long-term workers who have job changes as

a result of new processes or materials. 31
Safety and Health Orientation

1. Employees must understand the hazards they

may be exposed to and how to prevent harm
to themselves and others from hazard

2. Orientation training must be given to site and

contract workers 32
Supervisor Responsibilities

1. Analyze work to identify potential hazards in

the area of responsibility

2. Maintain physical protections in work areas

3. Reinforce employee training through

performance feedback and, if needed,
enforcement of safe work practices

Managers must understand their safety and

health responsibilities, as described under the
Management Commitment and Employee
Involvement element of the guidelines. 33
Specific Training Needs

1. Hazard recognition

2. Training required in standards

3. Emergency response

4. Accident investigation

5. Emergency drills 34
Questions 35

Effective worker safety and health programs: Hazard prevention and control

1. Reduce work related injuries and illnesses Safety and health training

2. Improve morale and productivity

3. Reduce workers compensation costs

4. Include these elements:

Management commitment and

employee involvement

Worksite Analysis 37
Additional Information: FYI

See OSHA's Voluntary Safety and Health Program

Management Guidelines. Federal Register (1989,
January 26), (54 FR 3904).

It is available at the OSHA technical link for Safety

and Health Programs at 38

Complete the Safety and Health Survey (word

document) on one selected client. Afterwards,
review it with your supervisor and then decide if
you should schedule a meeting with that clients
HR division to review the findings. 40