EINSTEIN
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
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Sir.C.V.Raman Nagar, Tirunelveli12
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Department of Civil Engineering
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CE 43 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
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Lecture notes
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Prepared by
V.TAMILARASI
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UNIT  I
Stress Terms
Stress is defined as force per unit area. It has the same units as pressure, and in fact
pressure is one special variety of stress. However, stress is a much more complex
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quantity than pressure because it varies both with direction and with the surface it acts on.
Compression
Stress that acts to shorten an object.
Tension
Stress that acts to lengthen an object.
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Normal Stress
Stress that acts perpendicular to a surface. Can be either compressional or
tensional.
Shear
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Stress that acts parallel to a surface. It can cause one object to slide over another.
It also tends to deform originally rectangular objects into parallelograms. The
most general definition is that shear acts to change the angles in an object.
Hydrostatic pa
Stress (usually compressional) that is uniform in all directions. A scuba diver
experiences hydrostatic stress. Stress in the earth is nearly hydrostatic. The term
for uniform stress in the earth is lithostatic.
Directed Stress
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Stress that varies with direction. Stress under a stone slab is directed; there is a
force in one direction but no counteracting forces perpendicular to it. This is why
a person under a thick slab gets squashed but a scuba diver under the same
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pressure doesn't. The scuba diver feels the same force in all directions.
In geology we never see stress. We only see the results of stress as it deforms materials.
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Even if we were to use a strain gauge to measure insitu stress in the rocks, we would not
measure the stress itself. We would measure the deformation of the strain gauge (that's
why it's called a "strain gauge") and use that to infer the stress.
Strain Terms
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becomes 9 cm long, the strain is (109)/10 or 0.1 (sometimes expressed in percent, in this
case 10 percent.) Note that strain is dimensionless.
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Strain that is tiny, a few percent or less. Allows a number of useful mathematical
simplifications and approximations.
Finite Strain
Strain larger than a few percent. Requires a more complicated mathematical
treatment than infinitesimal strain.
Homogeneous Strain
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Uniform strain. Straight lines in the original object remain straight. Parallel lines
remain parallel. Circles deform to ellipses. Note that this definition rules out
folding, since an originally straight layer has to remain straight.
Inhomogeneous Strain
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How real geology behaves. Deformation varies from place to place. Lines may
bend and do not necessarily remain parallel.
Elastic
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Material deforms under stress but returns to its original size and shape when the
stress is released. There is no permanent deformation. Some elastic strain, like in
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a rubber band, can be large, but in rocks it is usually small enough to be
considered infinitesimal.
Brittle
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Material deforms by fracturing. Glass is brittle. Rocks are typically brittle at low
temperatures and pressures.
Ductile
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Material deforms without breaking. Metals are ductile. Many materials show both
types of behavior. They may deform in a ductile manner if deformed slowly, but
fracture if deformed too quickly or too much. Rocks are typically ductile at high
temperatures or pressures.
Viscous
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Materials that deform steadily under stress. Purely viscous materials like liquids
deform under even the smallest stress. Rocks may behave like viscous materials
under high temperature and pressure.
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Plastic
Material does not flow until a threshhold stress has been exceeded.
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Viscoelastic
Beams
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A beam is a structural member which carries loads. These loads are most often
perpendicular to its longitudinal axis, but they can be of any geometry. A beam
supporting any load develops internal stresses to resist applied loads. These internal
stresses are bending stresses, shearing stresses, and normal stresses.
Beam types are determined by method of support, not by method of loading. Below are
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three types of beams that will be investigated in this course:
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The first two types are statically determinate, meaning that the reactions, shears and
moments can be found by the laws of statics alone. Continuous beams are statically
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indeterminate. The internal forces of these beams cannot be found using the laws of
statics alone. Early structures were designed to be statically determinate because simple
analytical methods for the accurate structural analysis of indeterminate structures were
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not developed until the first part of this century. A number of formulas have been derived
to simplify analysis of indeterminate beams.
The three basic beam types can be combined to create larger beam systems. These
complex systems can inevitably be distilled to the simple beam types for analysis. The
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beams shown immediately below are combinations of the first two beam types; these
systems are all statically determinate.
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The two beam loading conditions that either occur separately, or in some combination,
are:
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CONCENTRATED
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Either a force or a moment can be applied as a concentrated load. Both are applied at a
single point along the axis of a beam. These loads are shown as a "jump" in the shear or
moment diagrams. The point of application for such a load is indicated in the diagram
above. Note that this is NOT a hinge! It is a point of application. This could be point at
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DISTRIBUTED
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onuniformly distributed load (snow melting to ice at the edge of a roof), but are normally
assumed to act as given. These loads are often replaced by a singular resultant force in
order to simplify the structural analysis.
Introduction
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is also normally required to calculate the deflection on the beam under the
maximum expected load. The determination of the maximum stress results
from producing the shear and bending moment diagrams. To facilitate this
work the first stage is normally to determine all of the external loads.
Nomenclature
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e = strain
= stress (N/m2)
E = Young's Modulus = /e (N/m2)
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y = distance of surface from neutral surface (m).
R = Radius of neutral axis (m).
I = Moment of Inertia (m4  more normally cm4)
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Z = section modulus = I/ymax(m3  more normally cm3)
M = Moment (Nm)
w = Distrubuted load on beam (kg/m) or (N/m as force units)
W = total load on beam (kg ) or (N as force units)
F= Concentrated force on beam (N)
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S= Shear Force on Section (N)
L = length of beam (m)
x = distance along beam (m)
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The unknown forces (generally the support reactions) are then determined
using the equations for plane static equilibrium.
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R2. L  W.a = 0 Therefore R2 = W.a / L
W  R1  R2 = 0 Therefore R1 = W  R2
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Shear and Bending Moment Diagram
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The shear force diagram indicates the shear force withstood by the beam
section along the length of the beam.
The bending moment diagram indicates the bending moment withstood by
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the beam section along the length of the beam.
It is normal practice to produce a free body diagram with the shear diagram
and the bending moment diagram position below
For simply supported beams the reactions are generally simple forces. When
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the beam is builtin the free body diagram will show the relevant support
point as a reaction force and a reaction moment....
Sign Convention
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The sign convention used for shear force diagrams and bending moments is
only important in that it should be used consistently throughout a
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Typical Diagrams
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The bending moment diagram is obtained in the same way except that the
moment is the sum of the product of each force and its distance(x) from the
section. Distributed loads are calculated buy summing the product of the
total force (to the left of the section) and the distance(x) of the centroid of
the distributed load.
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The sketches below show simply supported beams with on concentrated
force.
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The sketches below show Cantilever beams with three different load
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combinations.
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The bending moment at section AD is M and the shear force is S. The
bending moment at BC = M + M and the shear force is S + S.
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The equations for equilibrium in 2 dimensions results in the equations..
Forces.
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S  w.x = S + S
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Therefore making x infinitely small then.. dS /dx =  w
The integral (Area) of the shear diagram between any limits results in the
change of the shearing force between these limits and the integral of the
Shear Force diagram between limits results in the change in bending
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moment...
Torsion (mechanics)
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For solid or hollow shafts of uniform circular crosssection and constant wall thickness,
the torsion relations are:
where:
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is the maximum shear stress at the outer surface.
is the angle of twist in radians.
T is the torque (Nm or ftlbf).
is the length of the object the torque is being applied to or over.
G is the shear modulus or more commonly the modulus of rigidity and is usually
given in gigapascals (GPa), lbf/in2 (psi), or lbf/ft 2.
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J is the torsion constant for the section . It is identical to the polar moment of
inertia for a round shaft or concentric tube only. For other shapes J must be
determined by other means. For solid shafts the membrane analogy is useful, and
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for thin walled tubes of arbitrary shape the shear flow approximation is fairly
good, if the section is not reentrant. For thick walled tubes of arbitrary shape
there is no simple solution, and FEA may be the best method.
the product GJ is called the torsional rigidity.
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The shear stress at a point within a shaft is:
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where:
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Note that the highest shear stress is at the point where the radius is maximum, the surface
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of the shaft. High stresses at the surface may be compounded by stress concentrations
such as rough spots. Thus, shafts for use in high torsion are polished to a fine surface
finish to reduce the maximum stress in the shaft and increase its service life.
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where the o and i subscripts stand for the outer and inner radius of the pipe.
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For a thin cylinder
J = 2 R3 t
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where R is the average of the outer and inner radius and t is the wall thickness.
Failure mode
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The shear stress in the shaft may be resolved into principal stresses via Mohr's circle. If
the shaft is loaded only in torsion then one of the principal stresses will be in tension and
the other in compression. These stresses are oriented at a 45 degree helical angle around
the shaft. If the shaft is made of brittle material then the shaft will fail by a crack
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initiating at the surface and propagating through to the core of the shaft fracturing in a 45
degree angle helical shape. This is often demonstrated by twisting a piece of blackboard
chalk between one's fingers.
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Deflection of Beams
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The deformation of a beam is usually expressed in terms of its deflection from its original
unloaded position. The deflection is measured from the original neutral surface of the
beam to the neutral surface of the deformed beam. The configuration assumed by the
deformed neutral surface is known as the elastic curve of the beam.
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Methods of Determining Beam Deflections
Numerous methods are available for the determination of beam deflections. These
methods include:
1. Doubleintegration method
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2. Areamoment method
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3. Strainenergy method (Castiglianos Theorem)
4. Threemoment equation
5. Conjugatebeam method
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6. Method of superposition
7. Virtual work method
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Of these methods, the first two are the ones that are commonly used.
Introduction
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The stress, strain, dimension, curvature, elasticity, are all related, under
certain assumption, by the theory of simple bending. This theory relates to
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Superposition Principle
The superposition principle is one of the most important tools for solving
beam loading problems allowing simplification of very complicated design
problems..
For beams subjected to several loads of different types the resulting shear
force, bending moment, slope and deflection can be found at any location by
summing the effects due to each load acting separately to the other loads.
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Nomenclature
e = strain
E = Young's Modulus = /e (N/m2)
y = distance of surface from neutral surface (m).
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R = Radius of neutral axis (m).
I = Moment of Inertia (m4  more normally cm4)
Z = section modulus = I/ymax(m3  more normally cm3)
F = Force (N)
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x = Distance along beam
= deflection (m)
= Slope (radians)
= stress (N/m2) pa
Simple Bending
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A straight bar of homogeneous material is subject to only a moment at one
end and an equal and opposite moment at the other end...
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Assumptions
The traverse plane sections remain plane and normal to the longitudinal
fibres after bending (Beroulli's assumption)
The fixed relationship between stress and strain (Young's Modulus)for the
beam material is the same for tension and compression ( = E.e )
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neutral axis
The development lines of A'B' and C'D' intersect at a point 0 at an angle of
radians and the radius of E'F' = R
Let y be the distance(E'G') of any layer H'G' originally parallel to EF..Then
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And the strain e at layer H'G' =
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The accepted relationship between stress and strain is = E.e Therefore
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= E.e = E. y /R
/E=y/R
Therefore, for the illustrated example, the tensile stress is directly related to
the distance above the neutral axis. The compressive stress is also directly
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related to the distance below the neutral axis. Assuming E is the same for
compression and tension the relationship is the same.
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forces. The internal couple resulting from the sum of ( .dA .y) over the
whole section must equal the externally applied moment.
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This can only be correct if (ya) or (y.z.y) is the moment of area of the
section about the neutral axis. This can only be zero if the axis passes
through the centre of gravity (centroid) of the section.
The internal couple resulting from the sum of ( .dA .y) over the whole
section must equal the externally applied moment. Therefore the couple of
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the force resulting from the stress on each area when totalled over the whole
area will equal the applied moment
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From the above the following important simple beam bending relationship
results
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max = ymax. M / I
The factor I /ymax is given the name section Modulus (Z) and therefore
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max = M / Z
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Deflection of Beams
Below is shown the arc of the neutral axis of a beam subject to bending.
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For small angle dy/dx = tan =
The curvature of a beam is identified as d /ds = 1/R
In the figure is small and x; is practically = s; i.e ds /dx =1
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From this simple approximation the following relationships are derived.
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Integrating between selected limits.
It has been proved ref Shear  Bending that dM/dx = S and dS/dx = w =
d2M /dx
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Where S = the shear force M is the moment and w is the distributed load
/unit length of beam. therefore
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Singularity functions can be used for determining the values when the
loading a not simple ref Singularity Functions
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Example  Cantilever beam
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From the equilibrium balance ..At the support there is a resisting moment 
FL and a vertical upward force F.
At any point x along the beam there is a moment F(x  L) = Mx = EI d 2y /dx
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Moment Area Method
Theorem 1
If A and B are two points on a beam the change in angle (radians) between
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the tangent at A and the tangent at B is equal to the area of the bending
moment diagram between the points divided by the relevant value of EI (the
flexural rigidity constant).
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Theorem 2
If A and B are two points on a beam the displacement of B relative to the
tangent of the beam at A is equal to the moment of the area of the bending
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Examples ..Two simple examples are provide below to illustrate these theorems
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The bending moment at A = MA = FL
The area of the bending moment diagram AM = F.L2 /2
The distance to the centroid of the BM diagram from B= x c = 2L/3
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The deflection of B = y b = A M.x c /EI = F.L 3 /3EI
The slope at B relative to the tan at A = b =AM /EI = FL2 /2EI
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Example 2) Determine the central deflection and end slopes of the simply
supported beam as shown..
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E = 210 GPa ......I = 834 cm4...... EI = 1,7514. 10 6Nm 2
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A1 = 10.1,8.1,8/2 = 16,2kNm
A2 = 10.1,8.2 = 36kNm
A2 = 10.1,8.2 = 36kNm
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A1 = 10.1,8.1,8/2 = 16,2kNm
x1 = Centroid of A1 = (2/3).1,8 = 1,2
x2 = Centroid of A2 = 1,8 + 1 = 2,8
x3 = Centroid of A3 = 1,8 + 1 = 2,8
x4 = Centroid of A4 = (2/3).1,8 = 1,2
The slope at A is given by the area of the moment diagram between A and C
divided by EI.
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The deflection at the centre (C) is equal to the deviation of the point A above
a line that is tangent to C.
Moments must therefore be taken about the deviation line at A.
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5.5Three Moment Equation
The continuous beams are very common in the structural design and it is necessary to develop
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simplified force method known as three moment equation for their analysis. This equation is a
relationship that exists between the moments at three points in continuous beam. The points are
considered as three supports of the indeterminate beams. Consider three points on the beam marked as
1, 2 and 3 as shown in Figure 5.25(a). Let the bending moment at these points is , and and
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the corresponding vertical displacement of these points are , and , respectively. Let and
be the distance between points 1 2 and 2 3, respectively.
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pa
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(5.4)
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Where
and
(5.6)
Energy Method
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First law of thermodynamics
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Adiabatic Process
Work of Gravity << External force
change of internal energy of the material resulting from the surface traction
Then andbody force (no gravity)
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body will perform the equal but opposite work in the surrounding during the Unloading
process.
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Energy stored in the body as a result of deformation which is equal to the external
work done.
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Strain energy due to Normal stress
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Similarly by other components of stresses
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Super position
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Ex.3
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Bending strain Energy Normal stress
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pa
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Strain energy due to shear in Beam
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Castigliano Theorem
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pa
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Are corresponding deflection,twists
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and rotation due to
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Ex.1
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pa
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Ex.2
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pa
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Ex.3
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pa
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Ex.4
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pa
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Ex.5
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SHORT COLUMNS
INTRODUCTION: AXIAL COMPRESSION
In this chapter the term column will be used interchangeably with the term
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Three types of reinforced concrete compression members are in use:
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Composite compression members reinforced longitudinally with structural
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and various types of lateral reinforcement.
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The main reinforcement in columns is longitudinal, parallel to the direction
which the strength is governed by the strength of the materials and the geometry
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of the cross section, and slender columns, for which the strength may be
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ASCE survey indicated that 90 percent of columns braced against sidesway and
loads for which both materials remain in their elastic range of response, the steel
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carries a relatively small portion of the total load. The steel stress fs is equal to
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Pacting parallel to (underformed axis to positive column)
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About c :
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About x :
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We know :
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solution
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B.C
x=0, deflection = 0
slope = 0
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x=L, moment = 0
shear force=0
(Buckling).
Buckling Of Long slender column's
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Mechanism of membrane energy transfer to bending strain energy gives rise to Phenomenon of instability
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Then Trival Solution
eflection Curve
case II:
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Substituting in last two equation we get
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Examine the ways of
satisfying these equations
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Objective =
Lowest critical load
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Other possibilities
eliminating c2 from equation (A) & (B)
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Multiplying by
trigonometric identity.
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and expanding in the expression and using the
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We get
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Again trigonometric
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identity
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and
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Which is larger than therefore
Case III:
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x = 0 y = 0 => c2 + c4 = 0 => c2 = 0 => c4 = 0
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x=L pa
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Lowest
n=
Deflection Shape
1
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cn  any arbitrary constant which of course is very small does not violate the condition of
linearly i.e. small deflection.
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Principle of Superposition
The principle of superposition is a central concept in the analysis of structures.
This is applicable when there exists a linear relationship between external forces
and corresponding structural displacements. The principle of superposition may
be stated as the deflection at a given point in a structure produced by several
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deviation of point from the tangent at point
1P 2PCc A is equal to the first moment of the area of the EI
M
diagram between A and C about . Hence, the deflection below
due to loads and acting simultaneously is (by momentarea theorem),
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DEFLECTION OF BEAMS
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when the loads are removed provided the elastic limit of the material is not exceeded.
Deformation in a structure can also occur due to change in temperature & settlement of
supports.
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Deflection in any structure should be less than specified limits for satisfactory
performance. Hence computing deflections is an important aspect of analysis of
structures.
There are various methods of computing deflections. Two popular methods are
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i) Moment area Method, and
ii) Conjugate beam method
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In both of these methods, the geometrical concept is used. These methods are
ideal for statically determinate beams. The methods give a very quick solution when the
beam is symmetrical.
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Let the flexural rigidity of the beam be EI. Due to the load, there would be
bending moment and BMD would be as shown in Figure 2. The deflected shape of the
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beam which is the elastic curve is shown in Figure 3. Let C and D be two points
arbitrarily chosen on the beam. On the elastic curve, tangents are drawn at deflected
positions of C and D. The angles made by these tangents with respect to the horizontal
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are marked as C and D . These angles are nothing but slopes. The change is the angle
between these two tangents is demoted as CD . This change in the angel is equal to the
M
area of the diagram between the two points C and D. This is the area of the shaded
EI
portion in figure 2.
M
Hence CD = C D = Area of diagram between C and D
EI
CD = Area BM 1 (a)
EI
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M
CD = CD EI
dx 1 (b)
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Statement of theorem I:
The change in slope between any two points on the elastic curve for a member
M
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subjected to bending is equal to the area of diagram between those two points.
EI
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Fig. 1
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Fig. 2
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Fig. 3
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Fig. 4
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In figure 4, for the elastic curve a tangent is drawn at point C from which the
vertical intercept to elastic curve at D is measured. This is demoted as KCD. This vertical
intercept is given by
KCD = (Area BM X)CD 2 (a)
EI
M
Where X is the distance to the centroid of the shaded portion of diagram
EI
measured from D. The above equation can be expressed in integration mode as
Mxdx
KCD =
CD
EI
2 (b)
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Equation (2) is the second moment area theorem which is stated as follows.
Statement of theorem II :
The vertical intercept to the elastic curve measured from the tangent drawn to
M
the elastic curve at some other point is equal to the moment of diagram, moment
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EI
being taken about that point where vertical intercept is drawn.
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Sign Convention:
While computing Bending moment at a section, if free body diagram of Left Hand
Portion (LHP) is considered, clockwise moment is taken as positive. If free body
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diagram of Right Hand Portion (RHP) is considered, anticlockwise moment is taken as
positive. While sketching the Bending Moment Diagram (BMD), Sagging moment is
taken as positive and Hogging moment is taken as negative.
M E
= (3)
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I R
From figure 5,
Rd = dx
w
dx
Hence R =
d
w
I
d
M d
=E
I dx
M
d = dx
EI
d is nothing but change in angle over the elemental length dx. Hence to compute
change in angle from C to D,
M
CD = CD
d = dx
EI
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CD
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R
d
pa d
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C D
1 2 d
KCD
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Fig. 5
Fig. 6
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EI
M
Therefore, from C to D = xdx
EI
w
CD
Problem 1 : Compute deflections and slopes at C,D and E. Also compute slopes at A
and B.
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To Compute Reactions:
fx 0 0
A
fy 0 V V
A
B
WW0
VA VB 2W
WL 2L 0
+ M B
0 LVA
3
W
3
WL 2WL
LVA WL
3 3
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VA = W ; VB =W
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+ Mxx = Wx
At x = 0; BM at A = 0
x = L 3 ; BM @ C = WL 3
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Section (2) (2) (LHP, L 3 to 2L 3 )
+ Mxx = Wx W(x  L 3 )
At x = L 3 , BM @ C = W L 3 W L 3 W L 3
At x =
2L
= W L3
, BM @ D = W
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2L
W
2L L
3 3 3 3
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2WL 2WL WL
=
3 3 3
WL
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=
3
Section (3) (3) RHP (0 to L 3 )
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+ Mxx = Wx
At x = 0; BM @ B = 0
WL
At x = L 3 , BM @ D =
3
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This beam is symmetrical. Hence the BMD & elastic curve is also symmetrical.
In such a case, maximum deflection occurs at mid span, marked as E. Thus, the tangent
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To compute C
From first theorem,
CE = Area of BMD between E&C
EI
W L 3 L 6
C~ E =
EI
WL2
=
18EI
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E being zero, C = WL2 ( )
18EI
To compute
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E = Area of BMD between A&E
EI
L WL WL L
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1
2
A~ E =
3 3 3 6
EI
WL2 WL2
18
18
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=
EI
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WL2
E being zero, A = ( )
9EI
ej
WL2
B = ( )
.R
9EI
To compute E
Area of BM X EA
w
KEA =
EI
1 L WL 2 L WL L L L
w
KEA = 2 3 3 3 3 3 6 3 12
EI
WL3 5WL3
= 81 216
EI
1 8WL3 15WL3
=
om
EI 648
23WL3
=
648EI
.c
From figure, KEA is equal to E.
ul
23WL3
Therefore E =
648EI
To compute C
pa
From 2nd theorem
in
KEC =
Area of BMD X CE
EI
ej
=
W
L
3
L
6
L
12
EI
.R
= WL 1
3
EI 216
w
WL3
=
216EI
w
c = E  KEC
w
23WL3 WL3
C
648EI 216EI
23WL3 3WL3
=
648EI
20WL3
=
648EI
5WL3
=
om
162EI
5WL3
= D C
162EI
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w
Problem 2. For the cantilever beam shows in figure, compute deflection and slope at
the free end.
om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w
Consider a section xx at a distance x from the free end. The FBD of RHP is taken into
account.
(RHP +) BM @ XX = MXX = 10 (x) (x/2) = 5x2
At x = 0; BM @ B = 0
om
For the cantilever beam, at the fixed support, there will be no rotation and hence
in this case A = 0. This implies that the tangent drawn to the elastic curve at A will be
the same as the beam line.
From I theorem,
4
M dx
AB = A ~ B =
.c
0
EI
4
1
= 5X 2 dx
ul
EI 0
5 x3 4
= 3 0
EI
5
= 64 320 pa
3EI 3EI
A being zero,
320
B = ( )
in
3EI
To compute B
ej
From II theorem
4
M xdx
.R
KAB =
0
EI
4
1
EI 0
= 5X 2 xdx
w
5 x4 4 5
= 4 0 256
EI 4EI
320
w
=
EI
KAB = B =
320
EI
Problem 3: Find deflection and slope at the free end for the beam shown in figure by
using moment area theorems. Take EI = 40000 KNm 2
om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
= 3x2
At x = 0, BM @ A = 0
x = 4m; BM @ C = 3(16) =  48kNm
Region CB: (x = 4 to x = 8)
om
Taking RHP +, moment @ section = 24 (x2)
= 24x+48;
.c
To compute B:
First moment area theorem is used. For the elastic curve shown in figure. We
ul
know that A = 0.
M dx
AB = A ~ B =
EI
=
1 4
EI 0
3x 2
dx
1 8
24x 48dx
EI 4
pa
3 x
A 3
4
1
24 x 2 48x 84
2
in
3 0
EI EI
64 1
= 1264 16 488 4
ej
EI EI
= 0.0112 Radians
= 0.0112 Radians ( )
.R
To compute B
w
Mxdx
K AB
EI
4 8
3x 2 xdx 24x 48xdx
1 1
w
=
EI 0 EI 4
3 x
1
24x 48x
w
4 4 3 8 2 8
= 4 0 3 4 2 4
EI EI
3
= 256 1 24 512 64 2464 16
4EI EI 3
192 1
= 3584 1152
EI EI
2624
= 0.0656m 0.0656m
EI
om
Problem 4: For the cantilever shown in figure, compute deflection and at the points
where they are loaded.
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w
To compute B :
BA = B ~ A =
1 1
2 2.537.5 12 1.515
EI
58.125
B = ( )
om
EI
C =
1 1
2 1.537.5 15 12 1.515
EI
50.625
= ( )
.c
EI
B =
1
2 2.537.5 2.5
2
3 1 1
2 1.5451
EI EI
ul
100.625
=
EI
=
100.625
EI
pa
2 1.537.5 150.857 2 1.5451
1 1
EI
C =
in
1
C =
44.99
ej
EI
.R
STRAIN ENERGY
Introduction
w
deflect and the member deform. The applied load produce work at the joints to which
they are applied and this work is stored in the structure in the form of energy known as
Strain Energy. If the material of structure is elastic, then gradual unloading of the
w
When external loads are applied to a skeletal structure, the members develop
internal force F in the form of axial forces (P), shear force (V) , bending moment
(M) and twisting moment (T). The internal for F produce displacements e. While
under goint these displacements, the internal force do internal work called as Strain
Energy
Figure 1 shows the force displacement relationship in which Fj is the internal
om
force and ej is the corresponding displacement for the jth element or member of the
structure.
Fj
Complementry SE(Ui)j
.c
Fj+Fj
ul
Fj
Strain Energy(Ui)j
ej ej+ej
pa ej
in
Fig.1 FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONSHIP
The element of internal work or strain energy represented by the area the strip
ej
Ui Fje j .....(1)
.R
Strain energy stored in the jth element represted by the are under force
displacement curve computed as :
w
.....(3)
j1 j1
The area above the forcedisplacement curve is called Complementary Energy.
For jth element, the complementary strain energy is represented by the area of the strip
with vertical shading in Fig.1 and expressed as
Ui e jFj .....(4)
Complementary strain energy of the entire structure is
(Ui ) j e jdFj .....(5)
om
Complementary strain energy of the entire structure is
m
Ui e dF
j1
j j .....(6)
.c
complimentary energies are equal
Ui Ui .....(7)
ul
4.3 Strain energy expressions
Expression for strain energy due to axial force, shear force and bending moment
is provided in this section
pa
4.3.1 Strain energy due to Axial force
in
ej
A,E L
.R
dL
w
Fig.2
w
w
A straight bar of length L , having uniform cross sectional area A and E is the Youngs
modulus of elasticity is subjected to gradually applied load P as shown in Fig. 2. The bar
deforms by dL due to average force 0+(P/2) = P/2. Substituting Fj = P/2 and dej = dl in
equation 2, the strain energy in a member due to axial force is expressed as
P
(Ui ) P dL ....... (8)
2
om
From Hookes Law, strain is expressed as dL P
where,
dx E A
PLx
dL
.c
Hence .............(9)
AE
Substituting equation 9 in 8, strain energy can be expressed as
ul
L
P 2dx
(Ui ) P ....... (10)
0
2AE pa
For uniform cross section strain energy expression in equation 10 can be modified as
P2L
(Ui ) P ....... (10 a)
in
2AE
If P, A or E are not constant along the length of the bar, then equation 10 is used instead
ej
of 10a.
4.3.1 Strain energy due to Shear force
.R
dx
dy
dy
w
dx
w
Fig.4
Fig.3
w
Vx
......(11)
ArG
om
Where, Ar= Reduced cross sectional area and G= shear modulus
Shear deformation of element is expressed as
Vx dx
de v .............(12)
.c
ArG
Substituting Fj = Vx/2, dej = dev in equation (2) strain energy is expressed as
ul
L 2
V dx
(U i ) V x
pa ....... (13)
0
2A r G
4.3.2 Strain energy due to Bending Moment
in
An element of length dx of a beam is subjected to uniform bending moment M.
Application of this moment causes a change in slope d is expressed as
ej
dx M x dx
de M d ......(14)
R EI
.R
1 Mx
Where , , Substituting Fj = Mx/2, dej= deM in equation (2), Strain energy due to
w
R EI
bending moment is expressed as
w
2
M dx L
(Ui ) M x ....... (15)
w
0 2EI
Potential energy is the capacity to do work due to the position of body. A body of weight
W held at a height h possess an energy Wh. Theorem of minimum potential energy
states that Of all the displacements which satisfy the boundary conditions of a
structural system, those corresponding to stable equilibrium configuration make the
total potential energy a relative minimum. This theorem can be used to determine the
om
critical forces causing instability of the structure.
Law of Conservation of Energy
From physics this law is stated as Energy is neither created nor destroyed. For the
purpose of structural analysis, the law can be stated as If a structure and external
.c
loads acting on it are isolated, such that it neither receive nor give out energy, then
the total energy of the system remain constant. With reference to figure 2, internal
ul
energy is expressed as in equation (9). External work done W e = 0.5 P dL. From law of
conservation of energy Ui+We =0. From this it is clear that internal energy is equal to
external work done.
Principle of Virtual Work:
pa
Virtual work is the imaginary work done by the true forces moving through imaginary
in
displacements or vice versa. Real work is due to true forces moving through true
displacements. According to principle of virtual work The total virtual work done by
ej
U M'd L L M'M dx
dU i ; Ui
0 OF ENGG0
EINSTEIN COLLEGE 2 0 2 EIOF CIVIL ENGG
DEPT
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SUBJECT CODE: CE 43
Where, M= bending moment due to real load P. From principle of conservation of energy
P' D L M'M dx
om
We=Wi
2 0 2 EI
.c
A C D B
ul
a
Fig.6a
pa x
L
P P
C D
in
A C D B
ej
a
Fig.6b
.R
x
L
w
If P=1 then
L M'M dx
D (16)
0 EI
w
Similarly for deflection in axial loaded trusses it can be shown that n P' P dx
(17)
0 AE
w
Where,
= Deflection in the direction of unit load
P = Force in the ith member of truss due to unit load
P = Force in the ith member of truss due to real external load
om
Castiglianos Theorems:
Castigliano published two theorems in 1879 to determine deflections in structures and
redundant in statically indeterminate structures. These theorems are stated as:
1st Theorem : If a linearly elastic structure is subjected to a set of loads, the partial
.c
derivatives of total strain energy with respect to the deflection at any point is equal
to the load applied at that point
ul
U
Pj j 1,2, ..... N (18) pa
j
2nd Theorem: If a linearly elastic structure is subjected to a set of loads, the partial
derivatives of total strain energy with respect to a load applied at any point is equal
to the deflection at that point
in
U
j j 1,2,....... N (19)
Pj
ej
The first theorem is useful in determining the forces at certain chosen coordinates. The
.R
conditions of equilibrium of these chosen forces may then be used for the analysis of
statically determinate or indeterminate structures. Second theorem is useful in computing
the displacements in statically determinate or indeterminate structures.
w
Bettis Law:
It states that If a structure is acted upon by two force systems I and II, in equilibrium
w
separately, the external virtual work done by a system of forces II during the
deformations caused by another system of forces I is equal to external work done by
w
I II
Fig. 7
om
A body subjected to two system of forces is shown in Fig 7. Wij represents work done by
ith system of force on displacements caused by jth system at the same point. Bettis law
can be expressed as Wij = Wji, where Wji represents the work done by jth system on
displacement caused by ith system at the same point.
.c
Numerical Examples
1. Derive an expression for strain energy due to bending of a cantilever beam of
ul
length L, carrying uniformly distributed load w and EI is constant
w
pa 1
in
x
1
ej
Solution:
wx 2
Bending moment at section 11 is M x 
.R
2
2
L M dx
Strain energy due to bending is (Ui ) M x
0 2EI
w
2
 wx 2
dx
L
L
L w 2x 4 w 2x5
2
w
Ui dx
0 2EI 0 8EI 40EI 0
w
w 2 L5
Ui Answer
40EI
2. Compare the strain energies due to three types of internal forces in the
rectangular bent shown in Fig. having uniform cross section shown in the same Fig.
Take E=2 x 105 MPa, G= 0.8 x 105 MPa, Ar= 2736 mm2
12kN
om
B C
12 mm 240 mm
5 4m
.c
m
ul
A 120 mm
Solution:
pa
Step 1: Properties
in
120 * 2403 108 * 2163
A=120 * 240 108 * 216 = 5472 mm2, I  47.54 x 106 mm 4
12 12
E= 2 * 105 MPa ; G= 0.8 * 105 MPa ; Ar = 2736 mm2
ej
om
Step 5: Comparison
Total Strain Energy = (Ui)p + (Ui)V+ (Ui)M
Total Strain Energy =328.94 +1315.78 +767.34 x 103
= 768.98 x 103 Nmm
.c
Strain Energy due to axial force, shear force and bending moment are 0.043%, 0.17% &
99.78 % of the total strain energy.
ul
3. Show that the flexural strain energy of a prismatic bar of length L bent into a complete
2 EI
circle by means of end couples is
L2 pa
in
R
M M
ej
L
.R
Solution:
Circumference = 2 R =L or
w
L L
2
(Ui ) M
2EI 2EI L
om
4. Calculate the strain energy in a truss shown in Fig. if all members are of same cross
sectional area equal to 0.01m2 and E=200GPa
30 kN 30 kN
.c
B D F
3m
ul
A H
4m C 4m pa E 4m G 4m
Solution: To calculate strain energy of the truss, first the member forces due to external
in
force is required to be computed. Method of joint has been used here to compute member
forces. Member forces in the members AB, BC, BD, BE, CE and DE are only computed
ej
The forces acting at the joint is shown in Fig. and the forces in members are computed
considering equilibrium condition at joint A
w
w
w
FAB
FAC
om
RA= 30 kN
.c
ul
Fy=0; FABsin+30=0; FAB=50kN (Compression)
Fx=0; FABcos + FAC=0; FAC=40kN (Tension)
pa
ii) Joint C: The forces acting at the joint is shown in Fig. and the forces in
members are computed considering equilibrium condition at joint C
FCB
in
ej
FCE
FAC=40kN
.R
Fy=0; FCB=0;
Fx=0; FCE  40=0; FCE=40kN(Tension)
w
iii) Joint B: The forces acting at the joint is shown in Fig. and the forces in
w
30kN
FBD
om
FAB= 50kN FBE
FCB=0
.c
Fy=0; 30+50 sinFBEsin=0; FBE=0
Fx=0; 50 cos  FBD=0; FBD=40kN (Compression)
ul
iv) Joint D: The forces acting at the joint is shown in Fig. and the forces in
members are computed considering equilibrium condition at joint D
FBD=40
pa
FDE
FDF
B 40 D 40 F
.R
50 0 0 0 0 50
0
A H
40 C 40 E 40 G 40
w
w
P2L
4 * 402 * 4 2(50) 2 5 2 * (40)2 * 4
n 13 1
(Ui ) P 6
i 1 2AE 2 * 2 *10
(Ui)p=15.83*103 kNm
5. Determine the maximum slope and maximum deflection in a cantilever beam of span
L subjected to point load W at its free end by using strain energy method. EI is constant
om
1
W
A B
x
.c
L
1
ul
Solution:
i) Maximum Deflection
BM at 11 Mx= Wx
From 2nd theorem of Castigliaino U
pa
M x
L
W
M x dx
B
M 0 EI
M L (x) (Wx) dx
in
 x, B
W 0 EI
L
WL 2 W x3 WL3
B
ej
x dx Answer
EI 0 EI 3 0
3EI
1
W
w
B
A M
x
w
L
1
om
L
WL W x2 WL2
B x dx Answer
EI 0 EI 2 0
2EI
6. Calculate max slope and max deflection of a simply supported beam carrying udl of
intensity w per unit length throughout its length by using Castiglianos Theorem
.c
ul
w
pa
L
in
ej
.R
w
w
w
i) Maximum Slope:
Maximum slope occurs at support. A virtual moment M is applied at A.
om
1
w
M
x
L
.c
1
RA RB
ul
wL M' wL M'
Reactions: RA  ; RB
2 L pa 2 L
BM at 11 wL M' wx 2 M x x
Mx  x M' and 1
in
2 L 2 M' L
U 1 L wL M' wx 2 x
A (  )x M' 1  dx
ej
M' EI 0 2 L 2 L
Put M=0 1 L wL 2wx 2 wx3
.R
A ( x dx
EI 0 2 2 2L
L
w Lx 2 x3 x4
w
A ( x
2EI 2 3 4L 0
w
wL3
A Answer
w
24EI
ii) Maximum Deflection:
Maximum Deflection occurs at mid span. A virtual downward load W is applied at
midspan.
1 w
M
x L/2
om
1 L
RA RB
Reactions: wL W' wL W'
RA ; RB
2 2 2 2
.c
wL W' wx 2 M x x
BM at 11 Mx x and for Region AC
2 2 2 W' 2
ul
U 2 L/2 wL W' wx 2 x
C ( )x dx
W' EI 0 2 L 2 2
Put W=0 C
2w L/2
(Lx 2
pa
 x 3
dx w
Lx 3

x 4 L/2
4EI 0 2EI 3 4 0
in
L/2
w L L 4 4
C 
ej
2EI 24 64 0
5wL4
.R
max C Answer
384EI
w
w
w
om
This is another elegant method for computing deflections and slopes in beams.
The principle of the method lies in calculating BM and SF in an imaginary beam called as
Conjugate Beam which is loaded with M/EI diagram obtained for real beam. Conjugate
Beam is nothing but an imaginary beam which is of the same span as the real beam
carrying M/EI diagram of real beam as the load. The SF and BM at any section in the
conjugate beam will represent the rotation and deflection at that section in the real beam.
.c
Following are the concepts to be used while preparing the Conjugate beam.
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
om
.c
ul
pa
Problem 1 : For the Cantilever beam shown in figure, compute deflection and rotation
at (i) the free end (ii) under the
in
ej
.R
w
w
w
load
om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
Conjugate Beam:
w
SF f x
 150
3 1 2 225
EI EI
BM @ C=
 150
3 12 2 450 ;
EI EI
Similarly by taking a section at A and considering FBD of LHP;
225
SF @ A =
EI
om
225
BM @ A = 2 2 900
EI EI
SF @ a section in Conjugate Beam gives rotation at the same section in Real Beam
.c
BM @ a section in Conjugate Beam gives deflection at the same section in Real Beam
225
ul
Therefore, Rotation @ C = ( )
EI
Deflection @ C=
450
pa
EI
225
Rotation @ A = ( )
EI
in
Deflection @ A =
900
ej
EI
.R
w
w
w
Problem 2: For the beam shown in figure, compute deflections under the loaded
points. Also compute the maximum deflection. Compute, also the slopes at supports.
om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
Note that the given beam is symmetrical. Hence, all the diagrams for this beam should be
symmetrical. Thus the reactions are equal & maximum deflection occurs at the mid span.
The bending moment for the beam is as shown above. The conjugate beam is formed and
w
it is shown above.
For the conjugate beam:
w
= 1
2 2 12 60EI 3 4 30EI
To compute C :
A section at C is placed on conjugate beam. Then considering FBD of LHP;
om
+ BM @ C=
150
3 12 3 60 1
EI EI
450 90 360
=
.c
EI EI EI
C
360
;
ul
EI
D = C (Symmetry)
To compute E:
pa
A section @ E is placed on conjugate beam. Then considering FBD of
LHP;
in
+ BM @ E=
150
5 12 3 60 3 30 21
EI EI EI
ej
i.e E =
750 270 60 420
.R
EI EI EI EI
150 150
A = ( ) B = ( )
EI EI
w
w
w
Problem 3: Compute deflection and slope at the loaded point for the beam shown in
figure. Given E = 210 Gpa and I = 120 x 106mm4. Also calculate slopes at A and B.
om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w
Note that the reactions are equal. The BMD is as shown above.
1 60 1 120
fy 0 V VB' 3
'
3 0
2 EI 2 EI
A
90 180
VA' VB' 0;
EI EI
om
270
VA' VB'
EI
1 60 1 120
m VA' 6 34
0 32 0
.c
2 EI 2 EI
B'
ul
EI EI EI
120 150
VA' V '
EI ;
B
pa
EI
30
EI
120
3 1 60 31
.R
+ BM @ C =
EI 2 EI
360 90 270
w
EI EI EI
270
Deflection @ C = = 0.0107 m
25200
= 10.71 mm ( )
A = 4.76 X 103 Radians
om
B = 5.95 X 103 Radians:
Problem 4: Compute slopes at supports and deflections under loaded points for the
beam shown in figure.
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w
fy 0 V A VB 150
om
600
VA 66.67kN VB 83.33kN
9
.c
BM at (1) (1) = 66.67 x
At x = 0; BM at A = 0, At x = 3m, BM at C = 200 kNm
ul
BM at (2) (2) = 66.67 x 50 (x3) = 16.67 x + 150
At x = 3m; BM at C = 200 kNm, At x = 6m, BM at D = 250 kNm
At x = 0, BM at B = 0,
pa
BM at (3)(3) = 83.33 x (x is measured from B)
At x = 3m, BM at D = 250 kNm
1 25 1 83.33
3 3
2 EI 2 EI
.R
762.5
EI
+ M '
0
w
2 EI EI 2 EI 2 EI
w
3850
9VA'
w
EI
427.77
VA'
EI
334.73
VB'
EI
334.73
427.77 ( ) B ( )
A
EI EI
To Compute C :
om
A Section at C is chosen in the conjugate beam:
+ BM at C =
427.77
3 1 3 200 1
EI 2 EI
.c
983.31
=
EI
ul
C =
983.31
EI
To compute D:
pa
Section at D is chosen and FBD of RHP is considered.
in
+ BM at D =
334.73
3 1 3 83.33 1
EI 2 EI
ej
879.19
=
EI
.R
D
879.19
EI
w
w
w
Problem 5: Compute to the slope and deflection at the free end for the beam shown in
figure.
om
.c
ul
pa
in
ej
.R
w
w
w
The Bending moment for the real beam is as shown in the figure. The conjugate beam
also is as shown.
om
5x 2
4
SF @ A = dx
0 EI
5 x 5
64
.c
3 4
= 3 0
EI 3EI
320
ul
=
3EI
A =
320
3EI
( )
pa
1 4
BM @ A = 5x 2 x dx
in
EI 0
4
 5 x4 5
ej
= 256
EI 4 0 4EI
.R
A =
320
EI
w
w
w