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Motion Vector Technique

1

S. S. S. Ranjit, 1S. A. Anas, 2S. K. Subramaniam, 1K. C. Lim, 1A. F. I. Fayeez, 1A. R. Amirah

1

Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Faculty of Electronics and Computer Engineering,

1

Department of Computer Engineering,

2

Department of Electronics Industry,

Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia.

ranjit.singh@utem.edu.my

Abstract Surveillance video camera monitoring system has II. BACKGROUND STUDY

gained a lot of interest among the research community

especially in monitoring vehicle speed. Apart from vehicle Numerous researches have been conducted in order to

speed detection, this algorithm can be used to monitor the detect or estimate the speed of a moving vehicle using the

traffic condition along the road or highway. The existing image processing technique. Research such as [1-4] presents

surveillance video cameras are rarely used to measure the various papers on the real-time vehicle detection and speed

vehicle speed and estimate the vehicle. A MATLAB algorithm estimation. Existing methods applied into vehicle speed

is proposed and developed to associate the developed algorithm detection, including speed detection based on digital aerial

with real-time video sequence and images. Development of images [5], combination value [6] and frame differencing [7]

vehicle speed detection algorithm is based on the vector-valued

to produce the most successful outcome. Digital aerial images

function and motion vector technique that estimates the

velocity of moving vehicle. [5, 8] or camera UltraCamd [9] is used in image processing

using the image extraction and detection visually and

Index Terms Speed Detection, Vehicle Detection, Vector- automated extraction and detection [5, 9]. The computed result

Valued Function, Vehicle Speed, Moving Vehicle is also compared with each other and is presented in [5, 9].

Block extraction and subtraction technique is known as

one of the simplest motion detection technique. This

technique has been adopted into video sequence coding for

vehicle speed detection based on current and previous

images. Each of the image is divided into non-overlapping

square blocks to compare with the respective blocks in the

current frame and previous image, each blocks are subtracted

to estimate the vehicle speed.

Fig. 1 system comprises of three elements for vehicle

speed detection and output is the estimated speed calculated.

Surveillance video camera is used as an input for this system

to capture the video and saved into a designated folder in

the hard drive. MATLAB is the main platform to develop the

vehicle speed detection algorithm. The vector-valued

function is used to analyze the changes in the block division

based on two consecutive images.

This paper presents a new vehicle speed detection

Figure 2. Algorithm development architecture for vehicle speed

MATLAB algorithm. This algorithm is to detect the vehicle detection

speed based on real-time video sequence through an offline

Video consists sequence of static images representing

based algorithm to reduce the elapsed processing time.

scenes in motion at one time [9]. The video encoding process

includes the transformation of the video into sequence of

static images. Two extracted images are selected to apply the

2012 ACEEE 67

DOI: 02.AETAEE.2012.3.37

Full Paper

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Electrical & Electronics 2012

algorithm. Fig. 2 describe the development process of vehicle

speed detection algorithm. Standalone images is segmented

into 16 16 small blocks using the division technique. Each

segmented block is extracted in the video coding to be

compared with respective to blocks in current image and

previous image. This blocks are compared to detect the

changes in pixels which is used to estimate the velocity of

the respective moving vehicle.

A. Video Image Processing

Figure 4. Block segmentation and extraction between two

respective images

Block subtraction = Block 2 Block 1 (1)

In image processing processes a video is extracted into

sequences of still images. The images are segmented into

region of interest known as 16 16 blocks. The motion vector

technique is applied after the block extraction and subtraction

is use to estimate the pixels changes among the two blocks

to measure the speed of the moving vehicle. The vector-

valued function is applied into the motion vector to

demonstrate the vehicle speed detection algorithm for the

video from surveillance cameras.

Figure 3. Vehicle speed detection algorithm organization (r, s) and MV (r, s) in current image

The algorithm ccomputational and elapsed processing Assume that the block size 16 16 simplified as below:

time to process the images increases, block extraction and Let A(r, s) denotes the block size W W in the r column and

subtraction technique [10] is applied into region of interest s row of the current frame.

which is block based estimate is concentrated instead the Let MV(r, s) = [MVx (r, s), MVy (r, s)]t denotes the motion

complete video sequence or images. vector of A(r, s).

Two blocks A(r, s) and A(r, s) in the current frame illustrated

in Fig. 5 when both lie on the same object.

Based on Fig. 5, the two blocks with motion vector is

calculated.

(r W r W) [MVx (r, s)] [MVx (r, s)] + (s W s W) [MVy (r,

s)] [MVy (r, s)] = 0 (2)

2012 ACEEE 68

DOI: 02.AETAEE.2012.3.37

Full Paper

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Electrical & Electronics 2012

[r r, ss] [MV (r,s) [MV(r,s)] = 0 (3)

The method denotes the general motion vector function.

This method is applied to analyze the moving vehicle from

Point A to Point B. The average motion velocity, V of moving

object through a displacement (d) during a time interval

(t) is described by the formula, V = (d) / (t) where:

V - the velocity

d - the change in displacement and

t - the change in time

velocity of moving vehicle

If a moving vehicle travels from Point A to Point B at

distance of 30 meters in 3 seconds, the motion velocity is

calculated as following.

t0 = 0 seconds; t1 = 3 second (s)

t = t1-t0 = (3-0) second (s)

= 3second (s)

d = 30 meter (s)

V = (d)/(t) = 30 meter (s) / 3 second (s)

= 10 meter/second Figure 8. Vector velocity calculation and estimation

C. Vector-valued function for vehicle motion velocity Velocity, VR = (V1)2 + (V2)2

estimation = (V12 + V2)2

The vector-valued function is an important element in D. Digital Video Recorder (DVR) card setting

motion vector technique. One or more vector variables can In order to associate the sequence images with vector-

be verify using vector-valued function. The vector-valued valued function algorithms, a digital video recorder (DVR)

function is to verify the respective number of changes in card is required. The DVR card installation is to capture the

blocks within two consecutive images. The input of a vector- video from the surveillance cameras and save into a

valued function could be a scalar or a vector while the output designated folder in the hard drive. DVR cards come in

of vector-valued function is a vector. The vector-valued variations of up to 32 channels with various frame rates

function comprises of n scalar functions for each of the

depending on the record frames. Other than that, DVR card

coordinates in the image. The vehicle velocity calculation

has high compression rates and real-time video recording.

and estimation of the moving vehicle is achieved when vector-

DVR card can support recording qualities up to 60 frames per

valued function is applied.

seconds (fps).

The vector-valued function formula is described as r(t) =

1) Calculation for (DVR) card: Time for (DVR) card can

f (t) i + g(t) j + h(t) k where:

capture for 1 frame.

f, g and h are called scalar function

1 frame = 1 / 60 fps

r(t) is component function and

= 0.0167 second (s)

i, j and k are called unit vectors

2012 ACEEE 69

DOI: 02.AETAEE.2012.3. 37

Full Paper

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Electrical & Electronics 2012

vector. Tangent vector formula can be described as;

(4)

declared as a real symbolic variable. Next, define r, and take

its derivative. The equation differential equation is defined

by differentiating each coordinate with respect to the

parameter to obtain the vehicle velocity.

>> t=syms (t, real);

Figure 9. Motion of moving vehicle from Point A to Point B >> r=[t,t^2]

2) Distance estimation: Assume the velocity of moving >> rp=diff(r)

vehicle is at 110 kilometer per hour (km/h). Based on Fig. 11, the tangent vector unit is examined in

MATLAB. The vector-value function path is considered as

110 km/h = 110 1000 meter (m) r(t) = < t, t2 > and the time interval for tangent vector unit is [1,

60 60 seconds (s) 5].

= 110 000 meter (m) This following condition is associated with MATLAB

3600 seconds (s) commands;

= 30.56 meter per seconds (m/s) >> t=linspace(1,5);

Distance, d = 30.56 m/s 0.0167 s >> x=t; y=t.^2;

= 0.51 meter (m) >> plot(x,y)

In order to measure and estimate vehicle velocity, the

derivation of r(t) is calculated and the magnitude of the vehicle

velocity is obtained through calculations as shown.

is divided by the magnitude.

Figure 10. Moving vehicle from Point A to Point B at 0.51 meters

IV. DISCUSSION

Vector-valued function can measure and estimate the

vehicle velocity as well as the magnitude of moving vehicle.

Velocity is known as vector while magnitude is an

instantaneous speed at magnitude of each point that has

direction of motion.

The following MATLAB commands are:

>> t=1:1:5;

>> x=t; y=t.^2;

>> xT=2./sqrt(4+16*t.^2);

>> yT=4*t./sqrt(4+16*t.^2);

>> quiver(x,y,xT,yT,0)

V. CONCLUSION

Motion vector technique can be involve into video-based

algorithm to measure and estimate moving vehicle velocity

as well as vehicle speed estimation can be determined through

video image processing. Existing algorithms and systems

involves come complicated computational processes which

are time consuming and required rapid maintenance for

operation. The existing surveillance cameras are not used to

analyze the images or estimate the vehicle speed and velocity.

Developing and integrating a MATLAB based algorithm to

Figure 11. Moving vehicle position and velocity vector from

process the video images to measure as well as estimate the

Point A to Point B

velocity of vehicles would reduce the previously developed

2012 ACEEE 70

DOI: 02.AETAEE.2012.3.37

Full Paper

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Electrical & Electronics 2012

Detection and Tracking Using Stereo Vision and Multi-View

ACKNOWLEDGMENT AdaBoost, 14th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent

Transportation Systems, pp. 1255-1260, 2011.

This research is funded by the Fundamental Research [5] Y. Fumio, L. Wen and T. V. Thuy, Vehicle Extraction And

Grant Scheme (FRGS) - Grant No: FRGS/1/2011/FKEKK/TK02/ Speed Detection From Digital Aerial Images IEEE

1 F00114, Malaysia. This research is conducted at Universiti International Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium,

Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. We would like to express our pp. 1134-1137, 2008.

gratitude to the Malaysia of Higher Education (MOHE) as [6] G. R. Arash, D. Abbas and R. K Mohamed, Vehicle speed

detection in video image sequence using CVS method

well as Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for the

International Journal of the Physical Sciences, Volume 5 (17),

funding. pp. 2555-2563, 2010.

[7] H. A. Rahim, U. U. Sheikh, R. B. Ahmad, A. S. M. Zain and

REFERENCES W. N. F. W. Ariffin, Vehicle Speed Detection Using Frame

Differencing for Smart Surveillance System 10th International

[1] Y. Zhang, C. Geng, D. Yao, L. Peng, Real-time Traffic Object

Conference on Information Science, Signal Processing and

Detection Technique Based on Improved Background

their Applications, 2010.

Differencing Algorithm, The 12 thWorld Conference on

[8] Y. Fumio, S. Daisuki and M. Yoshihisa, Use of Digital Aerial

Transportation Research, pp. 1-11, July 2010.

Images to Detect Damages Due to Earthquakes The 14th

[2] L. A. Alexandre, Aurlio C. Campilho, A 2D Image Motion

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, October 2008.

Detection Method Using a Stationary Camera.

[9] Y. Fumio, L. Wen and T. V. Thuy, Automated Extraction of

[3] M. S. Temiz , S. Kulur, S. Dogan, Real Time Speed Estimation

Vehicle and their Speed from Digital Aerial Images, Proceeding

from Monocular Video, International Archives of the

27th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, 6p, 2007.

Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information

[10] S. S. S Ranjit, H. S. D. S. Jitvinder, K. C. Lim and A. J. Salim,

Sciences, pp. 427-432, 2012.

Motion Analysis for Real-Time Surveillance Video via Block

Pixel Analysis Technique Proceedings of 2011 International

Conference on Signal, Image Processing and Applications,

pp. 60-64, 2011.

2012 ACEEE 71

DOI: 02.AETAEE.2012.3.37

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