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Properties of Black Oils-Definitions

We now turn to black oils. We consider those physical properties


which are required for the reservoir engineering calculations known as
material balance calculations. These properties are formation volume
factor of oil, solution gas-oil ratio, total formation volume factor,
coefficient of isothermal compressibility, and oil viscosity. Also, interfa-
cial tension is discussed.
These properties are defined in this chapter. The physical processes
involved in the way black oil properties change as reservoir pressure is
reduced at constant temperature are explained. Later chapters address
methods of determining values of these properties using field data,
laboratory fluid studies, and correlations.
The subscript o is used to indicate a liquid property since the
petroleum engineer often uses the word oil to describe the liquids with
which he deals.

Specific Gravity of a Liquid


Liquid specific gravity, yo, is defined as the ratio of the density of the
liquid to the density of water, both taken at the same temperature and
pressure.
yo = Po
P W

Specific gravity appears to be nondimensional since the units of the


density of the liquid are the same as the units of the density of water;
however, this is not strictly true. Actually, in the English system the
units are
po - lb oil/cu ft oil
(8-1)
= pw - lb waterku ft water '

224
Properties of Black Oils-Definitions 225

Sometimes specific gravity is given as sp. gr. 60"/60", which means


that the densities of both the liquid and the water were measured at 60F
and atmospheric pressure.
The petroleum industry also uses another gravity term called APZ
gravity which is defined as

131.5 ,

where yo is the specific gravity at 60"/60". This equation was devised so


that hydrometers could be constructed with linear scales.

EXAMPLE 8- 1 : The density of a stock-tank oil at 60F is 51.25 lblcu f t .


Calculate the specific gravity and gravity in "APZ.

Solution

First, calculate the specific gravity

Yo
=Po
P W

51.25 Ib/cu ft = o.8217


Yo = 62.37 Ibku ft

Second, calculate gravity in "API

"API 141'5 -
= - 131.5
Y O

"API = - 131.5 = 40.7"API


0.8217
~

Formation Volume Factor of Oil


The volume of oil that enters the stock tank at the surface i s less than
the volume of oil which flows into the wellbore from the reservoir. This
change in oil volume which accompanies the change from reservoir
conditions to surface conditions is due to three factors.
The most important factor is the evolution of gas from the oil as
pressure is decreased from reservoir pressure to surface pressure. This
causes a rather large decrease in volume of the oil when there is a
significant amount of dissolved gas.
226 PETROLEUM FLUIDS

The reduction in pressure also causes the remaining oil to expand


slightly, but this is somewhat offset by the contraction of the oil due to
the reduction of temperature.
The change in oil volume due to these three factors is expressed in
terms of the formation volume factor of oil. Oil formation volume factor
is defined as the volume of reservoir oil required to produce one barrel of
oil in the stock tank. Since the reservoir oil includes dissolved gas,

B, =
+
volume of oil dissolved gas leaving reservoir at reservoir conditions . (8-3)
volume of oil entering stock tank at standard conditions
The units are barrels of oil at reservoir conditions per barrel of stock-
tank oil, res bbl/STB . The volume of stock-tank oil is always reported at
60"F, regardless of the temperature of the stock tank. Thus, stock-tank
liquid volume, like surface gas volume, is reported at standard condi-
tions.

EXAMPLE 8-2: A sample of reservoir liquid with volume of 400 cc


under reservoir conditions was passed through a
separator and into a stock tank at atmospheric pres-
sure and 60F. The liquid volume in the stock tank
was 274 cc. A total of 1.21 scf of gas was released.
Calculate the oil formation volume factor.

Solution

Another way to express formation volume factor of oil is that it is the


volume of reservoir occupied by one STB plus the gas in solution at
reservoir temperature and pressure.
The relationship of formation volume factor of oil to reservoir pressure
for a typical black oil is given in Figure 8- 1 .
This figure shows the initial reservoir pressure to be above the bubble-
point pressure of the oil. As reservoir pressure is decreased from initial
pressure to bubble-point pressure, the formation volume factor increases
slightly because of the expansion of the liquid in the reservoir.
A reduction in reservoir pressure below bubble-point pressure results
in the evolution of gas in the pore spaces of the reservoir. The liquid
remaining in the reservoir has less gas in solution and, consequently, a
smaller formation volume factor.
Properties of Black Oils- Definitions 227

Fig. 8-1. Typical shape of formation volume factor of a black oil as a


function of pressure at constant reservoir temperature.

If the reservoir pressure could be reduced to atmospheric, the value of


the formation volume factor would nearly equal 1.0 res bbl/STB. A
reduction in temperature to 60F is necessary to bring the formation
volume factor to exactly 1.O res bbl/STB.
The reciprocal of the formation volume factor is called the shrinkage
factor.

bo = - 1
(8-4)
BO
The formation volume factor may be multiplied by the volume of
stock-tank oil to find the volume of reservoir oil required to produce that
volume of stock-tank oil. The shrinkage factor can be multiplied by the
reservoir volume to find the corresponding stock-tank volume. Both
terms are in use, but petroleum engineers have adopted universally the
formation volume factor.
Formation volume factor also is called reservoir volume factor.
Since the method of processing the produced fluids has an effect on the
volume of stock-tank oil, the value of the formation volume factor will
depend on the method of surface processing. However, the effect is small
for black oils.

Solution Gas-Oil Ratio


We often refer to the solubility of natural gas in crude oil as if we are
dealing with a two-component system. Although it is convenient to
discuss dissolved gas in this manner, in fact, the gas and oil are both
228 PETROLEUM FLUIDS

multicomponent mixtures, and the quantities of gas and oil are estab-
lished by gas-liquid equilibrium.
The quantity of gas-forming molecules (light molecules) in the liquid
phase at reservoir temperature is limited only by the pressure and the
quantity of light molecules present. A black oil is said to be saturated
when a slight decrease in pressure will allow release of some gas. The
bubble-point pressure is a special case of saturation at which the first
release of gas occurs.
On the other hand, when the black oil is above its bubble-point
pressure, it is said to be undersaturated. An undersaturated oil could
dissolve more gas (light molecules) if the gas were present.
The quantity of gas dissolved in an oil at reservoir conditions is called
solution gas-oil ratio. Solution gas-oil ratio is the amount of gas that
evolves from the oil as the oil is transported from the reservoir to surface
conditions. This ratio is defined in terms of the quantities of gas and oil
which appear at the surface during production.

R, = volume of gas produced at surface at standard conditions (8-5)


volume of oil entering stock tank at standard conditions
The surface volumes of both gas and liquid are referred to standard
conditions so that the units are standard cubic feet per stock-tank barrel,
scf/STB.
Solution gas-oil ratio is also called dissolved gas-oil ratio and
occasionally gas solubility.
Figure 8-2 shows the way the solution gas-oil ratio of a typical black
oil changes as reservoir pressure is reduced at constant temperature.

Fig. 8-2. Typical shape of solution gas-oil ratio of a black oil as a function
of pressure at constant reservoir temperature.
Properties of Black Oils-Definitions 229

The line is horizontal at pressures above the bubble-point pressure


because at these pressures no gas is evolved in the pore space and the
entire liquid mixture is produced into the wellbore. When reservoir
pressure is reduced below bubble-point pressure, gas evolves in the
reservoir, leaving less gas dissolved in the liquid.

EXAMPLE 8-3: Calculate the solution gas-oil ratio of the reservoir


liquid of Example 8-2.

Solution

R, =
1.21 scf = 702
scf
STB (8-5)
~

(274 ST cc)(6.2898 X l o v 6 bblkc)

Fig. 8-3. Volume change as pressure is reduced below the bubble point
at constant reservoir temperature.

Total Formation Volume Factor


Figure 8-3 shows the volume occupied by one barrel of stock-tank oil
plus its dissolved gas at bubble-point pressure. The figure also shows the
volume occupied by the same mass of material after an increase in cell
volume has caused a reduction in pressure. The volume of oil has
decreased; however, the total volume has increased.
The volume of oil at the lower pressure is B,. The quantity of gas
evolved is the quantity in solution at the bubble point, Rsb, minus the
quantity remaining in solution at the lower pressure, R,. The evolved gas
is called free gas. It is converted to reservoir conditions by multiplying
by the formation volume factor of gas, B,.
This total volume is the totalformation volume factor.
230 PETROLEUM FLUIDS

The gas formation volume factor must be expressed in units of res


bbl/scf, and total formation volume factor has units of res bbl/STB.
Figure 8-4 gives a comparison of total formation volume factor with
the formation volume factor of oil. The two formation volume factors are
identical at pressures above the bubble-point pressure since no gas is
released into the reservoir at these pressures.
The difference between the two factors at pressures below the bubble-
point pressure represents the volume of gas released in the reservoir. The
volume of this gas is B,(RSb - R,) res bbl of gas/STB.
Total formation volume factor is also called two-phase formation
volume factor.

EXAMPLE 8-4: Exactly one stock-tank barrel was placed in a


laboratory cell. 768 scf of gas was added. Cell
temperature was raised to 220"F, the cell was
agitated to attain equilibrium between gas and
liquid, and pressure was raised until the final bubble
of gas disappeared. At that point cell volume was
1.474 barrels and-pressure was 2620 psig. Pressure
in the cell was reduced to 2253 psig by increasing
total cell volume to 1.569 barrels. At that point the
oil volume in the cell was 1.418 barrels and the gas
volume in the cell was 0.151 barrels. Calculate the
total formation volume factor at 2253 psig.

Fig. 8-4. Typical shape of total formation volume factor of a black oil as a
function of pressure at constant reservoir temperature compared to shape
of black oil formation volume factor at same conditions.
Properties of Black Oils- Definitions 23 1

Solution

B, = 1.569 res bbl/STB

The Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Oil


At pressures above the bubble point, the coefficient of isothermal
compressibility of oil is defined exactly as the coefficient of isothermal
compressibility of a gas. At pressures below the bubble point an
additional term must be added to the definition to account for the volume
of gas which evolves.
As with gases, the coefficient of isothermal compressibility of oil
usually is called compressibility or, in this case, oil compressibility.

Pressures Above the Bubble-Point Pressure

The definition of the coefficient of isothermal compressibility at


pressures above the bubble point is

These equations simply give the fractional change in volume of a


liquid as pressure is changed at constant temperature. The partial
derivative is used rather than the ordinary derivative because only one
independent variable, pressure, is permitted to vary. Remember that the
subscript T indicates that temperature is held constant.
The relationship of oil compressibility to pressure for a typical black
oil at constant temperature is shown in Figure 8-5. Black oil compress-
ibility is virtually constant except at pressures near the bubble point.
Values rarely exceed 35 x lop6 psi-'. Equations 8-7 apply only at
pressures above the bubble-point pressure, so the line on Figure 8-5
ends at the bubble point.
Equations 8-7 can be written as

co = - ( dln V
7 ) T
or c, = - (T )
dln VM
T
232 PETROLEUM FLUIDS

Fig. 8-5. Typical shape of the coefficient of isothermal compressibility of


oil as a function of pressure at constant reservoir temperature at
'

pressures above the bubble point.

Direct substitution of formation volume factor of oil into the first of


Equations 8-7 results in

Equation 8-7 can be integrated if c, is assumed to remain constant as


pressure changes.
P2
c, I d p = -
v2
1" V (8-10)

results in

or

(8- 11)
Properties of Black Oils- Definitions 233

The resulting equation is usually rearranged so that changes in specific


volume can be calculated for known changes in pressure.

v2 = v1 EXP [C,(P, - P2)] (8-12)

EXAMPLE 8-5: A sample of reservoir oil was placed in a laboratory


cell at 5000 psig and 220F. The volume was 59.55
cc. Pressure was reduced to 4000 psig by increasing
the oil volume to 60.37 cc. Calculate the coeflicient of
isothermal compressibility for this oil at cell condi-
tions.

Solution
v2 (8- 11)
C, (p2 - pJ = - In -
v1

c, =
- ln(60.37 cd59.55 CC) = 13.68 x 10-6
(4014.7 -5014.7) psia

The definition of oil compressibility can be written in terms of oil


density. We will start with

Remember that by definition


v = - 1 (8-13)
Po

The partial derivative of this equation with respect to pressure results in

(8- 14)

Substitution of Equations 8-13 and 8-14 into Equation 8-7 gives

c, = (8-15)
234 PETROLEUM FLUIDS

Thus,

(8- 16)

Equation 8-16 can be integrated under the assumption that c, remains


constant as pressure changes. Our future use of this equation will be
related to bubble-point pressure, so we will use a lower limit of Pb.

(8-17)

results in

(8- 18)

or

(8-19)

Equation 8- 19 is used to compute the density of an oil at pressures above


the bubble point. The density at the bubble point is the starting point.

Pressures Below the Bubble-Point Pressure

When reservoir pressure is below bubble-point pressure, the situation


is much different. As Figure 8-6 shows, the volume of the reservoir
liquid decreases as pressure is reduced. However, the reservoir volume
occupied by the mass that was originally liquid increases due to the
evolution of gas. The change in liquid volume may be represented by

(8-20)

The change in the amount of dissolved gas is

( %)T
(8-21)
Properties of Black Oils- Definitions 235

Fig. 8-6. Illustration of the coefficient of isothermal compressibility of oil


at pressures below the bubble point at constant reservoir temperature.

and so, the change in volume of free gas is

(8-22)
- (%)T

Thus, at reservoir pressures below the bubble point, the total change in
volume is the sum of the change in liquid volume and the change in free
gas volume.

(8-23)

where B, is inserted to convert the volume of evolved gas to reservoir


conditions.
Consequently, the fractional change in volume as pressure changes is

This is consistent with Equation 8-9 since the derivative of R, with


respect to pressure is zero at pressures above the bubble point.
The complete graph of compressibility as a function of reservoir
pressure is given in Figure 8-7. There is a discontinuity at the bubble
point. The evolution of the first bubble of gas causes a large shift in the
value of compressibility. Equation 8-7 applies at pressures above the
bubble point, and Equation 8-24 applies at pressures below the bubble
point.
236 PETROLEUM FLUIDS

Fig. 8-7. Typical shape of the coefficient of isothermal compressibility of


oil as a function of pressure at constant reservoir temperature.

Coefficient of Viscosity of Oil


The coefficient of viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow
exerted by a fluid. Viscosity appears as a coefficient in many equations
that describe fluid flow.
Viscosity of oil usually has units of centipoise, although other units are
in use. A discussion of the units of viscosity may be found in Chapter 6.
Viscosity , like other physical properties of liquids , is affected by both
pressure and temperature. An increase in temperature causes a decrease
in viscosity. A decrease in pressure causes a decrease in viscosity,
provided that the only effect of pressure is to compress the liquid. In
addition, in the case of reservoir liquids, there is a third parameter which
affects viscosity. A decrease in the amount of gas in solution in the liquid
causes an increase in viscosity, and, of course, the amount of gas in
solution is a direct function of pressure.
The viscosity of a liquid is related directly to the type and size of the
molecules which make up the liquid. The variation of liquid viscosity
with molecular structure is not known with exactness; however, the
viscosities of liquids which are members of a homologous series are
known to vary in a regular manner, as do most other physical properties.
For example, pure paraffin hydrocarbons exhibit a regular increase in
viscosity as the size and complexity of the hydrocarbon molecules
increase.
Figure 8-8 shows the relationship of the viscosity of a reservoir oil to
pressure at constant temperature. At pressures above bubble point, the
viscosity of the oil in a reservoir decreases almost linearly as pressure
Properties of Black Oils- Definitions 231

decreases. At lower pressures the molecules are further apart and


therefore move past each other more easily.
However, as reservoir pressure decreases below the bubble point, the
liquid changes composition. The gas that evolves takes the smaller
molecules from the liquid, leaving the remaining reservoir liquid with
relatively more molecules with large complex shapes. This changing
liquid composition causes large increases in viscosity of the oil in the
reservoir as pressure decreases below the bubble point.
As a black oil reservoir is depleted, not only does production decrease
due to the decrease in the pressure available to drive the oil to the well
and due to the competition of the free gas for space to flow, but also
because the viscosity of the oil has increased. A tenfold increase in oil
viscosity between the bubble point and low reservoir pressure is not
uncommon.

Fig. 8-8. Typical shape of oil viscosity as a function of pressure at


constant reservoir temperature.

The Coefficient of Isobaric Thermal Expansion of a Liquid


The coeficient of isobaric thermal expansion is defined as the
fractional change in volume of a liquid as temperature changes under
constant pressure.
1 (8-25)
P
P
238 PETROLEUM FLUIDS

The definition in terms of density follows from Equation 8-25 as


P = -=(%)/
1 (8-26)

The thermal expansion coeflicient usually is assumed to be constant


over a limited range of temperatures. Rigorous integration of Equation
8-25 can be performed in the same manner as the integration of
Equation 8-7. However, for small changes in temperature, Equation
8-25 can be approximated by

(8-27)

and Equation 8-26 by

Po2 = Pol " - P(T2 - Tl)]. (8-28)

The petroleum engineer rarely uses this liquid property since petroleum
reservoirs normally are operated at constant temperature.
There is also a physical property called thermal expansion. This is not
defined as above but is simply the ratio of the volume of oil at high
temperature to the volume of the same oil at low temperature, with both
volumes measured at the same pressure.

thermal expansion = oil volume at pressure and high temperature (8-29)


oil volume at pressure and low temperature

When a value of thermal expansion is reported, it must include the


pressure and temperature range for which it is valid. Thermal expansion
as defined here must not be used interchangeably with the coefficient of
isobaric thermal expansion defined above.

EXAMPLE 8-6: A sample of reservoir oil was placed in a laboratory


cell at 5000 psig and 76F. The volume was 54.74 cc.
Temperature was increased to 220F and pressure was
held constant by increasing cell volume to 59.55 CC.
Calculate the coefficient of isobaric thermal expansion
and calculate the thermal expansion.

Solution

First, calculate the coefficient of isobaric thermal expansion.


Properties of Black Oils-Definitions 239

Second, calculate thermal expansion

Thermal expansion = 59.55 cc = 1.088 (8-29)


54.74 cc

Interfacial Tension
There is an imbalance of molecular forces at the interface between two
phases. This is caused by physical attraction between molecules. This
imbalance of forces is known as interfacial tension.
A molecule in a liquid is uniformly attracted to the surrounding
molecules. This is represented schematically by the sizes of the arrows
on the molecules of Figure 8-9.
A molecule at the surface is attracted more strongly from below
because the molecules of the gas are separated much more widely, and
the attraction is inversely proportional to the distance between molecules.
This imbalance of forces creates a membrane-like surface. It causes a
liquid to tend toward a minimum surface area. For instance, a drop of
water falling through air tends to be spherical since a sphere has the
minimum surface-to-volume ratio.

Fig. 8-9. Illustration of intermolecular forces as they affect interfacial


tension.
240 PETROLEUM FLUIDS

The attraction between molecules is inversely proportional to the


square of the distance between them, as previously stated. Also, the
attraction is directly proportional to the mass of the molecules. Thus, the
interface between two liquids will exhibit interfacial tension due to the
differences in mass of the molecules of the two liquids.
Interfacial tension can be thought of as the force required to prevent
destruction of the surface. The units are in terms of the force holding the
surface together in dynes acting along one centimeter of length (dynes/
cm).
The creation of this surface requires work. The work in ergs required
to create one square centimeter of surface is called boundary energy
(erg/sq cm). Interfacial tension and boundary energy are equal. Remem-
ber that work equals force times distance, i.e. , an erg equals a dyne cm.
Often, the term surface tension is used to describe interfacial tension
between gas and liquid. Regardless of the terminology, the physical
forces which cause the boundary or surfuce or interface are the same.
And the terms can be interchanged.

Volatile Oils
All of the properties discussed in this chapter are defined in exactly the
same way for volatile oils as for black oils.
Formation volume factors and solution gas-oil ratios normally are not
measured for volatile oils. These quantities are used primarily in material
balance calculations which do not apply to volatile oils. If these
quantities were measured for volatile oils, they would have the shapes
indicated in Figures 8- 10 and 8- 1 1 . The large decreases in both curves

Fig. 8-10. Typical shape of formation volume factor of a volatile oil as a


function of pressure at constant reservoir temperature.
Properties of Black Oils- Definitions 241

Fig. 8-11. Typical shape of solution gas-oil ratio of a volatile oil as a


function of pressure at constant reservoir temperature.

at pressures immediately below bubble point are due to the evolution of


large quantities of gas in the reservoir at pressures just below the bubble
point. This is indicated by the close spacing of the iso-vol lines just
below the bubble-point line on Figure 5-2.
Volatile oil reservoirs are engineered through compositional material
balance calculations. A special laboratory study (not discussed in this
text) is required.
The coefficient of isothermal compressibility is important in the study
of volatile oil reservoirs. Values of compressibility are higher for volatile
oils than for black oils. Values from 20 X 10-6psi-1 to 60 x lop6psi-'
are common at pressures above the bubble point. The relationship of
compressibility to pressure for volatile oils is the same as given in Figure
8-7. The discontinuity at the bubble point is greater for volatile oils than
for black oils.
The viscosities of volatile oils behave as indicated in Figure 8-8. The
viscosities of volatile oils are much lower than the viscosities of black
oils. Values of 0.1 cp are common at the bubble point and values above
0.2 cp are rare. There is usually a tenfold increase in viscosity between
bubble point and low pressure. Volatile oil viscosity is affected by
pressure above the bubble point more strongly than is black oil viscosity.
242 PETROLEUM FLUIDS

Exercises
8-1. A stock-tank oil has a specific gravity of 0.875. What is its density
in lb/cu ft?
8-2. What is the gravity in "API of the oil of Exercise 8-l?

8-3. A stock-tank liquid has a density of 46.4 Ib/cu ft. What is its
specific gravity?

8-4. What is the specific gravity of a stock-tank liquid with gravity of


47.3"API?

8-5. How many pounds does a barrel of 35.2"API oil weigh?

8-6. What is the gravity in "API of an oil with a density of 56.4 lb/cu ft?

8-7. A liquid sample from a black oil reservoir had a volume of 227.0
cc in a laboratory cell at reservoir temperature and bubble-point
pressure. The liquid was expelled through laboratory equipment
which is the equivalent of the field separator-stock tank system.
The oil volume collected in the stock tank was 167.4 cc. The
separator produced 0.537 scf of gas, and the stock tank produced
0.059 scf of gas. Calculate the formation volume factor of the oil
and the solution gas-oil ratio.

8-8. You have just discovered a petroleum reservoir. Initial testing of


the well produced 76 barrels of 18.2"API stock-tank oil and 14.1
Mscf of gas in 24 hours. What is the solution gas-oil ratio? At what
pressures does this solution gas-oil ratio apply?

8-9. A black oil reservoir has just been discovered. Reservoir pressure
appears to be above the bubble-point pressure of the oil. Measured
at reservoir conditions, 86.3 barrels per day enter the wellbore.
The oil is processed through a separator into a stock tank. The
stock tank accumulates 57.9 barrels of 44.2"API oil each day. The
separator produces 43,150 scf/d of 0.724 gravity gas, and the stock
tank vents 7240 scf/d of 1.333 gravity gas. What is the formation
volume factor of the oil? What is the solution gas-oil ratio? Which
of the previous answers applies only at the bubble point?
Properties of Black Oils-Definitions 243

8-10. You have a laboratory analysis of a reservoir sample from an oil


well producing 41.5"API stock-tank oil at 941 scf/STB. The
sample was obtained from the reservoir at 184F and 3463 psig.
The results are given below.
Oil Gas
formation Solution formation
volume gas-oil gas-oil volume
factor ratio factor
Pressure Bo Rs B,
Psig res bbl/STB scf/STB bbl/scf
5000 1.498 941
4500 1.507 941
4000 1.517 941
3500 1.527 941
3400 1.530 941
3300 1.532 941
3200 1.534 941
3100 1.537 941
3054 = Pb 1.538 941 0.000866
2700 1.484 819 0.000974
2400 1.441 732 0.001 090
2100 1.401 646 0.001252
1800 1.361 562 0.001 475
1500 1.323 481 0.001795
1200 1.287 400 0.002285
900 1.252 321 0.003108
600 1.215 240 0.004760
300 1.168 137 0.009683

Plot oil formation volume factor and solution gas-oil ratio against
pressure. Compare the shapes of your plots with Figures 8-1 and
8-2. Compare the shapes of the B, graph and the R, graph. Save
your graphs; you will need them in Exercise 8-17.

8- 11. Determine the value of total formation volume factor of the black
oil of Exercise 8-10 at 2400 psig.

8-12. Determine the value of total formation volume factor of the black
oil of Exercise 8-10 at 3500 psig.

8-13. A sample of the reservoir oil of Exercise 8-8 was placed in a


laboratory cell at 300F. Pressure was changed by increasing cell
volume as follows.
244 PETROLEUM FLUIDS

Pressure, Oil volume,


Psig cc
5000 219.80
4500 220.55
4000 221.33
3500 222.17
3000 223.07
2500 223.99
2200 224.57
1972 = Pb 225.05

Tabulate values of coefficient of isothermal compressibility for


use in the pressure ranges indicated in the table. Does the trend in
the results agree with the shape of Figure 8-5?

8-14. Early in its life a well produced 0.766 gravity gas at 933 scf/STB
and 43.7"API stock-tank oil. A sample of reservoir oil was placed
in a laboratory cell at reservoir temperature of 186F. Pressure
was varied and oil volume measured as follows.

Pressure, Oil volume,


Psig cc
5000 192.10
4500 193.39
4000 194.79
3500 196.32
3300 196.99
3100 197.70
3025 = P b 198.00

Tabulate and graph values of coefficient of isothermal compress-


ibility of this oil for the pressure ranges indicated. Does your
graph look like Figure 8-5?

8-15. A sample of a volatile oil was placed in a laboratory cell at


reservoir temperature of 209F. The pressure-volume relationship
of the liquid was measured.
Properties of Black Oils- Definitions 245

Pressure, Oil volume,


Psig cc
6000 172.91
5500 174.88
5000 177.02
4500 179.48
4000 182.31
3500 185.66
3000 189.69
2600 193.78
2400 196.28
2300 197.70
2200 199.21
2100 200.92
2000 202.81
1974 = Pb 203.35

Calculate and plot the coefficient of isothermal compressibility


against pressure. Does your graph look like Figure 8-5?

8- 16. Determine the value of the coefficient of isothermal compressibil-


ity of the black oil of Exercise 8-10 for use between 3500 and
4000 psig.

8- 17. Determine the value of the coefficient of isothermal compressibil-


ity of the black oil of Exercise 8-10 at 2400 psig.

8- 18. Initial pressure is above the bubble-point pressure of a black oil in


a reservoir. As production begins, reservoir pressure decreases.
How do the following fluid properties change? Select in-
creases, decreases, or remains constant. Fill in the blanks.

Formation volume factor of oil


Total formation volume factor
Solution gas-oil ratio
Oil viscosity
Coefficient of isothermal compressibility of oil

8-19. Reservoir pressure of Exercise 8-18 has now decreased to the


bubble-point pressure of the black oil. Further production will
cause changes in reservoir fluid properties. Select increases,
decreases, or remains constant.
246 PETROLEUM FLUIDS

Formation volume factor of oil


Total formation volume factor
Solution gas-oil ratio
Oil viscosity
Coefficient of isothermal compressibility of oil
Formation volume factor of the free gas

Reference
1. Martin, J.C.: Simplified Equations of Flow in Gas Drive Reservoirs
and the Theoretical Foundation of Multiphase Pressure Buildup
Analyses, Trans. AIME (1959) 216, 309-311.