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# number and algebra

TopIC 3
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Index laws
3.1 Overview
Why learn this?
Indices (the plural of index) are the lazy mathematicians way of
abbreviating operations such as multiplication and division. You do not
have to use this technique if you have the time to do otherwise. For
example, the lazy mathematician might write x 6, whereas you could
write x x x x x x .
Why use indices at all? Because doing so will save you time and
effort in more difcult calculations later. Will you use indices later in
life? That depends on what work you decide to do. However, if you
are contemplating any work associated with computers, cars,
engines, science, design or apprenticeships, then the answer is
almost certainly yes.

## What do you know?

1 THInK List what you know about index laws. Use a
thinking tool such as a concept map to show your list.
2 paIr Share what you know with a partner
and then with a small group.
3 SHare As a class, create a thinking tool such as a large
concept map that shows your classs knowledge of index laws.

Learning sequence
3.1 Overview
3.2 Review of index form
3.3 First Index Law (multiplying numbers in index form with the
same base)
3.4 Second Index Law (dividing numbers in index form with the
same base)
3.5 Third Index Law (the power of zero)
3.6 Fourth Index Law (raising a power to another power)
3.7 Review ONLINE ONLY

## c03IndexLaws.indd 40 02/07/14 2:30 AM

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## c03IndexLaws.indd 41 02/07/14 2:30 AM

number and algebra

## 3.2 Review of index form

If a number or a variable is multiplied by itself several times, it can be written using
short-cut notation referred to as index form.
When written in index form, the number or the variable that is being multiplied is written
once only. To indicate how many times it is being multiplied by itself, a smallnumber
is written above and to the right of it. For example, if number 2 is multiplied by itself
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

## 4times, it can be written as 2 2 2 2 (factor form), or as 24(index form).

When written in index form, the number or variable that is being multiplied is called the
base, while the number showing how many times it is being multiplied is called the power,
or index. For example, in the number 24, 2 is the base and 4 is the power or index.
When the base is multiplied by itself the number of times indicated by the power, the
answer is called a basic numeral. For example,
24 =2222= 16
Index form Factor form Basic numeral

WorKed eXample 1

## State the base and power for the number 514.

THInK WrITe
1 Write the number. 514
2 The base is the number below the power. The base is 5.
3 The power or index is the small number just The power is 14.
above and to the right of the base.

WorKed eXample 2

## Write 124 in factor form.

THInK WrITe
1 Write the number. 124
2 The base is 12, so this is what will be
multiplied.
3 The power is 4, so this is how many times 12 = 12 12 12 12
should be written and multiplied.

WorKed eXample 3

## Write 2 5 2 2 5 2 5 in index form.

THInK WrITe
1 Write the problem. 2522525
2 Write the factors in numerical order. =2222555
3 The number 2 has been written 4 times and = 24 53
multiplied. The number 5 has been written
3times and multiplied.

42 Maths Quest 8

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number and algebra

WorKed eXample 4

THInK WrITe

## 1 Write the problem. 7 53 65

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## 2 List the factors: 7 is written once, 5is =755566666

written3timesand multiplied, and 6is
written5times andmultiplied.

## Exercise 3.2 Review of index form

IndIVIdual paTHWaYS

## praCTISe ConSolIdaTe maSTer reFleCTIon

Questions: Questions: Questions: How will you remember the
18, 13 19, 1113 1fj, 2, 3eh, 4eh, 5, 6eh, 7, meaning of the base and that
of the index?
8a, c, f, 912, 14
Individual pathway interactivity int-4401

FluenCY
1 WE1State the base and power for each of the following.
4
a 8 b 710 c 2011 d 190 e 7812
f 3100 g m5 h c24 i n36 j d 42
doc-6834
2 Write the following in index form.
a 222222
doc-6835
b 4444
c xxxxx
d 999
e 11 l l l l l l l
f 44 m m m m m
3 WE2 Write the following in factor form.

a 42 b 54 c 75 d 63
6 7 4
e 3 f n g a h k10
4 Write each of the following as a basic numeral.
a 35 b 44 c 28 d 113
e 74 f 63 g 110 h 54
5 a MC What does 63 mean?
a 63 b 666 C 333333
d 6+6+6 e 36
5
b What does 3 mean?
a 35 b 55 C 3+3+3+3+3
d 33333 e 53

## c03IndexLaws.indd 43 02/07/14 2:30 AM

number and algebra

## 6 WE3 Write each of the following in index form.

a 6224444
b 77773333
c 19 19 19 19 19 2 2 2
d 13 13 4 4 4 4
e 66 p p m m m m m s s
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f 21 n n 3 i i i 6 r r r
g 16 k e e e 12 p p
h 11 j j j j j 9 p p l
7 WE4 Write each of the following in factor form.
a 15f3j4 b 7k6s2 c 4b3c5
d 19a4mn3 e 8l4r2t2

UNDERSTANDING
8 Write each of the following numbers as a product of its prime factors, using indices.
a 64 b 40 c 36
d 400 e 225 f 2000
9 Some basic numerals (see below) are written as the product of their prime factors.
Identify each of these basic numerals.
a 23 3 5 b 22 52 c 23 33
d 22 7 11 e 32 52 7 f 26 54 19
10 a Write each of the following numbers in index form with base 10.
i10 ii 100 iii 1000 iv 1000000
b Use your knowledge of place value to rewrite each of the following basic numerals
in expanded form using powers of 10. The first number has been done for you.

## Basic numeral Expanded form

i 230 2 102 + 3 101
ii 500
iii 470
iv 2360
v 1980
vi 5430

## c Write each of the following as a basic numeral.

i 7 104 + 5 103
ii 3 104 + 6 102
iii 5 106 + 2 105 + 4 102 + 8 101

Reasoning
11 Explainwhat a3b4 means. Write a3b4 as a basic numeral in factor form as part of your
explanation.

44 Maths Quest 8

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number and algebra

problem SolVIng
12 a, b and c are prime numbers.
a Write 8 a a b b b c c c c as a product of prime factors in index
form.
b If a = 2, b = 3 and c = 7, calculate the value of the basic numeral represented by
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13 a Rewrite the numbers 140 and 680 in expanded form using powers of 10.
b Add the numbers in expanded form.
e Try the question again, this time with two numbers of your own. Choose numbers
between 1000 and 10 000.
14 a Rewrite the numbers 10 and 14 in expanded form with powers of 2 using, as
appropriate, 23, 22 and 21.
b Add the numbers in expanded form.
e Try the question again, this time with two numbers of your own. Choose numbers
between 16 and 63.

## 3.3 First Index Law (multiplying numbers or

variables in index form with the same base)
The numbers in index form with the same base can be multiplied together by being
written in factor form first. For example, 53 52 = (5 5 5) (5 5) = 55.
The simpler and faster way to multiply numbers or variables in index form with the
samebase is to use the First Index Law. The First Index Law states: am an = am + n.
This means that when numbers in index form with the same base are multiplied by
each other, the powers (indices) are added together. For example, 53 52 = 53 + 2 = 55
(asabove).
If the variables in index form that are being multiplied have coefficients, the coefficients are
multiplied together and the variables in index form are multiplied, and simplified using the
First Index Law. For example, 2a4 3a5 = (2 3) (a4 a5) = 6a9.

Co-efficients Variables multiplied, which

WorKed eXample 5

## Simplify 23 26 after first writing in factor form, leaving the answer in

indexform.
THInK WrITe
1 Write the problem. 23 26
2 Write in factor form. = (2 2 2) (2 2 2 2 2 2)
3 Simplify by writing in index form. = 29

## c03IndexLaws.indd 45 02/07/14 2:30 AM

number and algebra

WorKed eXample 6
THInK WrITe
1 Write the problem. 74 7 73
2 Show that the 7 in the middle has an index of 1. = 74 71 73
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3 Check to see if the bases are the same. They are all 7.
4 Simplify by using the First Index Law (add indices). = 74 + 1 + 3
= 78

WorKed eXample 7
Simplify 5e10 2e3.
THInK WrITe
1 Write the problem. 5e10 2e3
2 The order is not important when multiplying, soplace = 5 2 e10 e3
the numbers first.
3 Multiply the numbers. = 10 e10 e3
4 Check to see if the bases are the same. They are both e.
5 Simplify by using the First Index Law (add indices). = 10e10 + 3
= 10e13

## Multiplying expressions containing numbers inindexform

with different bases
When there is more than one variable involved in the multiplication question, the First
Index Law is applied to each variable separately.

WorKed eXample 8

THInK WrITe

## 1 Write the problem. 7m3 3n5 2m8 n4

2 The order is not important when = 7 3 2 m3 m8 n5 n4
multiplying, so place numbers first and
group the same variables together.
3 Simplify by multiplying the numbers and = 42 m3 + 8 n5 + 4
using the First Index Law for bases that are = 42m11n9

46 Maths Quest 8

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number and algebra

## Exercise 3.3 First Index Law (multiplying

numbers in index form with the same base)
IndIVIdual paTHWaYS
praCTISe ConSolIdaTe maSTer reFleCTIon
Questions: Questions: Questions: The First Index Law can only
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1, 2, 3af, 4, 5, 6af, 11 17, 10, 11, 13 2gl, 3gl, 4, 5, 6fj, 713 be applied if the bases are the
same. Why is that so?
Individual pathway interactivity int-4402

FluenCY
1 WE5Simplify the following after first writing in factor form.
a 22 24 = (2 2) ( )
= 2
b 53 55 = (5 5 5) ( )
= 5
c f 6 f f 2 = ( ) ( )
=f
2 Simplify each of the following.
a 37 32 b 614 63 c 106 104
d 113 113 e 78 7 f 211 23
g 52 52 h 89 82 i 137 138
j q23 q24 k x7 x7 l e e3
3 WE6 Simplify each of the following, giving your answer in index form.

a 34 36 32 b 210 23 25 c 54 54 59
d 68 6 62 e 10 10 104 f 172 174 176
g p7 p8 p7 h e11 e10 e2 i g15 g g12
doc-2160
j e20 e12 e6 k 3 b2 b10 b l 5 d4 d5 d7
4 a MC What does 6 e3 b2 b4 e equal?
a 6b6e4 b 6b6e3 C 6b9e
d 6b10e e 6b8e3
b What does 3 f 2 f 10 2 e3 e8 equal?
a 32e11f 12 b 6e11f 12 C 6e23f
d 6e24f 20 e 3e24f 12
5 WE7 Simplify each of the following.

## a 4p7 5p4 b 2x2 3x6 c 8y6 7y4

d 3p 7p7 e 12t3 t2 7t f 6q2 q5 5q8
6 WE8 Simplify each of the following.

## a 2a2 3a4 e3 e4 b 4p3 2h7 h5 p3

c 2m3 5m2 8m4 d 2gh 3g2h5
e 5p4q2 6p2q7 f 8u3w 3uw2 2u5w4
g 9dy8 d3y5 3d7y4 h 7b3c2 2b6c4 3b5c3
i 4r2s2 3r6s12 2r8s4 j 10h10v2 2h8v6 3h20v12

## c03IndexLaws.indd 47 02/07/14 2:30 AM

number and algebra

underSTandIng
7 Simplify each of the following.
a 3x 34 b 3y 3y + 2
c 32y + 1 34y 6 d 32 33 34
1 2 3

## 8 a Express the following basic numerals in index form: 9, 27 and 81.

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## (Give each answer in index form.)

i 34 81 9
ii 27 3n 3n 1

reaSonIng
9 Explain why 2x 3y does not equal 6(x+y).
10 Step 1: The prime number 5 is multiplied by itself n times.
Step 2: The prime number 5 is multiplied by itself m times.
Step 3: The answers from steps 1 and step 2 are multiplied together.
problem SolVIng
11 One dollar is placed on a square of a chess board, two dollars on the next square,
fourdollars on the next square, eight dollars on the next square and so on.
a Write the number of dollars on the 10th square in index form.
b Write the number of dollars on the rth square in index form.
c How much money is on the 6th and 7th squares in total?
d How much money is on the 14th and 15th squares in total? Write your answer in
index form.
e Simplify your answer to part d by first taking out a common factor.
f Compare the numerical value of the number of dollars on the 64th square of the
chess board to the numerical value of the distance in kilometres to the nearest star,
Proxima Centauri.
12 a If x2 = x x, what does (x3)2 equal?
b If the sides of a cube are 24 cm long, what is the volume of the cube in index form?
(Hint: The volume of a cube of side length s cm is s3 cm3).
c What is the side length of a cube of volume 56 mm3?
d What is the side length of a cube of volume (an)3p mm3?
13 If I square a certain number, then multiply the result by three times the cube of the
certain number before adding one, the result is 97. What is the certain number?

48 Maths Quest 8

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number and algebra

## 3.4 Second Index Law (dividing numbers

andvariables in index form with the samebase)
The numbers in index form with the same base can be divided by first being written in
factor form. For example:
26 2 2 2 2 2 2
26 2 4 = 4 =
2222
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2
222222
= =22
2222
= 22
The simpler and faster way to divide the numbers in index form is to apply the Second
Index Law. The Second Index Law states: am an = am n. This means that when the
numbers or variables in index form with the same base are divided, the powers are
subtracted. For example, 26 24 = 26 4 = 22 (as above).

WorKed eXample 9

510
53
THInK WrITe

## 1 Write the problem. 510

53
5555555555
2 Write in factor form. =
555
3 Cancel 5s. =5555555
4 Write in index form. = 57

WorKed eXample 10

## Simplify d12 d4 using an index law.

THInK WrITe
1 Write the problem and express d12 d4
it as a fraction.
2 Check to see if the bases are the d12
=
same. They are both d. d4
3 Simplify by using the Second = d12 4
Index Law (subtractindices). = d8

## Dividing with coefficients

When the coefficients are present, we divide them as we would divide any other numbers
and then apply the Second Index Law to the variables.
In examples where the cofficients do not divide evenly, we simplify the fraction that is
formed by them.
When there is more than one variable involved in the division question, the Second Index
Law is applied to each variable separately.

## c03IndexLaws.indd 49 02/07/14 2:30 AM

number and algebra

WorKed eXample 11

THInK WrITe
Write the problem and express it as a fraction. 36d7
1 36d7 12d3 =
12d3
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## 2 Divide the numbers (or coefficients) and apply 3d7

= 3
theSecond Index Law to the variables. d
3 Simplify by using the Second Index Law = 3d7 3
(subtractindices). = 3d4

WorKed eXample 12

7t3 4t8
Simplify .
12t4
THInK WrITe
1 Write the problem. 7t3 4t8
12t4
2 Multiply the numbers in the numerator and apply the 28t11
=
First Index Law (add indices) in the numerator. 12t4
3 Simplify the fraction formed and apply the Second Index 7t7
=
Law for the variable (subtract indices). 3

## Exercise 3.4 Second Index Law (dividing

numbers in index form with the same base)
IndIVIdual paTHWaYS
reFleCTIon praCTISe ConSolIdaTe maSTer
How will you remember
that when numbers in index Questions: Questions: Questions:
form are divided, powers are 16, 7a, b, 14 18, 11, 12, 14 1, 2gl, 3gl, 4, 5, 6ei, 714
subtracted but coefficients are
Individual pathway interactivity int-4403
divided?

FluenCY
1 Simplify each of the following after first writing in factor form, leaving your
WE9
25 77 108
a b c
22 73 105
2 WE10 Simplify each of the following using the index law, leaving your answer in
doc-6836
index form.
a 33 32 b 119 112 c 58 54 d 126 12
1013
doc-6837 e 345 342 f 1375 1374 g 623 619 h
109
15 456
h78 b77 f 1000
doc-6838
i j k l
15423 h b7 f 100

50 Maths Quest 8

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number and algebra

3 WE11 Simplify each of the following, giving your answer in index form.
a 3x x3
5
b 6y7 y5 c 8w12 w5
d 12q 4q
34 30
e 16f 2f
12 3
f 100h100 10h10
45p14 48g8
g 80j15 20j5 h i doc-2161
9p4 6g5
12b7 81m6 100n95
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

j k l
8b 18m2 40n5
4 a MC What does 21r20 14r10 equal?

3r2 3r10 2 10
a 7r10 b C 7r2 d e r
2 2 3
2m33
b What does equal?
16m11
m22 8 m3
a b C 8m22 d e None of the above
8 m22 8
5 WE12 Simplify each of the following.

## 15p12 18r6 45a5

a b c
5p8 3r2 5a2
60b7 100r10 9q2
d e f
20b 5r6 q
6 WE12 Simplify each of the following.
8p6 3p4 12b5 4b2 25m12 4n7
a b c
16p5 18b2 15m2 8n
27x9y3 16h7k4 12j8 6f 5
d e f
12xy2 12h6k 8j3 3f 2
8p3 7r2 2s 27a9 18b5 4c2 81f 15 25g12 16h34
g h i
6p 14r 18a4 12b2 2c 27f 9 15g10 12h30
underSTandIng
7 Simplify each of the following.
a 210 2p b 27e 23e 4
54x 53y 32 3m 37m
c d
52y 5x 35m 3
8 16 4
8 Consider the fraction .
2 32
a Rewrite the fraction, expressing each basic numeral as power of 2.
i in index form ii as a basic numeral.
c Now check your answer by cancelling and evaluating the fraction in the ordinaryway.
6 27 36
9 Consider the fraction .
12 81
a Rewrite the fraction, expressing each basic numeral as the product of its prime
factors.
i in index form ii as a basic numeral.

## c03IndexLaws.indd 51 02/07/14 2:30 AM

number and algebra

reaSonIng
12x
10 Explain why does not equal 4(xy).
3y
11 Step 1: The prime number 3 is multiplied by itself p times.
Step 2: The prime number 3 is multiplied by itself q times.
Step 3: The answer from step 1 is divided by the answer from step 2.
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

problem SolVIng
12 By considering ap ap, show that any base raised to the power of zero equals 1.
1
13 By considering m6 m8, show that m2 = .
m2
14 I cube a certain number, then multiply the result by six. I now divide the result by the
doc-6851
certain number to the power of five. The result is 216. What is the certain number?

## 3.5 Third Index Law (the power of zero)

Consider the following two different methods of simplifying 23 23.
Method 1 Method 2
222 23
23 23 = 23 23 =
222 23
8 = 233 (using the Second Index Law)
=
8 = 20
=1
As the two results should be the same, 20 must equal 1.
Any base that has an index power of 0 is equal to 1.
The Third Index Law states: a0 = 1. This means that any base that is raised to the power
of zero is equal to 1.
If it is in brackets, any numeric or algebraic expression that is raised to the power of zero
is equal to 1. For example, (2 3)0 = 1, (2abc2)0 = 1.
WorKed eXample 13

THInK WrITe

## 1 Write the problem. 150

2 Any base with an index of zero is equal to one. =1

52 Maths Quest 8

## c03IndexLaws.indd 52 02/07/14 2:30 AM

number and algebra

WorKed eXample 14

THInK WrITe

## 1 Write the problem. (25 36)0

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## 2 Everything within the brackets has an index of zero, =1

WorKed eXample 15

THInK WrITe

## 1 Write the problem. 19e5a0

2 Only a has a power of zero, so replace it with a 1 and = 19e5 1
simplify. = 19e5

WorKed eXample 16

6m3 11m14
Simplify .
3m10 2m7
THInK WrITe

## 1 Write the problem. 6m3 11m14

3m10 2m7
2 Multiply the numbers and apply the First Index Law in 66m17
boththe numerator and denominator. =
6m17
3 Divide the numbers and simplify using the Second = 11m17 17
IndexLaw. = 11m0
4 Simplify using the Third Index Law. = 11 1
= 11

## Exercise 3.5 Third Index Law (the power of zero)

IndIVIdual paTHWaYS

## praCTISe ConSolIdaTe maSTer reFleCTIon

Questions: Questions: Questions: Explain how the Second and
18, 12 18, 10, 12 17, 8fj, 912 Third Index Laws are
connected.
Individual pathway interactivity int-4404

## c03IndexLaws.indd 53 02/07/14 2:30 AM

number and algebra

FLUENCY
1 Find the value for each of the following.
WE13

a 160 b 440 c f 0 d h0
2 WE14 Find the value of each of the following.
a (23 8)0 b 70 60 c (35z4)0 d (12w7)0
3 Find the value of each of the following.
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a 4 30 b 90 + 11 c c0 10 d 3p0 + 19
4 WE15 Find the value of each of the following.
8k0
a 12m3k0 b 7c0 + 14m0 c 32g0 + 40h0 d
7j0
16t0 6b2 5c0 4d 0 9p2 3p 4d 0
e f g h
8y0 3s0 12q0 2z0 6p
5 Find each of the following.
a e10 e10 b a12 a12 c (4b3)0 (4b3)0
d 84f 11 12f 11 e 30z9 10z9 f 99t13 33t13

UNDERSTANDING
6 Simplify each of the following.
21p4 40f 33 54p6q8 16p11q10
a b c d
21p4 10f 33 27p6q8 8p2q10
24a9e10 x4y2z11 7i7m6r4 3c5d3l9
e f g h
16a9e6 x4yz11 21i7m3r4 12c2d3l9
MC You are told that there is an error in the statement 3p7q3r5s6 = 3p7s6. Tomake the
7 a 
statement correct, what should the left-hand side be?
A (3p7q3r5s6)0 B (3p7)0q3r5s6 C 3p7(q3r5s6)0 D 3p7(q3r5)0s6 e 3(p7q3r5)0s6

8f 6g7h3 8f 2
b You are told that there is an error in the statement = 2 . To make the
6f 4g2h g
statement correct, what should the left-hand side be?
8f 6 (g7h3) 0 8(f 6g7h3) 0 8( f 6g7) 0h3 8f 6g7h3
A B C D E  one of the
N
(6) 0f 4g2 (h) 0 (6f 4g2h) 0 (6f 4) 0g2h (6f 4g2h) 0 above

6k7m2n8
c What does equal?
4k7 (m6n) 0
3 3n8 3m2 3m2n8
A B C D e  one of the
N
2 2 2 2 above
8 WE16 Simplify each of the following.
2a3 6a2 3c6 6c3 5b7 10b5 8f 3 3f 7
a b c d
12a5 9c9 25b12 4f 5 3f 5
9k12 4k10 2h4 5k2 p3 q4 m 7 n3
e f g h
18k4 k18 20h2 k2 5p3 5m3 m4
8u9 v2 9x6 2y12
i j
2u5 4u4 3y10 3y2

54 Maths Quest 8

## c03IndexLaws.indd 54 02/07/14 2:31 AM

number and algebra

reaSonIng
9 Explain why x0 = 1.
20 x 2
10 Simplify , explaining each step of your method.
22 x 0
problem SolVIng
11 I raise a certain number to the power of three, then multiply the answer by three to the
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

power of zero. I then multiply the result by the certain number to the power of four
and divide the answer by three times the certain number to the power of seven. If the
final answer is three multiplied by the certain number squared, find the certain number.
Show each line of your method.
64x6y6z3
12 A Mathematics class is asked to simplify . Peters answer is 4x3. Explain
2 6
16x y z 3

why this is incorrect, pointing out Peters error. What is the correct answer? Can you
identify another source of possible error involving indices?

## 3.6 Fourth Index Law (raising a power to

anotherpower)
The Fourth Index Law states that when raising a power to another power, the indices are
multiplied; that is, (am)n = am n. For example, (53)2 = 53 2 = 56.
Every number and variable inside the brackets should have its index multiplied by the
power outside the brackets. That is,
(a b) m = am bm
a m am
a b = m
b b
(These are sometimes called the Fifth and Sixth Index Laws.)
Any number or variable that does not appear to have an index really has an index of one;
that is, 2 = 21, a = a1.
Every number or variable inside the brackets must be raised to the power outside the
brackets. For example, (3 2)4 = 34 24 and (2a4)3 = 23 a4 3 = 8a12.

WorKed eXample 17

## Simplify the following, leaving answers in index form.

32 3
a (74)8 b a b
53
THInK WrITe
a 1 Write the problem. a (74)8
2 Simplify using the Fourth Index Law = 74 8
(multiplythe indices). = 732
b 1 Write the problem. b 32 3
a 3b
5
2 Multiply the indices. 32 3
=
53 3
3 Simplify. 36
= 9
5

## c03IndexLaws.indd 55 02/07/14 2:31 AM

number and algebra

WorKed eXample 18

THInK WrITe

## 1 Write the problem. (2b5)2 (5b8)3

Simplify using the Fourth Index Law. = 21 2b5 2 51 3b8 3
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

2
= 22b10 53b24
3 Calculate the coefficient. = 4b10 125b24
= 500b10 b24
4 Simplify using the First Index Law. = 500b34

WorKed eXample 19

2a5 3
Simplify a b .
d2
THInK WrITe

a b
d2

## 2 Simplify using the Fourth Index Law for each 21 3a 5 3

=
term inside the grouping symbols. d2 3
23a15
= 6
d
3 Calculate the coefficient. 8a15
=
d6

## Exercise 3.6 Fourth Index Law (raisinga power

to another power)
IndIVIdual paTHWaYS
reFleCTIon praCTISe ConSolIdaTe maSTer
How will you remember to Questions: Questions: Questions:
raise all coefficients to the 14, 5ai, 6ac, 11, 12 17, 9, 11, 12 1di, 2di, 3di, 4, 5gi, 6, 7io,
power outside the brackets? 8go, 911, 13
Individual pathway interactivity int-4405

FluenCY
1 WE17 Simplify each of the following, leaving your answers in index form.
2 3
a (3 ) b (68)10 c (1125)4
d (512)12 e (32 103)4 f (13 173)5
33 10 7e5 2
g a b h (3w9q2)4 i a b
22 r2q 4

56 Maths Quest 8

## c03IndexLaws.indd 56 02/07/14 2:31 AM

number and algebra

## 2 WE18Simplify each of the following.

a (p ) (q3)2
4 2
b (r5)3 (w3)3 c (b5)2 (n3)6
d (j6)3 (g4)3 e (q2)2 (r4)5 f (h3)8 (j2)8
g (f 4)4 (a7)3 h (t5)2 (u4)2 i (i3)5 (j2)6
3 Simplify each of the following.
a (23)4 (24)2 b (t7)3 (t3)4 (a4)0 (a3)7
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

c
d (b6)2 (b4)3 e (e7)8 (e5)2 f (g7)3 (g9)2
g (3a2)4 (2a6)2 h (2d7)3 (3d2)3 i (10r12)4 (2r3)2
4 a MC What does (p7)2 p2 equal?
a p7 b p12 C p16 d p4.5 e p11
(w5) 2 (p7) 3
b What does equal?
(w2) 2 (p3) 5
a w2p6 b (wp)6 C w14p36 d w2p2 e w6p19 doc-2162

## c What does (r6)3 (r4)2 equal?

r3
a b r4 C r8 d r10 e r12
5 Simplify each of the following.
a (a3)4 (a2)3 b (m8)2 (m3)4
c (n5)3 (n6)2 d (b4)5 (b6)2
e (f ) (f )
7 3 2 2 f (g8)2 (g5)2 int-2360

g (p ) (p )
9 3 6 3 h (y4)4 (y7)2
(c6) 5 (f 5) 3
i j
(c5) 2 (f 2) 4
(k3) 10 (p12) 3
k l
(k2) 8 (p10) 2
6 WE19 Simplify each of the following.
3b4 2 5h10 2
a a b b a b
d3 2j2
2k5 3 7p9 2
c a b d a b
3t8 8q22
5y7 3 4a3 4
e a b f a b
3z13 7c5
underSTandIng
7 Simplify each of the following using the index laws.
a g3 2g5 b 2p6 4p2 c (w3)6
6
d 12x 2x e (2d 3)2 f 5a6 3a2 a2
14x8
g 15s8 5s2 h 4bc6 3b3 5c2 i
7x4
16u6v5
j ( f 4g3)2 k l x2y4 xy3
6u3v
m 5a6b2 a2 3ab3 n x2y4 xy3 o (4p2q5)3

## c03IndexLaws.indd 57 02/07/14 2:31 AM

number and algebra

reaSonIng
in each case.
4x5 3x
a (w3)4 w2 b c (2a3)2 3a5
2x 4

(2k3) 2
d 12x6 2x 3x5 e 2d 3 + d 2 + 5d 3 f
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

4k4
5
4p
g h 15s8t3 5s2t2 2st4 i 12b4c6 3b3 4c2
p 6p
4

(3p3) 2 4p7
j (f 4g3)2 fg3 f 7g3 k l 2(x2y)4 8xy3
2(p4) 3
4p2q7 (3p3q) 2
m 5a6b2 + a2 3a4b2 n 24x2y4 12xy3 xy o
6(pq) 3 p5q4
9 Explain why ((a ) ) = 1.
b c 0

10 A Mathematics class is asked to simplify (r4)3 (r3)2. Karlas answer is r. Explain why
this is incorrect, pointing out Karlas error. What is the correct answer?

problem SolVIng
(22)
11 Show that 2(2 ) is not equal to (((2)2)2)2.
12 Arrange these numbers in ascending order.
2 22 3 2 5
32 , 22 , 23 , 52, 25 , 22
13 a Identify as many different expressions as possible that when raised to a power will
result in 16x8y12.
b Identify as many different expressions as possible that when raised to a
doc-6852
power will result in 312na6nb12n.

58 Maths Quest 8

## c03IndexLaws.indd 58 02/07/14 2:31 AM

number and<STrand>
algebra

ONLINE
ONLINE ONLY
ONLY 0.00 Review
3.7 Review www.jacplus.com.au

## The Maths Quest Review is available in a customisable format

Review
www.jacplus.com.au
for students to demonstrate their knowledge of this topic.
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

## The Review contains:

The Maths Quest Review is available in a customisable format
Fluency
for skills
students
Theusing
Review
questions
to
allowing
demonstrate
the contains:
their
students
knowledge
most appropriate methods
to demonstrate
of this topic.
they have developed to efficiently answer questions
the
questions
Fluency questions allowing
problem Solving questions students
allowing to demonstrate
skills they have developed to effi ciently answer questions
demonstrate their ability to make smart choices, to model questions document
using the most appropriate
and investigate problems, and methods
to communicate solutions
problem
effectively.Solving questions allowing students to from the links found in
demonstrate
A summary their
on the ability
key pointsto covered
make smartand choices, to model
and investigate problems, and to communicate
map summary of this chapter are also available as digitalsolutions
effectively.
documents.

Language
int-2619

## base expanded form index form

basic numeral factor form index laws
coefcient index variable
int-2620

int-3183

questions to test your exciting online
online game game
combining a
readiness For learning, combining a comicstory with
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levels oF achievement. with problem-based
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assessON Voluptin
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study of mathematics.
www.assesson.com.au www.spyclass.com.au

## c03IndexLaws.indd 59 02/07/14 2:31 AM

number
<InVeSTIgaTIon>
InVeSTIgaTIon
and algebra
For rICH TaSK or <number and algebra> For puZZle

## Scientific notation and

UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

standard form

60 Maths Quest 8

## c03IndexLaws.indd 60 02/07/14 2:31 AM

number
number and
and algebra
algebra
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

## Note: SI is the abbreviation for International System of Units.

Your calculator will accept very large or very small numbers when they are entered because it uses scientic
notation. Use the following steps to write the number 825 460 in scientic notation.
Step 1: Place a decimal point so that the number appears to be between 1 and 10.
8.254 60
Step 2: Count how many decimal places the decimal point is from its old position. (For whole numbers, this
is at the right-hand end of the number.) In this case, it is ve places away.
8.254 60

Step 3: Multiply the number in step 1 by the power of 10 equal to the number of places in step2.
8.254 60 105

Note: If your number was made smaller in step 1, multiply it by a positive power to increase it
to its true value. If your number was made larger in step 1, multiply it by a negative power to
reduce it to its true value.
Proxima Centauri (or Alpha Centauri), near the Southern Cross, is the closest star to Earth and is 4.2 light-
years away. A light-year is the distance that light travels in 1 year. Light travels at 300 000 kilometres per
second.
1 Write 300 000 km/s in scientic notation.
2 Find the distance travelled by light in 1 minute.
3 Find the distance travelled by light in 1 hour.
4 Find the distance travelled by light in 1 day.
the length of a light-year in kilometres. (Whydo we
multiply by 365.25?) Write this distance in scientic
notation.
6 Calculate the distance from Earth to Proxima
Centauri in kilometres.
7 Calculate the distance from Earth to some other
stars in both light-years and kilometres.

## c03IndexLaws.indd 61 02/07/14 2:31 AM

<InVeSTIgaTIon>
number and algebra
For rICH TaSK or <number and algebra> For puZZle

Code puZZle

## The largest gland

in the body
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

= =

C V P I
5f 4 8e 9c 15
=

## 50t 12 25t 11 a6 a2 = 18n7u12 (6n 7u 7) (2n 5u 6)

=
=
F A 3n 3u
T =
N
(12c 20) (2c 13) (16c 9) (8c 5) = a 60 10e 3k 12
= =

K D W R
a 20 2k5e3
=

9c 2t 7e
= 8k 6e 2 6e 10 3e 2 = 35f 21 7f 12
3ct 4ec =

O H B U
4e 2k 4 =

= =

S L E Y
4f 8 2nu 8
= =

62 Maths Quest 8

## c03IndexLaws.indd 62 02/07/14 2:31 AM

number and algebra

Activities
3.2 review of index form 3.5 Third Index law
digital docs Interactivity
SkillSHEET 3.1 (doc-6834) Factor trees IP interactivity 3.5 (int-4404) Third Index Law
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

## SkillSHEET 3.2 (doc-6835) Squaring numbers 3.6 Fourth Index law

Interactivity digital docs
IP interactivity 3.2 (int-4401) Review of index form Activity 3-E-1 (doc-6848) Mammal dot to dotA
3.3 First Index law Activity 3-E-2 (doc-6849) Mammal dot to dotB
digital doc Activity 3-E-3 (doc-6850) Mammal dot to dotC
Spreadsheet (doc-2160) Multiplying with indices WorkSHEET 3.2 (doc-6852)
Interactivity Spreadsheet (doc-2162) Raising a power to
IP interactivity 3.3 (int-4402) First Index Law another power
3.4 Second Index law Interactivities
digital docs Indices (int-2360)
SkillSHEET 3.3 (doc-6836) Equivalent fractions IP interactivity 3.6 (int-4405) Fourth Index Law
SkillSHEET 3.4 (doc-6837) Simplifying algebraic 3.7 review
expressions Interactivities
SkillSHEET 3.5 (doc-6838) Simplifying algebraic fractions Word search (int-2619)
Spreadsheet (doc-2161) Dividing with indices Crossword (int-2620)
WorkSHEET 3.1 (doc-6851) Sudoku (int-3183)
Interactivity digital docs
IP interactivity 3.4 (int-4403) Second Index Law Topic summary
Concept map

## c03IndexLaws.indd 63 02/07/14 2:32 AM

number and algebra

topic 3 Index laws
3.2 Review of index form 3.3 First Index Law (multiplying numbers in index form with
1 a Base = 8, power = 4 thesame base)
b Base = 7, power = 10 1 a 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 26
c Base = 20, power = 11 b 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 = 58
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

## d Base = 19, power = 0 c f f f f f f f f f = f9

e Base = 78, power = 12 2 a 39 b 617 c 1010 d 116
f Base = 3, power = 100 e 79 f 214 g 54 h 811
g Base = m, power = 5 i 1315 j q47 k x14 l e4
h Base = c, power = 24 3 a 312 b 218 c 517 d 611
i Base = n, power = 36 e 106 f 1712 g p22 h e23
j Base = d, power = 42 i g 28 38
j e k 3b 13
l 5d16
2 a 26 b 44 c x5 4 a A b B
d 9 3 7
e 11l f 44m5 5 a 20p11 b 6x8
3 a 4 4 b 5 5 5 5 c 56y 10
d 21p8
c 7 7 7 7 7 d 6 6 6 e 84t6 f 30q15
e 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 a 6a6e7 b 8h12p6 c 80m9
f n n n n n n n
d 6g3h6 e 30p6q9 f 48u9w7
g a a a a 11 17
g 27d y h 42b14c9 i 24r16s18
h k k k k k k k k k k
j 60h v 38 20
4 a 243 b 256 c 256 d 1331
7 a 3x + 4 b 32y + 2 c 36y 5
23

## e 2401 f 216 g 1 h 625 d 312

5 a B b D 8 a 9 = 3 ; 27 = 3 ; 81 = 3
2 3 4

6 a 22 44 6 b 34 74 b i310 ii 32n + 2
c 23 195 d 44 132 9 The bases, 2 and 3, are different. The index laws do not apply.
e 66m p s 5 2 2
f 378i3n2r3 10 Step 1: 5n
g 192e3kp2 h 99j5lp2 Step 2: 5m
7 a 15 f f f j j j j Step 3: 5n+ m
b 7 k k k k k k s s 11 a 29 b 2r+1 c 25 + 26 = \$96
d 213 + 214 e 213(1 + 2) = 3(213)
c 4 b b b c c c c c
d 19 a a a a m n n n f Check with your teacher.
12 a x6 b 212 c 52 d (an) p = anp
e 8 l l l l r r t t
13 2
8 a 64 = 26 b 40 = 23 5
c 36 = 22 32 d 400 = 24 52 Challenge 3.1
e 225 = 3 5 2 2 f 2000 = 24 53 312 minutes
9 a 120 b 100 3.4 Second Index Law (dividing numbers in index form with
c 216 d 308 thesame base)
e 1575 f 760000 1 a 23 b 74 c 103
10 a i 101 ii 102 iii 103 iv 106 2 a 3 b 117 c 54 d 125
bii 5 10 2 e 33 f 13 g 64 h 104
iii4 102 + 7 101 i 1533 j h77 k b70 l f900
iv2 103 + 3 102 + 6 101 3 a 3x2 b 6y2 c 8w7 d 3q4
v1 103 + 9 102 + 8 101 e 8f9 f 10h90 g 4j10 h 5p10
vi5 103 + 4 102 + 3 101 3b6 9m4 5n90
c i 75000 i 8g3 j k l
2 2 2
ii 30600 4 a D b A
iii5200480 5 a 3p4 b 6r4 c 9a3 d 3b6
11 Factors multiplied together in shorthand form: e 20r4 f 9q
aaabbbb 3p5 8b5 5m10n6 9x8y 4hk3
2 a 23a2b3c4
1 b 2 074 464 6 a b c d e
3 a 1 102 + 4 101, 6 102 + 8 101
1
2 3 6 4 3
b 7 102 + 12 101 = 8 102 + 2 101 4p2rs 9a5b3c 20f 6g2h4
f 3f3j5 g h i
c 820 3 2 3
7 a 2 10 p b 2 4e + 4 c 5 3x + y d 31 m
d 820
e Check with your teacher. 23 24 22
8 a
14 a 1 23 + 1 21, 1 23 + 1 22 + 1 21 21 25
b 2 23 + 1 22 + 2 21 = 1 24 + 1 22 + 1 22 b i23 ii 8
= 1 24 + 2 22 = 1 24 + 1 23 c 8
c 24 2 3 33 22 32
d 24 9 a
22 3 34
b i21 31 ii 6

64 Maths Quest 8

## c03IndexLaws.indd 64 02/07/14 2:32 AM

number and algebra

10 The bases, 12 and 3, are different. The laws of indices do 7 a 2g8 b 8p8 c w18 d 6x5 e 4d6
notapply. f 15a10 g 3s6 h 60b4c8 i 2x4 j f8g6
11 a 3p b 3q c 3p q 8u3v4
12 ap ap = 1 and ap ap = ap p = a0 a0 = 1 k l x3y7 m 15a9b5 n xy o 64p6q15
3
m6 1 1 8 a w10 b 6x2 c 12a11 d 8x2 e 7d3 + d2
13 m6 m8 = m6 8 = m 2 but m6 m8 = = m 2 =
2 m2
m8 m 2
1 f k2 g h 6s7t5 i bc4 j 0
14 3
6
Challenge 3.2 k 18p l 16x9y7 m 8a6b2 n xy o 6q2
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

54 dabs 9 Any base, even a complex one like this, raised to the power of
one equals zero.
3.5 Third Index Law (the power of zero)
1 a 1 b 1 c 1 d 1
r7 r6 = r1 = r
2 a 1 b 1 c 1 d 1
3 a 4 b 12 c 9 d 22 2

## 11 2(2 ) = 22 = 216; (((2) 2) 2) 2 = 28

(2 ) 4

3 8
4 a 12m b 21 c 72 d 5 3 22
2 2
7 12 22 ; 23 ; 25 ; 22 ; 32 ; 52
e 2 f 10b2 g 3p2 h 1 13 a (16x y ) , (4x y6) 2, (2x2y3) 4
8 12 1 4
5 a 1 b 1 c 1 d 7
b (312na6nb12n) 1, (312a6b12) n, (36a3b6) 2n, (32a1b2) 6n,
e 3 f 3
6 a 1 b 4 c 2 d 2p9 (36na3nb6n) 2, (32nanb2n) 6
3 m3 c3 Investigation Rich task
e e4 f y g h
2 3 4
7 a D b A c D Standard SI SI
8 a 1 b 2 c 2 d 2 form Basic numeral Name prefix symbol
h2 q4 n3
e 2 f g h 1.0 1012 1000000000000 Trillion tera T
2 5 5
i v2 j 2x6 1.0 10 9 1000000000 Billion giga G
9 Any base raised to the power of one equals zero.
20x2 x2 x2 1.0 106 1000000 Million mega M
10 20 = 1, x0 = 1 = =
1
22x0 22 4 1.0 10 3 1000 Thousand kilo k
11
3
12 Peter has treated the xs wrongly. He has calculated x6 2 instead 1.0 102 100 Hundred hecto h
of x6 2.
The answer is 4x4. 1.0 101 10 Ten deca da
If 64 and 16 are converted to base 2 or base 4, and the indices
1.0 101 0.1 Tenth deci d
divided not subtracted, an error will occur.
3.6 Fourth Index Law (raising a power to another power) 1.0 102 0.01 Hundredth centi c
1 a 36 b 680 c 11100 d 5144 e 38 1012
3
330 72e10 1.0 10 0.001 Thousandth milli m
f 135 1715 g h 34w36q8 i
220 r4q8 1.0 106 0.000001 Millionth micro m
2 a p8 q6 b r15w9 c b10n18
d j18g12 e q4r20 f h24j16 1.0 109 0.000000001 Billionth nano n
g f16a21 h t10u8 i i15j12
1.0 1012 0.000000000001 Trillionth pico p
3 a 220 b t33 c a21 d b24 e e66
f g39 g 324a20 h 216d27 i 40000r54 1 3.0 105 km/s
4 a B b B c D 2 1.8 107 km/min
5 a a6 b m4 c n3 d b8 3 1.08 109 km/h
e f17 f g6 g p9 h y2 4 2.592 1010 km/day
i c20 j f7 k k14 l p16 5 9.47 1012 km. On average, there are 365.25 days in one year.
9b8 25h20 8k15 49p18 6 4.07 1013 km
6 a b c d
d6 4j4 27t24 64q44 7 Check with your teacher.
125y21 256a12 Code puzzle
e f The liver produces a litre of bile a day. It helps break down fat.
27z39 2401c20

## c03IndexLaws.indd 65 02/07/14 2:32 AM

ICT activity
way. Eventually it became apparent that the balloons were
hostile and were going to attack.
Terrified, Ms Lovely and the threatened children
escaped, but the killer balloons had taken control of

Attack of the killer her classroom and were threatening to spread. The
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

## students and staff were evacuated from the school,

balloons
and the Australian Centre for the Study of Extraordinary
and Unexplained Phenomena (ACSEUP) was called to
investigate. ACSEUP re-created the events to produce
Searchlight ID: Pro-0095 a simulation video so they could study the balloons and
work out how to defeat them. They realised that if they
Scenario could work out the mathematical pattern of the increasing
Ms Lovely is a Math teacher at Scholar High School and numbers of balloons perhaps they could find a plan for
during last week she had her 30th birthday. defeating them. However, after extensive analysis, they
husband, secretly placed a that your school had some clever maths students, and
balloon and flowers in her have asked your mathematics class to help MsLovelys
classroom before the students solve the mystery of the killer balloons.
beginning of her first class.
unknowingly purchased a killer Watch the case study video that ACSEUP has provided
balloon from Mr Loon, of Angry for your class, and simultaneously track the growth of
Balloons! During Ms Lovelys class, the killer balloons on a chart. Use the data that you have
the balloon developed a strange- collected to create a graph showing the growth rate of
looking face and burst open. the killer balloons. From these, create a mathematical
To everyones amazement, there equation that simulates the attack.
were now five balloons, all with When you have finished this research and understand
strange faces! the problem, you will answer some other questions that
During the following period when ACSEUP has asked about similar balloon scenarios.
Ms Lovely was taking a new class, the five balloons also These will include how to go about defeating the killer
burst, and during the day they continued to multiply in this balloons. Using your solutions to these questions,
combined with your charts, graphs and equations, you
will present a comprehensive report about the attack of
the killer balloons to ACSEUP.

66 Maths Quest 8

## c03IndexLaws.indd 66 02/07/14 7:09 AM

Record and graph the growth of the balloons. settings and the project will SuggeSTed
Create a mathematical formula that simulates the be launched. SoFTWare
growth of the balloons. Navigate to the Media ProjectsPLUS
Answer questions about other balloon growth Centre, then to the Microsoft Word
UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

## scenarios. Documents section and GeoGebra

Record and graph the popping of the balloons. answer the questions in the
Create a mathematical formula that simulates the six ACSEUP worksheets.
destruction of the balloons. Navigate to the Media Centre, then to the Template
scenarios. Use the Presentation guidelines to choose a topic for
Prepare a report on the attack of the killer balloons for your presentation, then read about the guidelines for
ACSEUP. the project.
Navigate to the Media Centre to access GeoGebra and
process the corresponding user manual.
Open the ProjectsPLUS application for this chapter If possible, use a SMARTBoard or overhead projector
in your eBookPLUS. Watch the Attack of the Killer and computer to display your GeoGebra graph and
Balloons case study, navigate to your Media Centre, tables during the presentation.
and print Template 1 provided in the Template section.
Fill in the required data in Template 1. Your Media
Centre includes the re-enactment of the killer balloon Your ProjectsPLUS application is available in
take-over. this chapters Student Resources tab inside your
Next, press the Start Project button and then set up eBookPLUS. Visit www.jacplus.com.au to locate
your project group. You will need to create a group of your digital resources.
two or three of your classmates before you begin this

Interactivity
KILLER BALLOONS
SearCHlIgHT Id: int-2447
If a quantity doubles or triples over a consistent
time period, it is said to be increasing
exponentially. Use this interactivity to change
the exponential rate of growth and then predict
the number of balloons that will appear. Watch
the graph of the number of balloons against time
plotted on the wall.

medIa CenTre
a Document section with
ACSEUP worksheets
a Template section with
presentation guidelines
GeoGebra software and its
user manual
an assessment rubric.

## Topic 3 The largest gland

Topic 3 inIndex laws 67
the body