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THE THE

THE TECHNICAL FILE

TECHNICAL
TECHNICA
FILE FILE
Excavation Support Systems
Excavation
for Temporary
SupportWorks
Systems for Temporary W
Technical Services
i.i

Foreword

Welcome to the Groundforce Technical File, the contents of this Technical File can also be found in our website an interactive
page ip is available at www.technicalle.co.uk. Groundforce Shorco offer for rent, what we believe to be the largest and most
comprehensive range of temporary works shoring equipment anywhere in Europe.

Our products include linear shoring such as trench boxes and waler frames, four-way hydraulic bracing - including long span, high
load capacity modular systems and hydraulic and mechanical modular struts capable of resisting loads in excess of 5000 kN. In
addition, we can provide an extensive range of ancillary equipment and products to cater for all your safety and shoring
associated needs.

Based in Morley, near Leeds, the ISO 9001 accredited Technical Services Department has extensive knowledge and experience in
the design of temporary works solutions for excavation support. Whether it is simply a matter of providing advice over the
telephone, or a fully validated temporary works design, we can prescribe innovative solutions to the most demanding of
projects. This is underwritten by professional indemnity insurance cover.

Our industry-renowned Major Projects team manage large or complex temporary works contacts ranging from complex
basement structures to intricate station boxes and tunnel portals. This team can offer a unique personal service from concept
through to construction, with emphasis on safety, buildability and cost effectiveness.

Our qualied designers and project team have vast experience within the specialist ground support sector and actively seek to
add value to your project by engineering unique, bespoke solutions, saving you time, effort and of course money.

Summary of Services

Fully documented bespoke temporary works designs including:

Safe, practical, cost effective solutions.

Design risk assessment and clear communication of residual risk.

Clear concise calculations using either limit equilibrium of soil interaction software as appropriate.

Detailed scheme drawings including stage by stage construction.

Method statements.

Site visits.
Always be up to date:
Advice on installation methods and techniques.
Sign up to our Technical Website:
Supply and instruction of our bespoke GFsafe design software package. vpgroundforce.com/technical-library

Training and lunchtime presentations.

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Technical Services
i.ii

A) Principles of Temporary Works Design

Design engineers will be familiar with both Permissible Stress and Limit State design concepts. At the time of writing, it remains current
practice within the UK temporary works community, to continue to adopt permissible stress concepts for small scale temporary works.

With the adoption of Eurocodes and the consequential eventual replacement of the traditional design methodology, loads or actions on
support systems will be need to be calculated and presented in terms of limit state design values. Obviously, when designing around
proprietary equipment these design loads will need to be equated to limit state resistance values for the equipment being considered.

It is vitally important therefore in the transition period between permissible and limit state philosophy to fully understand the various design
terms to ensure that load factors are applied correctly, thus ensuring that equipment is correctly specied to operate safely within its
capacity.

B) The Concept of Safety

Evidence of safety was traditionally recognised by quoting values for load capacity (or resistance) for shoring equipment in terms of (safe)
working load capacity. That is, the ultimate values for resistance parameters (calculated by recognised standards) are reduced by a lumped
(safety) factor, typically between 1.5 and 2.0 to generate working values and subsequently quoting these in standard load charts.

These charts are then used to equate with actual or unfactored working values of load for the member being designed.

It is more difcult to specify the equivalent level of safety as such with a limit state approach as partial factors are applied to both the loads
(or actions) and resistances as depicted on the diagram below.

Where:

1: Mean Load. 2: Characteristic Load.

3:: Limit State Design Load. 4: Limit State Design Resistance.

5: Characteristic Resistance. 6: Mean Strength.

F: Partial Factor for Load. M: Partial Factor for Resistance.

To gain an approximate comparison between allowable and limit state designs, the safety margin can be approximately recognised by the
product of F multiplied by M.

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Technical Services
i.iii

C) Basis of design

This edition of the technical le retains the concept of permissible state philosophy and consequently all load charts shown within
give values of working load (WL) in accordance with the relationship below.

i.e. WL = Ultimate resistance value / (global) FOS

The ultimate values of resistance are generally calculated using the principals contained within BS 5950: 2000.

When considering the structural resistance of a hydraulic member whether it is a exural bracing member or a strut designed for
predominantly axial load, two checks are carried out: (a) hydraulic capacity of the ram unit and (b) the structural capacity of the member
itself. The limiting factor at the span being considered dictates the overall capacity of the system. Generally at short spans it is the hydraulic
resistance that governs load capacity; at longer spans it is usually the members resistance to buckling that dictates.

D) Load Effects

Flexural members. When calculating the working load charts in this document, the load effects considered are:

The horizontal UDL calculated from geotechnical analysis.

Coincident axial load where applicable i.e. on 4-sided frames.

Note that:

That self weight is generally ignored as it is assumed that waling members are adequately supported along their length.

The compression is assumed to be fully restrained for calculation lateral torsional buckling.

The effective span is taken to be the distance between end pin joints.

The span for calculating the axial load is the overall length of the member.

Struts. Verication of strut capacity is somewhat more complicated due to the various load effects that need to be considered. These include:

The axial force calculated from geotechnical analysis.

The self-weight of the strut.

An allowance for accidental load generally applied as a point load applied vertically at mid-span for the most onerous effect.

Eccentricity of applied load equal to 10% of the strut diameter plus serviceability mid-span deection; applied as a uniform moment
(P- effect).

Note that:

Temperature change induced load effects, are not applied in the load charts but may need to be considered on a job specic basis,
particularly in the case of MP500 struts where monitoring has indicated that these loads can be very signicant.

The effective length factor used for calculating lateral buckling effects is taken as 1.0 between end swivel pivot points.

The load effects acting on a typical cross strut are represented in the diagram below:

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Technical Services
i.iv

E) Notes on factor(s) of safety:

i) Flexural members (bracing frames) - The lines on the working load graphs in this document are expressed in terms of working load
limit (formerly known as SWL). Values are calculated based on the structural bending capacity available (divided by a global factor for
live load of 1.6 to express it in WLL terms) after axial stress due to coincident axial load has been subtracted. All member resistance
calculations are in accordance with BS5950: 2000. Note that a minimum global factor of safety of 2.0 has been applied to all hydraulic
components in order to determine the working axial capacity of the integral hydraulic ram.

ii) Struts (designed to resist predominantly axial load) - The lines on the working load graphs for the Groundforce range of struts are
expressed in terms of working load limit (formerly known as SWL - see below for denition of terms) This value is calculated based on
the remaining structural capacity available (divided by a partial factor for live load of 1.6) to express it in WLL terms after deducting
bending capacity required to resist self weight, accidental loading and secondary moment effects (see diagram on i.iii). All strut
resistance calculations are in accordance with BS5950: 2000. Note that a minimum global factor of safety of 2.0 has been applied to all
hydraulic components in order to determine the working axial capacity of the integral hydraulic ram.

Denition of Terms

The following terms can be used to describe load and resistance:

Characteristic Load - The load (or action) that has a specic probability (usually 5%) of not being exceeded.

Characteristic Resistance - The value of resistance / strength of a supporting member that has a specic probability (usually 95%) of
being achieved.

Design Load - The characteristic load (or action) multiplied by a partial load factor.

Design Resistance - The characteristic resistance of a member divided by the partial safety factor relating to the material.

Safe Working Load - The maximum weight or load that a piece of equipment is designed to withstand in service (or unfactored)
conditions. Note this has been replaced the term Working Load Limit or WLL in many publications.

Lumped or Global Factor of Safety - used in permissible load methodology and is the ratio between the failure or ultimate load and
the working load (typically between 1.5 and 2 for ground support equipment).

Partial Load Factor(s) used in limit state design and is a factor applied to a characteristic load or material property to produce the
design load or resistance.

Ultimate Load the maximum load that the member can carry without collapse.

Useful Reading

The following documents are recommended reading being related specically to the temporary works design of excavations:

CIRIA C580: Embedded retaining walls guidance for economic design.

CIRIA C517: Temporary propping of deep excavations guidance on design.

CIRA SP95: The design and construction of sheet piled cofferdams.

CPA: Safety in Shoring The proprietary shoring and piling equipment manual.

CPA: Managing Health and Safety Risk in Excavations - Be Safe and Shore, Temporary works guidance.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Technical Services - engineer support
i.v

Design Software - GFsafe

GFsafe is an easy to use and innovative in-house developed program for the design of temporary works excavation support systems.

Bespoke limit equilibrium analysis software.

Soil parameter library and selection of analysis methods.

Construction stage by stage analysis.

Specic trench box design module included.

Comprehensive results printout.

Available for free download or installation and demo by trained GF


personnel.

GFdraw

GFdraw is an add-on to GFsafe which provides accurate drawings of Groundforce frames either
designed within GFsafe or specied by alternative methods.

Integrated module to produce fully detailed drawings of frames and sheets.

Export function to allow frame drawings to be inserted and edited within an AutoCAD
environment for ease of further editing and annotation.

GFsafe Import function to allows frames designed within GFsafe to be drawn automatically.

Manual frame creation, allowing the drawings of frames without the need of GFsafe.

Struts and knee braces can also be added to the frame layout.

Design Hub Component Library

We have created an online Design Hub that contains downloadable component drawings in
industry standard formats such as 2D & 3D AutoCAD blocks and also BIM Level 2 compliant Revit fam-
ilies. These components can then be inserted into your design drawing to give an accurate
representation of the Groundforce equipment that will be delivered to your site.

The Design Hub also contains links to other relevant sites where you can view technical
tutorials, read technical documents or download the latest software trials and le viewers.

Complimentary component library detailing Groundforce equipment.

Detailed installation and user instruction provided.

Separate libraries (2D, 3D or Revit) for easy browsing.

Groundforce Technical Website

To ensure youre always fully up to date easy access to User Guides, AutoCAD Blocks, Design Notes, Technical Files, Videos and much more
are available at www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library. Sign up today.

Useful Contact Information

Main Groundforce Website - www.vpgroundforce.com

Technical Website - www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library

Hire Enquires - 0800 000 345

Technical Services - 0845 602 9963

Technical Services email - technical@vpplc.com or majorprojects@vpplc.com

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Technical Services
i.vi

Notes:

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BRACING SYSTEMS
LIGHT DUTY
LIGHT DUTY
BRACING SYSTEMS

1
1.1 Mechshore Double Acting Manhole Brace
1.2 GF Double Acting Manhole Brace
1.3 Single Acting Manhole Brace
Mechshore Double Acting Brace
1.1.1

The Mechshore Double Acting Manhole Brace range consists of a series of


non-modular hydraulically adjustable legs which are connected together to
form a mid-range load capacity bracing system to support square or
rectangular excavation sizes from 1.5m to 8.3m.

The range consists of 5 individual legs, each incorporating a hydraulically


adjustable ram unit, which provides up to 1.0m of on-site ne length
adjustment. In addition, three of the legs also have a rough adjuster unit
providing further course length adjustment.

Features / benets

Single 32mm diameter corner pin connection for rapid assembly on site.

Excellent structural performance makes them ideal for higher load design
applications in deeper excavations.

Double acting hydraulics enable the legs to be both expanded and retracted
hydraulically by a suitable installation pump unit.

Integral hydraulic lock of valve enables the pump hoses to be easily released
and reconnected without uid loss.

690, 900M and 900S legs have a rough adjustment facility for greater on site
adjustment.

Compatibility

Can be used in conjunction with Maxi Brace legs with the appropriate adaptor
shoes. See Section 3.3 (Brace Ancillaries) for more details on frame
combinations.

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Mechshore Double Acting Brace
1.1.2

Technical Specication

a) 290 and 490 type Legs 290 and


490 Legs
Controlling section size: for structural assessment: 200x200x8 SHS, Grade S355 (50C) steel.

Working Moment capacity #: 117.0 kNm.

b) 690 type Legs

Controlling section size: for structural assessment: 200x200x8 SHS, Grade S355 (50C) steel
690 Legs
c/w 12mm thk front and rear doubler plates.

Working Moment capacity#: 168.0 kNm.

c) 900M type Legs

Controlling section size: for structural assessment: 203x203x71 UC, Grade S355 (50C) steel.
900M Legs
Working Moment capacity# 155.0 kNm (reduced due to proximity of joints).

d) 900S type Legs

Controlling section size: for structural assessment: 203x203x71 UC, Grade S355 (50C) steel.

Working Moment capacity#: 173.0 kNm.

# - see Introduction section for explanation of terms. 900S Legs

e) Hydraulic ram specication

Steel construction, double acting 63mm bore x 43mm dia piston rod bore area 31.2cm, working pressure 413 bar (6000 psi) combined
with integral lock-off valve. Hydraulic stroke is 1m on 490 & 900 legs, 0.9m on 690 legs and 0.75m on 290 legs. Thrust to Pressure ratio ~
22kN per 1000 psi (69bar).

Rated axial load capacity (all legs) 130 kN (FOS 2:1).

Operating Data

The Mechshore Double Acting Manhole Brace range comprises ve leg types as shown in the table below. In addition to hydraulic adjustment,
the 690 and 900 legs have a rough adjuster unit. The effective beam width on all leg types is 220mm (i.e. clear opening is the sheet-to-sheet
dimension less 440mm less leg deection). The deections stated in the table are worst case i.e. at maximum load and span.

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Mechshore Double Acting Brace
1.1.3

Working Load Performance Chart

Manhole brace legs act primarily as exural members designed to resist inward bending due to lateral earth pressures. As the
assembled braces support load on 4-sides, coincident axial load is also taken into account, although this has only a relatively minor effect
as axial capacity of individual legs is limited by the rated capacity of the integral hydraulic ram. Refer to the introduction section for more
explanation and a summary of load effects included within the design curves presented below.

The lines on the graph below indicate the working load limit expressed as a UDL for any particular brace leg working within its operating
range. The area directly below the lines represents the envelope for determining a safe solution. Generally, the limiting factor for all brace
congurations, apart from the 290 leg, is the bending capacity of the steelwork. Ultimate values of resistance have been calculated in
accordance with BS 5950: 2000 and these have been reduced by a lumped factor (of safety) of 1.5 to produce working load values. At
very short spans, the load capacity may be restricted by the limiting or rated axial capacity of the integral hydraulic ram unit.

As the operating range of the 290 leg is relatively small, the working load has been articially capped at 115.0kN/m throughout its range.

General arrangement of the rough adjustment mechanism (not for 290 & 490 legs)

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


GF Double Acting Manhole Brace
1.2.1

The GF Double Acting Manhole Brace range consists of a series of hydraulically adjustable
legs which, when assembled together, form a mid-range bracing system to support
square or rectangular excavation sizes from 2.0m to 6.0m in length.

The range consists of 4 individual legs types designated A to D, each incorporating a


double acting hydraulic ram unit, which provides up to 1.0m of on-site length adjustment.

Features / Benets

Single 50mm diameter corner pin connection for rapid assembly on site.

Ideal for light to medium duty load applications in 4-sided excavations.

The legs can to be both expanded and retracted hydraulically by a hand pump
to aid installation and removal.

Double acting legs incorporate a lock-off valve for greater security and allow
the pump hoses to be easily released and reconnected without uid loss.

Compatibility

Can be used in conjunction with the MAXI Brace system with suitable adapter
shoes. See Section 3.3 (Brace Ancillaries) for more details on frame
combinations.

Technical Specication

Outer Sleeve: 180x180x10 SHS grade S355 (50C) steel.

Inner Sleeve: 150x150x12.5 SHS grade S355 (50C) steel.

Working Moment Capacities (based on outer sleeve) - 83kNm.

Hydraulic Ram Specication: Double acting, steel construction 83mm bore x 1000mm
stroke rated axial load capacity = 150kN (FOS 2:1).

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GF Double Acting Manhole Brace
1.2.2
Operating Data

The GF Double Acting Manhole Brace range comprises four leg sizes, each with 1.0m of hydraulic adjustment facilitated by an integral
hydraulic ram. The beam width is 180mm. The clearance inside the frame is equal to the sheet-to-sheet dimension less 360mm less an
allowance for inward deection. The deections stated in the table are worst case i.e. at maximum load and span.

Working Load Performance Chart

Manhole brace legs act primarily as exural


members designed to resist inward bending due
to lateral earth pressures. As the assembled brac-
es support load on 4-sides, coincident axial load is
also taken into account, although this has only a
minor effect as axial capacity of individual legs is
limited by the hydraulic ram. Refer to the intro-
duction section for more explanation and a sum-
mary of load effects included within the design
curves presented below.

The lines on the graph opposite indicate the


working load limit expressed as a UDL for any
particular brace leg working within its operating
range. The area directly below the lines rep-
resents the envelope for determining a safe solu-
tion. Generally, the limiting factor for all brace
congurations is the bending capacity of the
steelwork. Ultimate values of resistance have
been calculated in accordance with BS 5950: 2000
and these have been reduced by a lumped factor
(of safety) of 1.5 to produce working load values.
At very short spans, the load capacity may be
restricted by the axial (rated) capacity of the
integral hydraulic ram unit.

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Single Acting Manhole Brace
1.3.1

The Single Acting Manhole Brace range consists of a series of non-modular,


(single piece) hydraulically adjustable legs which are connected together to
support square or rectangular excavation sizes ranging from 1.15m to 3.0m.

The range consists of 5 individual legs, each incorporating a single acting


hydraulic ram unit that provides on-site length adjustment in each leg.

Note: these legs are relatively light duty in terms of load capacity and the
single acting hydraulics necessitate manual retraction after pressure release.

Features / benets

Relatively lightweight - can be used with small excavators.

Simple and quick to assemble on site.

Ideal for light to medium duty applications in 4-sided excavations.

Single acting hydraulics requires only a single hose connection.

Hydraulic isolation valve is available on some models to prevent uid loss on


de-pressurisation.

540 Legs, being constructed from high strength aluminium alloy, weigh only
35kg making them ideal for use with utility companies.

Compatibility

Legs A and B are interchangeable with each other.

Legs 400S and 400M are interchangeable with each other.

540 Legs are non-interchangeable with other leg types.

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Single Acting Manhole Brace
1.3.2

Technical Specication

a) 540 Legs

Controlling section size for structural assessment: approx 120mm square bespoke extruded Aluminium Section (6082TF material)

Working Moment capacity*: 19.0 kNm

Ram Details: 50.8mm dia x 915mm stroke all alloy construction, single acting operation c/w
hydraulic lock off valve on most models. Rated ram capacity / axial load = 55kN
with a factor of safety of over 2 proven by test. Thrust to Pressure ratio ~ 14kN per
1000 psi (69 bar).

b) A and B Legs

Controlling section size for structural assessment: 120x120x10 SHS, Grade S275 (43C) steel

Working Moment capacity*: 30.5 kNm

Ram Details: 63mm dia x 700/800mm (Leg A/B respectively) stroke all alloy construction, single
acting operation. (no lock off valve). Rated ram capacity / axial load = 100kN with
a factor of safety of 2 proven by test. Thrust to Pressure ratio ~ 22kN per
1000 psi (69 bar).

c) 400S and 400M Legs

Controlling section size for structural assessment: 120x120x6.3, Grade S355 (50C) steel

Working Moment capacity*: 29.0 kNm

Ram Details: 50.8mm dia x 460/915mm (400S/400M respectively) stroke all alloy construction,
single acting operation (no lock off valve. Rated ram capacity / axial load = 80kN
with a factor of safety of 2 proven by test. Thrust to Pressure ratio ~ 14kN per
1000 psi (69 bar).

* see Introduction section for explanation of terms.

Operating Data

The Single Acting Manhole Brace


range comprises ve leg types as
shown in the table opposite.

Notes:

The deections stated in the


table are theoretical worst
case i.e. at mid-span and at
maximum load and span.

The operating range is


between the inside of sheeted
faces and represents the
stroke of the hydraulic ram.

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Single Acting Manhole Brace
1.3.3

Working Load Performance Chart

Manhole brace legs act primarily as exural members designed to resist inward bending due to lateral earth pressures.

As the assembled braces support load on 4-sides, coincident axial load is also generated within the supporting legs. However in the case of
single acting legs, 100% of the coincident axial load is resisted solely by the integral hydraulic ram. Therefore no axial load is transferred
into the structural casing (except at the very ends). Consequently, only bending effects are considered when calculating the working load
lines presented on the chart below.

The lines on the graph below indicate the working load limit (or safe working load), expressed as a UDL, for any particular brace leg
working within its operating range. Ultimate values of resistance have been calculated in accordance with BS 5950 :2000 and these have
been reduced by a lumped factor (of safety) of 1.5 to produce working load values. At very short spans, the load capacity may be
restricted by the limiting or rated axial capacity of the integral hydraulic ram unit.

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BRACING SYSTEMS
MEDIUM DUTY
MEDIUM DUTY
BRACING SYSTEMS

2
2.1 Maxi Brace
Maxi Brace
2.1.1

The MAXI Brace is a mid-range, heavy duty, hydraulically adjustable bracing system
suitable for supporting clear span square or rectangular excavations ranging from
3m to 12m in size. Higher load capacity and/or longer spans can be achieved by
incorporating either cross strutting of knee bracing. Modular extensions are
available to further extend beam lengths, however cross strutting is required with
these leg congurations.

Each standard leg type incorporates a hydraulic ram unit that provides 1.1m of
on-site adjustment. In addition there are three further legs which also incorporates
a pinned rough adjuster unit which provides further on-site adjustment (ie
additional 1.0m for the Type 8R, 2.0m for the Type 10R and 3.0m for the Type 12R).

Typical Applications

Thrust & reception pits, pipe connection chambers, CSO pits.

Excavations for underground concrete structures.

Excavations for interceptors & fuel tanks.

Features / Benets

Simple corner pin connection for quick assembly on site.

MAXI Legs 4 & 5 can also be adapted to be used as a medium duty hydraulic strut
with a maximum axial load of 245kN (FOS 2:1) for spans of 2.6m to 4.7m between
bearing surfaces.

The legs can be articulated (with adaptor brackets) to accommodate multi-sided i.e.
non-rectangular excavations.

Type R legs have a rough adjustment facility for greater scope for on site adjustment.

Compatibility

All Maxi Brace legs can be used in conjunction with Mega Brace, Mechshore Double Acting and GF Double Acting Manhole
Brace legs. See Section 3.3 (Brace Ancillaries) for more details on frame combinations. Modular extensions must be with cross
struts. Maxi legs and beams can also be used as the waling in raking strut systems, see section 5.5 (Strut Ancillaries).

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Maxi Brace
2.1.2

Alternative Leg Congurations

Maxi Brace legs are available in three different congurations as illustrated in the diagrams below.

Standard Leg 4 and 5 conguration (Note these legs do not have a rough adjustment facility)

Each individual leg consists of a telescopic hydraulic ram section, and two choices of length for the outer section to achieve the overall leg
length stated in the range chart on 2.1.4. These legs cover a range of 2.9m to 5.0m when combined with any other Maxi Leg.

Standard Leg 6 to 10 conguration (Note these legs do not have a rough adjustment facility)

Each individual leg consists of a telescopic hydraulic ram section and ve choices of beam length to achieve the overall leg length stated in
the range chart on 2.1.4. These legs cover an operating range of 4.9m to 10.0m when combined with any other Maxi Leg.

Standard Leg 8R to 12R Conguration (with rough adjustment unit)

Each frame leg consists of a telescopic hydraulic ram section and three choices of rough adjustment unit to achieve the overall leg length
stated in the range chart on 2.1.4. These legs cover a range of 5.9m to 12.0m when combined with any other Maxi Leg.

Modular Leg conguration (when combined with Maxi 6 to 10 or Maxi 8R to 12R)

Any Maxi leg except legs 4 & 5 can be used in conjunction with any number of xed length modular extension
beams to create a desired leg length. Please note cross struts must be introduced as appropriate to support
each internal joint as shown above.

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Maxi Brace
2.1.3
Technical Specication - all data refers to lateral bending about the vertical plane for
the controlling section. Cross Section through controlling
beam sections at mid-span
a) Legs 4 and 5

Outersleeve - Fabricated Steel Section - see gure opposite - Grade S355 steel

Innersleeve - Standard Steel Section: 200x200x12.5 SHS - Grade S355 steel

Working Moment capacity (M) = 158 kNm (outersleeve)

Plastic Modulus (S) = 899 cm3 (outersleeve)

Elastic Modulus (Z) = 710 cm3 (outersleeve)

Second Moment of Area (I) = 8700 cm4 (outersleeve)

Cross Sectional Area (A) = 94.2 cm2 (outersleeve)

b) Legs 6 to 10

Standard Steel Section: 305x305x118 UC - Grade S355 steel Maxi Legs 4 & 5 - Outersleeve

Classication - compact

Working Moment capacity (M) = 404 kNm

Plastic Modulus (S) = 1960 cm3

Elastic Modulus (Z) = 1760 cm3

Second Moment of Area (I) = 27700 cm4

Cross Sectional Area (A) = 150 cm2

c) Leg 8R, 10R and 12R

Standard Steel Section: 350x350x12.5 SHS - Grade S355 steel

Classication - compact

Working Moment capacity (M) = 532 kNm Maxi Legs 6 to 10

Plastic Modulus (S) = 2120 cm 3

Elastic Modulus (Z) = 1820 cm3

Second Moment of Area (I) = 31800 cm4

Cross Sectional Area (A) = 167 cm2

d) Other factors which inuence the overall working load capacity of the leg assembly

Working axial load capacity of the ram = 250 kN (legs 4 & 5)

Working axial load capacity of the ram = 245 kN (legs 6 -12R)

Minimum Factor of safety on all rams =2

60mm Corner Pin Shear Capacity = 616kN (single shear)

60mm Rough Adj Pin Shear Capacity = 330kN (limited by the bearing
stress on the inner sleeve) Maxi Legs with Rough Adjuster

Note: all pin material is 605M36T (EN16T) alloy steel (8R, 10R and 12R)

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Maxi Brace
2.1.4

Maxi Brace Data Chart

The standard Maxi Brace range consists of seven individual leg sizes; Legs 4 to 10 and have 1.1m of length adjustment via an inbuilt
hydraulic ram. Legs 8R, 10R and 12R have an additional sliding/pinned rough adjustment facility which gives 1.0m, 2.0m and 3.0m of
additional adjustment respectively (see 2.1.2). The maximum beam widths are 260mm (Maxi 4 and 5) and 350mm (Maxi 6 to 12).
Therefore the clear opening inside the frame equals the sheet-to-sheet dimensions less twice the beam width, less twice the allowance for
beam deection - refer to graph overleaf.

Articulation Adapter Detail

The Maximum / Minimum


articulation of Maxi Brace Articulation Adapter Plates
(Legs 6 to 12R), without
the Maxi/Maxi Articulations
plates is shown in the
diagram on the left.

Articulation

The minimum amount


articulation of Maxi Brace
(Legs 6 to 12R), with the
Maxi/Maxi Articulations All pins 60mm (ref 6)
plates is shown in the
diagram on the left.

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Maxi Brace
2.1.5

Maxi Brace Performance Chart - refer to section i for denition of terms

Maxi Brace legs act primarily as exural members designed to resist inward bending due to lateral earth pressures. As the assembled
frames support load on 4-sides, coincident axial load generated by perpendicular connecting legs is also taken into account; although this
has only a minor effect since axial capacity of individual legs is limited by the hydraulic ram. Refer to the introduction section for more
explanation and a summary of load effects included within the design curve presented below.

The Red Line on the graph below indicates the working load limit on a non-cross strutted leg expressed as a UDL throughout its span range.
The area directly below the lines (shaded grey) represents the envelope for determining a safe solution. Generally, the limiting factor for
all brace congurations is the bending capacity of the steelwork. Ultimate values of resistance have been calculated in accordance
with BS 5950 and these have been reduced by a lumped load factor of 1.5 to produce working load values. At very short spans, the load
capacity is restricted by the axial capacity of the integral hydraulic ram unit. A coincident axial load equal to the hydraulic ram capacity,
induced by the secondary legs in square or rectangular frame congurations, has been taken into account. The chart below indicates the
load and deection performance of clear span non-modular MAXI Brace equipment across its full span range. The dark shaded area under
the red line represents the envelope in which any given Maxi Brace leg will perform safely.

The Blue Line indicates (worst case) mid-span deection at working load limits; assuming the beam to be simply supported between the
end pinned connections

Note: This graph does not apply to modular maxi congurations. Due to need for cross struts to support the joints, the working load
capacity of modular maxi congurations is produced on a scheme specic basis. See page 2.1.6 for further information.

Working Load (kN/m)


Deection (mm)

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Maxi Brace - Modular Beams
2.1.6

Modular Maxi beams can be linked together to produce a continuous waling beam (in a similar manner to mega brace). Increased
versatility can be achieved by linking them to Maxi legs 6 to 10 or legs 8R to 12R to provide a hydraulic length adjustment facility (see
2.1.2). Due to the limited strength in bending of the joint between modular sections, cross struts must be introduced as appropriate.
Modular Maxi congurations must therefore be designed by a qualied engineer or the GF Technical Services Department.

Typical Applications

Deep and / or wide trenches that require continuous support.

Square or rectangular excavations that can accommodate cross struts.

Features / Benets

Modular construction with simple pin connections for quick assembly on site.

Relatively slender beam width which minimises excavation/backll requirements.

Relatively lightweight compared to similar systems.

Modular Maxi Beams - Technical specication

Standard Steel Section: 305x305x118 UC - Grade S355 (50B) steel.

Nominal beam lengths available: - 3m (430kg), 5m (685kg), 9m (1185kg).

Working Moment capacity of beam = 404 kNm - inward bending*

= 300 kNm - reverse bending

Plastic Modulus (S) = 1960 cm3

Elastic Modulus (Z) = 1760 cm3

Second Moment of Area (I) = 27700 cm4

Cross Sectional Area (A) = 150 cm2

Working moment capacity of joint = 140 kNm - inward bending*

= 90kNm - reverse bending

Note: The joint capacity is limited by the bearing strength of the connecting leaves.

Shear capacity of 60mm connecting pin = 616kN (double shear).


Cross Section through controlling
Note: pin material is 605M36T (EN16T) alloy steel.
beam section at mid-span
Minimum bearing capacity of beam (for cross strut bearing) = 800 kN

*bending in the direction of load application i.e. into the excavation. Additional design considerations/recommendations

Modular Maxi Joint Detail Raking struts should ideally be applied directly
opposite a stiffener but no more than 300mm either
side.

The working moments of the beam quoted above do


not allow for coincident axial load. They must be
reduced accordingly when the calculated axial load is
greater than 250kN. i.e. > 5% of axial capacity.

The working axial capacity of the joint is 800kN.

The Maximum length of any unsupported cantilever


2 No. 60mm Connecting Pins
must not exceed 2m.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


BRACING SYSTEMS
HEAVY DUTY

HEAVY DUTY
BRACING SYSTEMS

3
3.1 Mega Brace
3.2 Super Mega Brace
3.3 Brace Ancillaries
Mega Brace
3.1.1

The Mega Brace is a high load capacity modular hydraulic bracing system
designed to support square, rectangular or multi-sided excavations ranging from
3.0m to 20.0m in plan. It comprises hydraulic unit for ne length adjustment
connected to a series of modular xed length extension pieces for course length
adjustment, connected via a simple double pinned splice. The xed length
extensions can be connected together to form a continuous heavy-duty
waling beam when used as part of an internally strutted frame.

Typical Applications

Large Tanks - Interceptor, storage, fuel tank farms.

Cofferdams, basements, bridge abutments.

Reinforced Concrete Structures - Pumping Stations and Retaining walls.

Features / Benets

Modular format allows for easy installation of large frame congurations

with relatively light duty lifting equipment.

Pined joint and corner connections for quick assembly on site.

Ideal for long excavations, where large clear spans are required.

In built corner joint articulation enables the legs to be used for

non-rectangular e.g. hexagonal excavations.

Product Link
Double acting hydraulics with integral mechanical lock off valve for ease of
installation and removal with zero uid loss. Brace Ancillaries - Section 3.3
Strut Ancillaries - Section 5.4
Full mechanical lock off system available on special order.

Compatibility

Mega Brace legs are fully compatible with Maxi Brace legs. In addition the Mega Brace can be used with proprietary mechanical or
hydraulic struts, subject to detailed design checks, to increase the overall load capacity of the waling beam. The Mega beam can also
be used as the waling in raking strut systems, see section 5.5.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Mega Brace
3.1.2

General Arrangement of Typical Mega Brace Frame

The beam section width is 370mm and the overall section width, inclusive of the joint connection cleats, is 530mm. Therefore:

Clear opening between beams = sheet-to-sheet dimension less 740mm.

Clear opening between connections = sheet-to-sheet dimension less 1060mm.

Note: An additional allowance for the inward deection of the brace should be taken into account when provision of a minimum clear
opening is critical, such as in the case of an excavation required to install a prefabricated tank (see graph on 3.1.5).

Joint details.

All mega brace joints use a


simple pinned system.
Corner connections are
made with 1 No. 60mm
ref 6 pin

Intermediate spliced joint


connections between
extension pieces are made
with 2 No. 60mm ref 6
pins. Signicant moment
capacity can be thus
achieved, all be it in the
inward direction only. See
data on 3.1.4.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Mega Brace
3.1.3

Data table for assembled standard leg congurations

1m

1m 1m

3m Ext

3m Ext 1m

5m Extension

5m Extension 1m

5m Extension 1m 1m

5m Extension 3m Ext

5m Extension 3m Ext 1m

7m Extension 3m Ext

7m Extension 3m Ext 1m

7m Extension 5m Extension

10m Extension 3m Ext

10m Extension 3m Ext 1m

10m Extension 5m Extension

10m Extension 5m Extension 1m

Mega Brace legs comprise a double acting hydraulic ram unit (with a stroke of 1m) and a series of xed
length extension sections which are connected together to obtain the desired brace length. The above chart
provides information relating to the individual congurations of brace legs. The list is not exhaustive as
certain legs can be made up with alternative combinations of extension units.

e.g. A Mega leg 15 can be achieved with either:

a) A ram unit, 5.0m extension, 5.0m extension and 1.0m extension, or

b) A ram unit, 5.0m extension, 3.0m extension and 3.0m extension, or

c) A ram unit, 10.0m extension, and 1.0m extension,

d) The conguration indicated in the table.

Note: Individual clear spanning Mega Brace legs should not contain more than three extension units unless
part of an internally strutted frame for which a detailed scheme must be provided by a qualied engineer.
Please contact Groundforce Technical Services for more advice.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Mega Brace
3.1.4

Technical Specication - extension sections.

Bending: Working moment capacities of the extension beam section.

888kNm - inward bending.

800kNm - reverse bending.

Bearing: All Groundforce struts up to 250 tonnes capacity can be safely applied to the
front ange of the mega brace beam without risk of web buckling, irrespective of the
strut location in relation to the web stiffeners.

Other factors which inuence the overall working load capacity of the leg assembly

Pin joint: Working moment capacities (in the X-X plane).

667kNm - inward bending.


Mega Brace extension section
0kNm - reverse bending.
ex 356x368x177 UC - Grade S460 steel
Note: Two versions of hydraulic ram are used in mega brace. Early rams have a working
Schedule of Component Weights:
axial load capacity of 400kN; later rams have been up-rated to 500kN. Both rams have a
Description Weight per item (kg)
minimum factor of safety of 2:1 at maximum stroke.
Hydraulic Unit 1120
Connecting pin details (GF ref 6): 60mm , 605M36T (EN16T) alloy steel
1.0m Extension 410

Shear / bearing / bending capacity (working) = 1232kN (in double shear). 1.5m Extension 585

Design Notes and assumptions: 3.0m Extension 760

5.0m Extension 1120


Refer to section i for denition of terms and basis of loading
7.0m Extension 1485
All bending data is about the major axis X-X as indicated on the section above and
10.0m Extension 2075
includes a global factor of safety of 1.5 from ultimate limit state values End Cantilever bracket 30

Design verication of clear spanning mega legs can be undertaken by either carrying out

individual checks on the capacity of the beam, the capacity of the joint(s) in the legs

assembled conguration and the capacity of the hydraulic ram. Alternatively by simply

using the load chart on page 3.1.5 which takes these factors into account for standard
assembly congurations.

Where cross strutting is required, struts must be carefully located so as not to induce reverse
bending across a joint. Consideration also needs to be given to the differing hogging and
sagging moment capacities of the beam as stated above.

The bending moment capacities specied above have been calculated using the following
assumptions.

The ange of the beam in contact with the piled face is assumed to be fully restrained against lateral torsional buckling effects.

Bending due to self weight and accidental loading are ignored as it is assumed that the mega brace is supported with chain hangers
or brackets at regular intervals along its length in accordance with the recommendations stated within the user guide.

Coincident axial loading can have a signicant effect on the bending capacity of the mega beam. This is particularly signicant in
knee braced frame congurations where welded shear stops or clamps (see photo above) attached to the waling restrain the strut
against longitudinal movement. It is recommended that a rst principal assessment of beam capacity is made where coincident axial
load exceeds 500kN. Contact the technical department for more advice.

The reverse bending or hogging moment value for the beam quoted above considers potential buckling of the inner compression
ange taking into account load application is destabilizing. Web stiffeners are assumed to provide a degree of lateral and torsional
restraint to this ange.

Bearing loads applied to the inner ange between stiffener locations (in cross strut applications) are limited by web strength in relation
to the stiff bearing length. First principal checks are recommended where strut loads exceed 2500kN. Contact the Technical
Department for more advice.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Mega Brace
3.1.5

Mega Brace Performance Chart for 40T ram units - refer to section i for denition of terms

Mega Brace legs act primarily as exural members designed to resist inward bending due to lateral earth pressures. As the assembled
frames support load on 4-sides, coincident axial load generated by perpendicular connecting legs is also taken into account; although this
has only a relatively minor effect since axial capacity of individual legs is limited by the hydraulic ram. Refer to the introduction section for
more explanation and a summary of load effects included within the design curve presented below.

The chart below indicates the load and deection performance of clear span i.e. non-strutted Mega Brace waling beams across its full span
range. The darker shaded area represents the envelope in which any given Mega Brace leg will perform safely. Ultimate values of
resistance have been calculated in accordance with BS 5950 and these have been reduced by a lumped load factor of 1.5 to produce
working load values. At shorter spans, the load capacity is restricted by the axial capacity of the integral hydraulic ram unit.

The Three Red Lines indicate the working load limit of Mega Brace legs with coincident axial loads of zero, 200kN and 400kN induced in
them by the secondary legs. These lines govern the WLL of the Mega Brace legs between spans of approximately 11.0m to 20.0m. The
Green Line is the WLL governed by the 400kN axial load capacity of the secondary legs as limited by the hydraulic ram. This line
governs the WLL of the Mega Brace between spans of approximately 3.0m and 11.0m. The Blue Line indicates the approximate worst case
(inward) deection of a Mega beam calculated at mid-span under working load limit conditions. Note: This graph does not apply to cross
strutted congurations. The working load capacity of these is produced on a scheme specic basis. See notes on P4. For further
information contact the Technical Services Department.

Working Load (kN/m)


Deection (mm)

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Mega Brace
3.1.6

Mega Brace Performance Chart for 50T ram units - refer to section i for denition of terms

The latest Mega Brace rams incorporate a 500kN or 50T hydraulic ram to improve performance,
particularly at shorter spans where axial compression is a limiting feature. All other leg details remain
the same and 40T and 50T units are interchangeable.

The performance chart for legs incorporating 50T rams is shown below, this is also represented by a
matrix chart which explains potential modes of failure at various spans and congurations.

Note: The two hydraulic units appear virtually identical except for a MEGA 50T stencil on the 50T
ram units.

Working Load (kN/m)


Deection (mm)

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Mega Brace
3.1.7

Mechanical lock-off system

As a special order option only, the hydraulic unit on 500kN mega rams can be tted with
locking rods to effectively isolate the hydraulic ram after installation and pressurisation.
The system has been designed to give ultimate peace of mind in highly sensitive situations
where it is considered not acceptable to rely on hydraulic pressure alone to support load.

A pair of high tensile 36mm diameter threaded rods are inserted through anchor plates
welded to both the sliding inner and outersleeves on the hydraulic unit. After insertion, the
rods are secured with locking nuts either side of the thrust plates. Heavy duty rubber
washers are inserted on the compression thrust faces to introduce a small amount of
exibility into the system so the rods do not immediately attract all the load (being more
rigid than the hydraulic ram)

Note: this system is designed as an emergency failsafe feature to come into play in the
extremely unlikely event of hydraulic ram failure. The design (in compression) of the locking
rods includes for a reduced factor of safety of 1.2 to reect this. Note that this feature is not available on all ram units and is therefore
subject to special order only and at additional cost.

General Arrangement of Components

Twin 36mm diameter high tensile


Locknuts and compression threaded locking bars
washers

Mega ram
sliding
innersleeve
Mega ram sliding outersleeve

Standard corner
pin detail
Integral anchorage points
on sliding sleeves

Note: The locking rods act as a secondary restraining system in

rubber the unlikely event of ram failure. Hard rubber washers are insert-
washers ed under steel washers on the thrust side of the rods as shown oppo-
site. These washers allow a small amount of axial movement within
the locking system so as to permit any subsequent (geotechnical)
load increase after installation to be distributed back into the
hydraulic ram; which is the main load bearing component.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Super Mega Brace
3.2.1

The Super Mega Brace is a high load capacity modular hydraulic bracing
system designed to support square, rectangular or multi-sided excavations
ranging from 4,7m to 24.2m in plan. Each leg comprises a length adjustable
hydraulic unit, a series of modular xed length extension pieces and a telescopic
pinned rough adjuster unit. Connections between modular sections are made on
site via a spliced connection with a single pin. The xed length extensions can be
connected together and when combined with cross struts, form a continuous
heavy-duty waling beam.

Typical Applications

Large Tanks requiring clear spans, heavily loaded cofferdams, and


excavations for deep basements and similar structures.

Features / Benets

Modular format with simple single pinned joint connection facilitates


easy installation of large frame congurations

High load capacity makes it suitable for use in long span and / or deep
excavations in poor ground.

In built corner joint articulation enables the legs to be used for


non-rectangular and multi sided excavations.

Compatible with Groundforce`s range of heavy duty strutting systems


to enable high waling loads to be accommodated. Product Link
Brace Ancillaries - Section 3.3
The hydraulic unit incorporates a double acting ram with integral
Strut Ancillaries - Section 5.4
mechanical lock off valve for security, ease of installation and removal and
zero uid loss.

Leg congurations can include a rough adjustment unit for greater on site

Compatibility

The Super Mega Brace is compatible with the Groundforce Mega Brace system via end adaptor units.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Super Mega Brace
3.2.2

General Arrangement of a Typical Super Mega Brace Frame

The beam section width is 575mm and the overall section width, inclusive of the joint connection cleats, is 612mm. Therefore:

Clear opening between beams = sheet-to-sheet dimension less 1150mm.

Clear opening between connections = sheet-to-sheet dimension less 1224mm.

Note: An additional allowance for inward deection under load should also be taken into account when sizing up overall excavation
dimensions, particularly when clear openings are a critical consideration, such as for excavations to install single tanks - see graph on page
3.2.6).

Corner / Intermediate Joint details.

All Super Mega Brace components are pinned together with 80mm (ref 31) pins. The Intermediate joint uses a single pin passing through
high strength 6 leaf joint (5 shear planes). Note that the capacity of the joint in bending is 75% of the beam capacity. The corner joint uses
a 5 or 4 leaf joint depending on the conguration and the same 80mm pin.

Corner Joint Intermediate Joint

Rough Adjuster Details.

Rough adjustment is facilitated by telescopic inner and outer sleeves with


four sets of pin hole drillings at 500mm centres. 2No. 60mm (ref 32)
high strength pins acting through multiple shear planes provide resistance
to axial load when the desired length has been selected.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Super Mega Brace
3.2.3

Data table for assembled standard leg congurations

3m

5m Ext

6m Extension

9m Extension

12m Extension

3m

5m Ext

6m Extension

9m Extension

12m Extension

Super Mega Brace legs comprise a double acting hydraulic ram unit (with a stroke of 1500mm) , a series of xed length extension sections
and where necessary a 4-stage rough adjustment unit with an available adjustment of 2000mm in 500mm increments, which are all
connected together to obtain the desired brace length. The above chart provides information relating to the individual standard
congurations of brace legs. The list is not exhaustive as certain legs can be made up with alternative combinations of extension units.

Schedule of Component Weights:


Note:
Description Weight per item (kg)
Careful consideration must
Hydraulic Ram 3810
be given to the signicant
Rough Adjuster 3990
weight of the Super Mega
3.0m Extension 1450
Brace components and leg
5.0m Extension 2300
assemblies when planning
6.0m Extension 2675
and preparing site lifting
9.0m Extension 3960
plans.
12.0m Extension 5200

Due to its size and weight, careful consideration must be given to the support of the
assembled legs along their length, This can be accommodated by either hanging the units
from heavy duty sheeting or piling using certied chain assemblies incorporating length
adjustable load bindings (see photo opposite). Alternatively support can be provided by a
series of purpose designed gallows brackets welded or bolted to the supporting wall
along its length.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Super Mega Brace
3.2.4

Technical Specication. Refer to section i for denition of terms and basis of loading.

A) Fabricated Steel Section:

Comprising of a twin 533x210x122 UC c/w 500mm high,15mm thick doubler plates on the front
and back faces to form a torsionally rigid box section . The key properties of the fabricated section
acting about the x-x axis are as follows;

Area (gross): 460cm Steel Grade: S460

Shear Area: 145,7cm Yield Strength: 440-460N/mm

Moment of inertia: 269418cm4 Tensile Strength: 540N/mm

Section Modulus: 9379cm

The working capacities (including a global safety factor of 1.5) of the xed length Extension
pieces are given below;

Axial Compression: 13496kN Shear force: 2468kN Bearing force*: 2263kN

Bending moment (hogging and sagging): 2876kNm


X-X axis
*The allowable bearing force stated (force applied to the front face of beam through a cross
strut) is based on the application of a single load acting at its worst case position. Bearing capacity
can be signicantly increased by positioning the strut directly opposite a stiffener location. Note
that if the cross struts are Groundforce MP500 units the stated bearing capacity can be doubled as
the load is distributed through much wider bearing plates than has been used to determine the
above value.

B) Hydraulic Ram / Rough Adjuster

The hydraulic ram & rough adjuster units comprise telescopic sliding inner & outer fabricated square
hollow sections as illustrated opposite offering 1.5m of ne adjustment and 2m of course adjustment
respectively. Local axial resistance is provided by either the integral hydraulic ram or the double shear pin
in the rough adjuster Shear force and bending moment resistance is provided by the steel sections
themselves and their interaction with one another. Structural data for these components is
tabulated below.

Axial Compression in hydraulic ram: 1500kN (with a safety factor of 2)

Axial Compression in rough adjuster**: 1500kN Bending moment in outersleeve: 2584.1kNm,

Shear force in outersleeve: 3895.2kN Bending moment at overlap ***: 1419.3kNm

** relates to the combined shear resistance of the 2No. 60mm pins

*** the value stated is based on the maximum leg extension (i.e. minimum overlap)

C) Intermediate Joint
The joint consists of a single 80mm pin (EN24T), housed in a 6 leaf joint cassette fabricated from ultra
high tensile grade S690 steel. When subject to typical bending conditions into the excavation, the pin
within joint at the front of the beam provides tensile resistance through the multiple shear planes whilst
the rear bearing area of the joint transfers the associated compressive force in the couple. However the
joint is uni-directional and offers little resistance to hogging moment. Therefore when undertaking a
continuous beam type structural analysis, struts must be positioned so that the beam joints do not
fall within the hogging zone. Please refer to the technical department for further advice.

Inward (sagging) moment: 2094.7kNm Outward (hogging) moment: 0kNm

Shear resistance of pin: 4739.9kN#

# based on 5 shear planes or 6 leaves acting . Refer to page 3.2.5 for guidance on the design of the Super
Mega Intermediate Joint.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Super Mega Brace
3.2.5

Verication of the Intermediate Joint capacity under combined load effects

The joint must be veried against of the combined effects of compression, bending moment and
shear force in accordance with the following equation:

M N 2
V2 Shear capacity of the Pin#
L 2

Where M = Applied (unfactored) bending moment (kNm),

N = Applied (unfactored) Axial Force (kN)

V = Applied (unfactored) Shear Force (kN)

L = lever arm = 0.442m (see diagram opposite)

C = centroid of compression zone

T = tension force (applied to pin)

#
Shear resistance of pin: = 4739.9kN (see previous page)
Forces on Joint

Design Notes and Assumptions:

The design verication process of clear spanning Super Mega Brace legs is relatively straightforward providing that consideration is taken of
the different moment capacities of the beam and joint. The standard load /span chart on 3.2.6 takes this into account.

Where cross strutting is introduced, the positioning of the struts relative to the joint must be carefully chosen preferably to ensure that zero
reverse bending is applied across the joint. If this is unavoidable due to practical constraints, the joint may be positioned in a zone of
reverse bending providing it is considered as a pinned zero moment) connection.

The specied bending moment capacities have been calculated using the following assumptions:

The beam section is a hollow section with high torsional


resistance and is therefore not susceptible to lateral
torsional buckling.

Vertical stress due to self weight and accidental loading


are ignored as it is assumed that the super mega brace
is supported with restraint chains or brackets at regular
intervals along its length.

Coincidental axial loading has a negligible effect on the


bending capacity of clear spanning super mega frames.
This is however particularly prevalent in kneed braced
congurations where welded shear stops or clamps (see
photo above) are used to restrain the struts against
longitudinal movement. It is recommended that a rst
principal assessment be made where coincident axial load
exceeds 1500kN. Please contact the technical department

The reverse bending or hogging moment value quoted above has been limited to take into account potential instability in the
compression ange due to lack of restraint and location of web stiffeners.

Flange bearing loads are limited by web bearing, buckling and whether the strut is positioned opposite a web stiffener. The above
gure (2263kN) is a conservative value and can be used irrespective of the web stiffeners positions. First principal checks are
recommended where strut loads exceed this value.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Super Mega Brace
3.2.6

Super Mega Brace Performance Chart

Super Mega Brace legs act primarily as exural members designed to resist inward bending due to lateral earth pressures. As the
assembled frames support load on 4-sides, coincident axial load generated by perpendicular connecting legs is also taken into account;
although this has only a relatively minor effect as axial capacity of individual legs is limited by the hydraulic ram. Refer to the introduction
section for more explanation and a summary of load effects included within the design curve presented below.

The chart below indicates the factored or working load and deection performance of clear span i.e. non-strutted Super Mega Brace
waling beams across its full span range. The area below the red line represents the envelope in which any given Super Mega Brace leg will
perform safely. Ultimate values of resistance have been calculated in accordance with EN 1993 and these have been reduced by a lumped
load factor of 1.5 to produce working load values. At shorter spans, the load capacity is restricted by the axial capacity of the integral
hydraulic ram unit.

The Red Line indicates the working load limit of Super Mega Brace legs having made allowances for the capacity of the weaker
components such as the intermediate joint and the overlapping tubular box sections. The Blue Line indicates the approximate worst case
(inward) deection of a Super Mega beam calculated at mid-span under working load limit conditions. The accounts for any lack of t
associated with the modular equipment.

Note: This graph does not apply to cross strutted congurations. The working load capacity of these leg congurations must be determined
on a scheme specic basis using data and guidance notes provided earlier within this section. For further information contact the Technical
Services Department.

Working Load (kN/m)


Deection (mm)

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Brace Ancillaries - Restraint Chains
3.3.1

Restraining chains are used to support hydraulically operated shoring


equipment against vertical movement. Restraining chains are not classied as
Lifting Equipment in accordance with the Lifting Operations and Lifting
Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER) and therefore should never be used for
lifting purposes.

LOLER denes lifting equipment as work equipment for lifting or lowering loads.
Restraining chains are not (and must not be) used for lifting or lowering a load and
therefore fall outside the scope of LOLER. Consequently the regime specied by
LOLER for regular thorough examination is therefore NOT applicable to these chains.

The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) however,
require that all work equipment is maintained (Regulation 5) and inspected
(Regulation 6) at suitable intervals and it is standard practice to inspect each
restraining chain assembly before it is sent out on hire. This forms part of the
suppliers in-house equipment maintenance procedures.

Chains are typically hooked onto the tops of the sheets or piles and attached to
dedicated attachment points on the equipment. The chains are also used to link
together lower frames to form continuous support. The amount and location of
restraining chains will always be indicated on the scheme specic drawings.

Note: The angle between the chain and the sheet must not be greater that 30 (2:1)

The individual components which constitute the restraining chain assembly are
shown below.

9.5mm (3/8) forged Eye


Chain Hook WLL - 1.8t m 3

2.0 tonne GF spec alloy screw


pin bow shackle, WLL 2t

Not for Lifting tag

3m long, 9mm, Grade 80,


long link chain, minimum
breaking load 10 tonnes

Product Link
For further advice on restraining chains visit:
www.cpa.uk.net/p/Shoring-Technology-Interest-Group/

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Brace Ancillaries - Brace Compatibility
3.3.2

Where different bracing leg types are not directly interchangeable, a range of
adapter shoes have been developed to enable certain bracing frame legs types to
be connected together. This enables more economic design solutions to be
achieved in certain situations. For example, a lighter duty frame could be used on
the shorter side of an excavation with a heavier duty item on the longer side. Thus
achieving a more cost effective solution and lighter overall frame.

When combining frame types together however, care must be taken to ensure that
the smaller legs are not overloaded axially.

The inclusion of adapter shoes will in most cases affect the operating range of the
legs, in some cases very signicantly - see table below.

Not all leg types can be combined - see table below.

Compatibility Tables

Mega Brace Maxi Brace D/A Mechshore D/A (GF)

Not Not
Mega Compatible Compatible
Compatible Compatible

Compatible Compatible
Maxi Brace Compatible Compatible
Adapters Adapters

Not Compatible Not


D/A Mechshore Compatible
Compatible Adapters Compatible

Not Compatible Not


D/A (GF) Compatible
Compatible Adapters Compatible

Combination Effect on Leg Range (Length) Effect on Leg Range (Width)

Mega / Maxi Mega -400mm Maxi +400mm

Maxi x D/A (Mechshore) Maxi 300mm D/A (Mechshore) +650mm

Maxi x D/A (GF) Maxi 300mm D/A (GF) +800mm

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Brace Ancillaries - Shear Clamps
3.3.3

Shear stops are required to transmit lateral or non-perpendicular strut forces into
waling members as in the case of knee braces. The re-usable Shear Clamp has
been developed as an economic and practical alternative to the traditional welded
shear stop.

The clamp is attached to the front face of the Mega Brace beam and comprises six,
rotating, high tensile, toothed, eccentric cams that grip onto the upper and lower
edges of the ange. They are pre-set onto the beam anges using a special tool
and once in place, any load applied through the prop and into the clamp induces
self tightening of the cams.

When specied, the Shear Clamps will be either installed prior to delivery or onsite
by trained Groundforce personnel.

Advantages

Shear Clamps are tted prior to the waling beam prior to delivery to site and are
consequently ready to go into service straight away.

In emergencies they can be re-positioned on site if required (by trained personnel).

Speeds up the strut installation process as they act as a guide for strut positioning, no
additional drilling, bolting or welding is required. The strut can simply be pumped out
and pressurised as per the user guide of specic instructions until it pushes up against
the shear clamp block.

Environmentally friendly as its reuse capability eliminates the need to weld and
subsequently remove disposable steel restraint blocks to/from the waling beam.

Compatibility

Only ts to Mega Brace waling beams.

Can be used in conjunction with all Groundforce strut types up to and including the
MP150 subject to design checks.

Load Capacity

Single shear clamp load capacity = 570 kN in direct shear - Factor of safety of 2
proven by test.

Two or more clamps can be used together where greater shear restraint is required

Note: Weight ~ 125kg per clamp.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


MECHANICAL
STRUTS

MECHANICAL
STRUTS

4
4.1 MP30 - 30 Tonne Mechanical Strut
4.2 MP60 - 60 Tonne Mechanical Strut
MP30 Mechanical Strut
4.1.1

The MP30 is a modular format light-duty mechanical prop comprising short stroke adjustable mechanical screw jack units bolted
to xed length lightweight soldier extensions. MP30s are generally used for light duty cross strutting or propping applications.
At shorter spans, it is the local capacity of the end connections that limits the axial load capacity. At longer spans it is the
potential for exural buckling of the soldier extension sections that dictates overall axial capacity.

The MP30 has an operating range of 0.65m to 5.8m without the need for intermediate support and can withstand working axial
loads up to 30 tonnes at shorter spans. MP30 Props can be extended up to 8.1m long by utilising twinned up soldier extensions
to provide greater resistance to buckling.

Typical Applications

Can be used in combination with Groundforce proprietary waling


systems such as the Mega Brace, Maxi Brace or Heavy Duty Waler
beams as an intermediate cross strut or as a raking prop (using
appropriate end connection adaptors),

Examples of other non-standard applications are stand alone


horizontal and vertical propping of walls, and oor slabs.

Features / benets

The MP30 is a relatively lightweight system comprising


man-handleable components; ideal for locations where working
space and access is limited.

End bearing plates incorporate a swivel pin type connection


enabling articulation of the plate relative to the axis of the strut
up to +/- 45 for knee brace and raking applications

One or both ends of the strut can be equipped with screw jacks to
Product Link
facilitate up to 290mm of length adjustment.
Strut Ancillaries - Section 5.4
Heavy duty version can be supplied utilising twinned up soldier
sections to increase resistance to buckling.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


MP30 Mechanical Strut
4.1.2

Technical Specication - refer to section i for denition of terms

Maximum working axial load as governed by the mechanical jack unit - 300kN (30 Tonne) with a factor of safety of 3.

Limiting parameters: 0.65m (Minimum span), 8.08m (Maximum span un-supported), 4.25m (Max span at max load - using twinned soldiers)

Mechanical Jack construction: All steel construction, thread size 57 dia. X 6.35mm pitch stub acme thread

Standard Extension Construction: Proprietary Mk2 Soldier Section

Factor of safety on strut buckling is 2.0; calculated in accordance with BS 5950: 2000

Flange connection: 4 No. M16 x 35mm grade 8.8 bolts

Available Extension lengths: 0.15m, 0.45m, 0.90m, 1.125m, 1.80m, 2.70m and 3.60m

End Bearing Plate Articulation: +/- 45 from the axis of the strut in one plane.

MP30 Operating Range/Weight Chart

Schedule of Component Weights:

Description Weight per item (kg)

300kN Screw Jack 24

End Swivel Assembly 31

Multiway Adaptor 29

0.15m Packer 7.2

0.45m Extension 11.7

0.90m Extension 21.4

1.80m Extension 37.4

2.70m Extension 54.2

3.60m Extension 71.0

Universal Bearing Plate 10.5

Cleat 2

The MP30 Strut has a modular format


comprising a series of bolt together xed
length extension units that are used to
obtain the desired length.

The table to the left shows standard


congurations of the strut. The list is not
exhaustive as other permutations are
possible and valid, however the strut should
not use more than three extension pieces in
a single assembly.

Each screw unit has an adjustment of


150mm, giving a total of 300mm of
adjustment where two screws are present.
A 150mm packer can be incorporated into
any of the congurations shown in the table
to provide an additional 150mm of range to
the system.

Congurations marked with a T sufx,


utilise twinned up soldiers in conjunction
with the multiway adaptor as shown below.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


MP30 Mechanical Strut
4.1.3

MP30 Mechanical Strut - Working Load Chart - see section i for denition of terms

The lines on the chart below indicate the maximum working axial strut load that can be resisted by a MP30 strut at various spans. The area
under the lines indicate the envelope for a safe solution. It is not considered necessary to account for thermal effects, accidental loading,
eccentricity of applied loading or second order effects in MP30 struts when used in the UK and therefore no allowance for these
load effects have been allowed for in this chart. Please refer to section i for more information on the load effects acting on struts.

Explanation: The green and red horizontal portion of the lines on the chart indicate the working axial capacity of the strut assembly as
limited by the 300kN local capacity of the screw jack. units The sloping lines indicate a load reduction from this value due to the effects of
potential buckling of the steel extensions. The Green Line represents the working load of a single soldier arrangement. The Red Line
represents the working load when utilising a twinned soldier arrangement.

Note: Due to the slender nature of MP30 struts, designers may wish to consider a loss of prop serviceability check in high risk
situations. Alternatively measures need be put in place ton site to avoid strikes or any form of accidental load being applied.

Working Load (kN) Single Solider


Working Load (kN) Twin Solider

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


MP30 Mechanical Strut
4.1.4

Ancillary Components

MP30 struts can be tted with a range of alternative end ttings to increase
their versatility.

Universal End Bearing Plate: The bearing plate has been designed to
distribute load through the web of a standard Groundforce waling beam
when the MP30 prop is used in the horizontal plane.

The overall resistance of the strut is also dependant on the local strength of
the waling member. If for example a UC section waling beam is used, web
bearing buckling and shear capacity should be checked as a matter of course.

The bearing plate is pre-drilled with countersunk holes (as shown opposite) to
enable the plate to be bolted to the steel extensions and sit ush against the
waler ange. The bearing plate can be tted with support cleats in four
alternative positions so when located in place on various Groundforce waling
beams, thrust is transferred centrally along the centre line of the web .

Raking Strut Adaptor: This unit is bolted directly to the


soldier and enables a MP30 strut to rake down from the
underside of a waling beam of an I section beam such as the
Groundforce: Heavy Duty Steel Waler or Maxi Brace. beams

The round knuckle end supports the waling directly at the


rear ange / interface. As with any raking application, there
will be a need for uplift restraint to the beam to be provided

The raking strut adaptor is designed to operate at an optimum


angle of 45, but it can accommodate a minimum angle of 35
when used in conjunction with the Heavy Duty Steel Waler.

Product Link
HD Steel Waler - Section 8.1
Maxi Brace - Section 2.1

Anchors for Bolted End Plates: Where the strut is bolted


directly to a concrete beam or thrust block, (see diagram
opposite), the swivel end plates are used without the universal
end bearing plates being attached.

Resin or mechanical anchor bolts are inserted into the four


26mm holes shown in the diagram opposite. The strength of
this bolted connection depends on the strength of the material
into which the prop is anchored, as well as the shear and pull
out capacity of the bolts themselves. This connection detail
must be specically designed to resist applied loading. Contact
the Technical Services Department for more information.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


MP60 Mechanical Strut
4.2.1

The MP60 is a modular format medium-duty mechanically adjustable strut, combining the compressive
strength of steel tube with the convenience of mechanical length adjustment. MP60s are used where single or
multi-directional support is required to excavations or cofferdams and mechanical, as opposed to hydraulic
adjustment is preferred . MP60s use 350mm diameter tubular sections as the main structural member. At shorter
spans, the local capacity of the screw unit limits the axial load and at longer spans the potential for exural
buckling of the extension sections dictate overall axial capacity.

The MP60s can be congured to work within an operating range of 1.6m to 16.0m
without the need for intermediate support and can withstand working axial loads up to
60tonnes at shorter spans.

Typical Applications

Can be used as an independent cross strut, knee brace or raking


prop (using appropriate end plate adaptors), in combination with
any Groundforce proprietary waling systems such as the Mega
Brace or Maxi Brace alternatively with single/twin welded beams
and non-standard applications such as propping plain walls, slabs,
soldiers and temporary roof propping.

It can be used in situations were a mechanical strut is preferred


over a hydraulic strut for non pre-load applications.

Features / benets

The end bearing plates incorporate a swivel pin type connection


to enable the ends to articulate up to +/- 45 from the strut axis
for knee brace and raking applications.

0.5m of mechanical adjustment is available for ne length


adjustment. Modular, bolt together anged extensions are
available in a variety of lengths for additional length adjustment.

Being mechanically, the MP60 strut offers slightly increased axial


strut stiffness over a comparative hydraulic struts. This can be of
benet where control of deection is of importance. Product Link
Strut Ancillaries - Section 5.4
To aid removal under residual load, the locking nut incorporates a
self lubricating nylon washer on the thrust face and knocking bars
positioned around the circumference.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


MP60 Mechanical Strut
4.2.2

Technical Specication - refer to section i for denition of terms

Mechanical screw specication : single 160mm x 19mm wall thickness screws and 100mm long nuts (all of Grade ST52 steel).

Axial capacity of screw unit: 570kN (working load) at max length which includes a global safety factor of 2.0 (proven by test).

Limiting parameters: 1.56m (Minimum span), 16.0m (Maximum span un-supported), 8.5m (Maximum span at maximum load).

Global FOS on steelwork design = 1.5 calculated in accordance with BS 5950: 2000.

Extension bar specication: 355.6 x 8 CHS grade S355 with 460mm anges.

Flange connection: 8 No. M20 grade 8.8 bolts on 406mm PCD.

Available extension lengths: 0.5m, 1.0m, 2.0m and 4.0m long.

End Bearing Plate Articulation: +/- 45 from the normal.

MP60 Operating Range/Weight Chart

Component Description Weight (kg)

1m Mechanical Unit 270

End Bearing Plate 70

Bolted Flange Swivel Plate 45


1m
0.5m Extension 65

1.0m Extension 100


2m Ext
2.0m Extension 170

4.0m Extension 310


2m Ext
Bolted Trust Plate 70

Nylon Trust washer 0.5


2m Ext 1m
Swivel pin 3

End support cleat 5


2m Ext 1m

4m Extension

The MP60 Strut has a modular format


4m Extension comprising a mechanical unit and a series of
bolt together xed length extension units to
obtain the desired length. The chart opposite
4m Extension 1m
indicates standard assembly congurations of
the strut. The list is not exhaustive as other
4m Extension 1m permutations are possible and valid, however
a strut assembly should not incorporate more

4m Extension 2m Ext
than four joints in total.

It is possible to use additional mid-span

4m Extension 2m Ext vertical support such as king piles or plunge


columns to extend the range of maximum
performance. This and requests for
4m Extension 2m Ext 1m
non-standard congurations other than those
shown above must be veried by the
4m Extension 2m Ext 1m Groundforce Technical Services Department.

4m Extension 4m Extension

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


MP60 Mechanical Strut
4.2.3

MP60 Mechanical Strut - Working Load Chart - see section i for denition of terms

The lines on the chart below indicate the maximum working axial strut loading at various spans and includes an allowance for either 0kN,
10kN or 20kN accidental load applied at mid-span (see load effect diagram below). The area under the lines indicate the envelope for a
safe solution. It is not considered necessary to account for thermal effects in MP60 struts when used in the UK and therefore this is not
included in this chart. Please refer to section i for more information on load effects on struts.

Explanation: The horizontal Green portion of the lines on the chart indicates the working axial capacity of the strut assembly as limited by
the local capacity of the mechanical screw unit i.e. 570kN. The sloping lines indicate a load reduction from this value due to the potential for
buckling of the steel tubular extension members. The sloping Green Line represents the working load after taking into account a 20kN mid-
span accidental load. The Red Line represents the working load after taking into account a 10kN accidental load. The Blue Line represents
the working load without allowing for any accidental loading effects. The blue line must be used with caution and after a full risk analysis.

Notes on applied factors of safety:

The lines on the graph below are expressed in terms of working load limit. These values represent the remaining structural capacity or
resistance once allowances have been made for the bending effects induced by self weight, accidental loading, eccentricity and secondary
moments (see diagram below and also notes in section i). All steelwork structural resistances have been calculated in accordance with
BS5950: 2000. A global factor of 1.6 has been applied to ULS values to reduce them to working values. In addition the adjustable screw unit
has been subjected to load tests. Its maximum working local capacity of 570kN represent a global safety factor in excess of 2.

Working Load (kN) at Zero Accidental Load


Working Load (kN) at 10kN Accidental Load
Working Load (kN) at 20kN Accidental Load

Notes: 1. Thermal effects are not included in the graph.


2. P-delta effects are taken into account and
include a 10% strut diameter allowance for
eccentricity of loading W.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


MP60 Mechanical Strut
4.2.4

Ancillary Components

End Bearing Plate: The bearing plate has been designed to efciently
distribute load internally into the waling beam or structure up to a maximum
inclined angle of thrust of +/- 45 to the normal.

The effective strength of the strut is also dependant on the local strength of
the supported member and/or the shear capacity of the web if a UC section
waling beam is used for example. The bearing strength of any waling should
be checked as a matter of course.

The bearing plate includes 22mm diameter pre-drilled holes (as shown
opposite) to enable bolted connections to waling anges or capping beam
faces.

The bearing plate can be tted with support cleats in a variety of positions to
facilitate the strut axis, once installed, aligning with the webs of various
Groundforce waling beams.

Bolted Thrust Plate: This can be used where a strut


is raking down to a concrete slab and requires some
form of restraint against sliding. 6 No. 32mm
pre-drilled holes (as shown opposite) enable bolted
connection to the slab. Holding down bolts need
to be designed on a job specic basis. Please contact
the Technical Department for more information.

Multi-Angle End Bearing Plate: These plates are incorporated


into the end swivel assemblies where the included angle of rake
is less than 45. The minimum angle of rake that can be achieved
is 20. This plate can be used in several situations, for example for
non-symmetrical knee braces and shallow raking struts.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


HYDRAULIC
STRUTS

5
5.1 MP50 - 50 Tonne Hydraulic Strut
5.2 MP125/150 - 125/150 Tonne Hydraulic Struts
5.3 MP250 - 250 Tonne Hydraulic Strut

HYDRAULIC
STRUTS
5.4 Strut Ancillaries
MP50 Hydraulic Strut
5.1.1

The MP50 is a modular format medium-duty hydraulic strut combining the compressive strength of steel tube
with the convenience of hydraulic actuation for length adjustment and pre-loading potential. Swivel end
bearing units allow for various strutting alignments within an excavation, with or without waling beams.

MP50s use 350mm diameter tubular sections as the main structural member. At shorter spans, the hydraulic
capacity of the integral ram limits the axial load and at longer spans, the potential for exural buckling of the
extension sections dictate overall axial capacity.

MP50 struts can be congured to work within an operating range of 2.4m to 18.0m without the need for
intermediate support and are able to withstand working axial loads at shorter spans up to 53 tonnes.

Typical Applications

Can be used in combination with Groundforce proprietary waling


systems such as the Mega Brace or Maxi Brace as an intermediate
strut, knee brace or raking prop (using appropriate adaptors), or
with single/twin welded beams and non-standard applications
such as propping plain walls, slabs soldiers and temporary roof
propping.

Features / benets

The MP50 combines the strength of steel tubes with the


convenience of hydraulic adjustment.

End bearing plates incorporate a zero moment swivel pin


connection and can articulate up to +/- 45 from the strut axis for
knee brace and raking applications.

1.2m of hydraulic stroke is available for ne length adjustment,


and modular bolt together extensions in 1m increments for
Product Link
coarse length adjustment.
Strut Ancillaries - Section 5.4
Double acting hydraulic ram with integral lock-off valve for simple
zero uid loss installation and removal.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


MP50 Hydraulic Strut
5.1.2

Technical Specication - refer to section i for denition of terms

Operating range: 2.4m - 18.0m; unsupported clear span.

Ram Construction: Steel, Double acting incorporating a mechanical lock-off valve on the full bore side.

Ram specication: Bore - 125mm, Piston rod diameter 90mm, stroke 1200mm, full bore area 123cm,
annulus area 59.1cm, uid volume required to achieve 50% stroke = 3.8 litres.

Pressure/load ratio - 8.5 tonnes per 1000psi (69 bar) induced pressure.

Max working axial load capacity - 530kN.

Extension Construction: 355.6 x 8.0mm thick CHS grade S355.


Extension lengths: 1.0m , 2.0m, 4.0m and 8.0m long.
Flange details: 460mm / 25mm thick; connected with 8No. M20 grade 8.8 bolts - min tightening torque 340Nm.
Working bending moment capacity of ange under zero axial load = 137kNm.
Swivel Pin details: 43mm (EN19T).
Bearing Plate Articulation: +/- 45 from the normal.

MP50 Operating Range/Weight Chart

Schedule of Component Weights:

Description Weight per item (kg)


1m
530kN Hydraulic Unit 505

End Bearing Plate 70


2m Ext
Bolted Flange Swivel Plate 45

0.5m Extension 65
2m Ext 1m
1.0m Extension 100

2.0m Extension 170


4m Extension
4.0m Extension 310

8.0m Extension 505


4m Extension 1m
Bolted Thrust Plate 70

4m Extension 2m Ext

4m Extension 2m Ext 1m

8m Extension

8m Extension 1m

8m Extension 2m Ext

8m Extension 2m Ext 1m

8m Extension 4m Extension

The MP50 Strut has a modular format comprising a hydraulic unit and a series of bolt together xed length extension units to obtain the desired
length. The table above shows standard congurations of the strut. The list is not exhaustive as other permutations are possible and valid,
however a strut assembly should not incorporate more than four joints in total.

It is possible to use additional mid-span vertical support such as king piles or plunge columns to extend the range of maximum performance. This
and requests for non-standard congurations other than those shown above must be veried by the Groundforce Technical Services Department.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


MP50 Hydraulic Strut
5.1.3

MP50 Hydraulic Strut - Working Load Chart - see section i for denition of terms

The lines on the chart below indicate the maximum working axial strut loading at various spans and includes an allowance for either 0kN,
10kN or 20kN accidental load applied at mid-span (see load effect diagram below). The area under the lines indicate the envelope for a
safe solution. It is not considered necessary to account for thermal effects in MP50 struts when used in the UK and therefore this is not
included in this chart. Please refer to section i for more information on load effects on struts.

Explanation: The horizontal Green portion of the lines on the chart indicates the working axial capacity of the strut assembly as limited by
the capacity of the hydraulic unit i.e. 530kN. The sloping lines indicate a load reduction from this value due to the potential for buckling of
the steel tubular extension members. The sloping Green Line represents the working load after taking into account a 20kN mid-span
accidental load. The Red Line represents the working load after taking into account a 10kN accidental load. The Blue Line represents the
working load without allowing for any accidental loading effects. The blue line must be used with caution and after a full risk analysis.

Notes on applied factors of safety:

The lines on the graph below are expressed in terms of working load limit. These values represent the remaining structural capacity or
resistance once allowances have been made for the bending effects induced by self weight, accidental loading, eccentricity and secondary
moments (see diagram below and also notes in section i). A minimum global factor of safety of 2.0 has been applied to all hydraulic
components in order to determine the overall working axial capacity of the hydraulic ram. Regarding steelwork, structural resistances have
been calculated in accordance with BS5950: 2000. A global factor of 1.6 has been applied to ULS values to reduce them to working values.

Working Load (kN) at Zero Accidental Load


Working Load (kN) at 10kN Accidental Load
Working Load (kN) at 20kN Accidental Load

Notes: 1. Thermal effects are not included in the graph.


2. P-delta effects are taken into account and
include a 10% strut diameter allowance for
eccentricity of loading W.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


MP50 Hydraulic Strut
5.1.4

Ancillary Components

End Bearing Plate: The bearing plate has been designed to efciently
distribute load internally into the waling beam or structure up to a maximum
inclined angle of thrust of +/- 45 to the normal.

The effective strength of the strut is also dependant on the local strength of
the supported member and/or the shear capacity of the web if a UC section
waling beam is used for example. This should be checked as a matter of
course.

The bearing plate includes 22mm diameter pre-drilled holes (as shown
opposite) to enable bolted connections to waling anges or capping beams.

The bearing plate can be tted with support cleats in a variety of positions
to enable the thrust to be transferred centrally into the webs of various
Groundforce waling beams.

Bolted Thrust Plate: This can be used where a strut


is raking down to a concrete slab and requires some
form of restraint against sliding. 6 No. 32mm
pre-drilled holes (as shown opposite) enable bolted
connection to the slab. Holding down bolts need to
be designed on a job specic basis. Please contact
the Technical Department for more information.

Multi-Angle End Bearing Plate: These plates are incorporated


into the end swivel assemblies where the included angle of rake
is less than 45. The minimum angle of rake that can be achieved
is 20. This plate can be used in several situations for example for
non-symmetrical knee braces and shallow raking struts.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


MP125 & 150 Hydraulic Struts
5.2.1

Product Note:
MP125 and MP150 struts are virtually identical
except for a higher capacity hydraulic ram in the
MP150 hydraulic units

The MP125/150 is a modular format medium-duty hydraulic strut combining the


compressive strength of steel tube with the convenience of hydraulic actuation for
length adjustment and pre-loading potential. Swivel end bearing units allow for
various strutting congurations within an excavation, with or without waling beams.

Both MP125 and MP150 struts use nominally 500mm diameter tubular sections as the
main structural member. At shorter spans, the hydraulic capacity limits the axial load
and at longer spans, the potential for exural buckling of the extension sections
dictates overall axial capacity.

MP125 / 150 struts can be congured to work within an operating range of


3.6m to 20.0m without the need for intermediate support and are able to
withstand working axial loads at shorter spans up to 125 / 150 tonnes
respectively.

Where greater axial capacity is required over longer spans the strut can
utilise heavy duty, thicker walled extension pieces - see design chart on
page 5.2.4.

Typical Applications

Can be used in combination with Groundforce proprietary waling


systems such as the Mega Brace and Maxi Brace as an intermediate
strut, knee brace or raking prop (using appropriate adapters), or with
single/twin welded beams and non-standard applications such as
propping capping beams plain walls, slabs, soldiers and temporary roof
propping.

Features and Benets

Swivel end bearing plates provide a zero moment end connection and
can articulate laterally up to 45 for knee brace and raking applications.

Two alternative swivel pin holes are provided to ensure the line of
action is carried through the back face of the end bearing plate at all
strut angles (see photo opposite).

MP 125/150 struts combines the strength of steel tubes with the


convenience of hydraulic adjustment.

Provides 1.2m of double acting hydraulic adjustment with integral


lock-off valve for simple zero uid loss installation and removal
techniques.

Individual struts can be tted with the Groundforce wireless, fully


automated, load monitoring system.* Product Link

The MP150 hydraulic units can be tted with a mechanical lock-off Strut Ancillaries - Section 5.4
system - special order only*

* please contact Groundforce Technical Services Department for more


details if required.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


MP125 & 150 Hydraulic Struts
5.2.2

Technical Specication - refer to section i for the denition of terms

Operating range: 3.55m - 20.0m unsupported clear span.

Ram Construction: Steel, Double acting incorporating a mechanical lock-off valve on the full bore side.

Ram specication: Bore - 200mm, Piston rod diameter 140mm, stroke 1150mm, full bore area 314cm,
annulus area 160.2cm, uid volume required to achieve 50% stroke = 8.9 litres.

Pressure/load ratio - 21.6 tonnes per 1000psi (69 bar) induced pressure.

Max working axial load capacity - 1250kN (MP125)/ 1500kN (MP150) .

Extension Construction: 508 x 11.1mm thick (standard) or 14.3 mm thick (heavy duty) CHS grade S355 .
Extension lengths: 0.5m , 1.0m , 2.0m#, 4.0m# and 8.0m# - # available in heavy duty format.
Flange details: 640mm / 30mm thick; connected with 12No. M24 grade 8.8 bolts - min tightening torque 550Nm
Working bending moment capacity of ange under zero axial load = 240kNm.
Swivel Pin details: 108mm (EN19T) - optional load pin can be used in lieu.
Bearing Plate Articulation: +/- 45 from the normal.
MP125 / 150 Operating Range/Weight Chart (Note : MP125 strut assemblies weigh 25kg less than weights shown in the chart below)

Schedule of Component Weights:

Description Weight per item (kg)

1m 1250kN Hydraulic Unit 1450

1500kN Hydraulic Unit 1475

2m Ext End Bearing Plate 200

Bolted Flange Swivel Plate 180


2m Ext 1m 0.5m Extension 130

1.0m Extension 225


4m Extension
2.0m Extension 365 (450 HD Ext)

4.0m Extension 653 (780 HD Ext)


4m Extension 1m
8.0m Extension 1180 (1480 HD Ext)

Heavy Duty extensions in 2.0m, 4.0m and 8.0m lengths


4m Extension 2m Ext are available to achieve higher loads at longer spans

4m Extension 2m Ext 1m

8m Extension

8m Extension 1m

8m Extension 2m Ext

8m Extension 2m Ext 1m

8m Extension 4m Extension

8m Extension 4m Extension 1m

8m Extension 4m Extension 2m Ext

The MP 125 / 150 struts have a modular format comprising a hydraulic unit and a series of bolt together xed length extension units to
obtain the desired length. The table above shows standard congurations of the strut. The list is not exhaustive as other permutations are
possible and valid, however the strut should not use more than three extension pieces in a single assembly.

Heavy duty extensions pieces or additional mid-span vertical support can be used to extend the range of maximum performance. This and
requests for non-standard congurations other than those shown above must be veried by the Groundforce Technical Services Department.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


MP125 & 150 Hydraulic Struts
5.2.3

MP125 / 150 Hydraulic Strut - Working Load Chart - refer to section i for more information

The lines on the chart below indicate the maximum working axial strut loading at various spans and includes an allowance for either 0kN,
10kN or 20kN accidental load applied at mid-span (see load effect diagram below). The area under the lines indicate the envelope for a
safe solution. It is not considered necessary to account for thermal effects in MP125 / 150 struts when used in the UK and therefore this is
not included in this chart. Please refer to section i for more information on load effects on struts.

Explanation: The horizontal Green portion of the lines on the chart indicates the working axial capacity of the strut assembly as limited by
the capacity of the hydraulic unit i.e. either 1250kN / 1500kN. The sloping lines indicate a load reduction from this value due to the
potential for buckling of the steel tubular extension members. The sloping Green Line represents the working load after taking into
account a 20kN mid-span accidental load. The Red Line represents the working load after taking into account a 10kN accidental load. The
Blue Line represents the working load without allowing for any accidental loading effects. The blue line must be used with caution
and after a full risk analysis.

Notes on applied factors of safety:

The lines on the graph below are expressed in terms of working load limit. These values represent the remaining structural capacity or
resistance once allowances have been made for the bending effects induced by self weight, accidental loading, eccentricity and secondary
moments (see diagram below and also notes in section i). A minimum global factor of safety of 2.0 has been applied to all hydraulic
components in order to determine the overall working axial capacity of the hydraulic ram. Regarding steelwork, structural resistances have
been calculated in accordance with BS5950: 2000. A global factor of 1.6 has been applied to ULS values to reduce them to working values.

The dashed lines are valid for


MP150 strut assemblies which
incorporate the standard duty
extension units.

These three lines


are valid for MP150
strut assemblies
which incorporate
the heavy duty
extension units.
These lines are valid for either
MP125 or MP150 strut assemblies
which incorporate the standard
duty extension units.

Working Load (kN) at Zero Accidental Load


Working Load (kN) at 10kN Accidental Load
Working Load (kN) at 20kN Accidental Load

Notes: 1. Thermal effects are not included in the graph.


2. P-delta effects are taken into account and
include a 10% strut diameter allowance for

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MP125 & 150 Hydraulic Struts
5.2.4

Ancillary Components

End Bearing Plate: The bearing plate has been designed to efciently distribute load into the waling beam or structure over a stiff
bearing length of 600mm up to a maximum inclined thrust angle of 45 to the normal. Up to 25 the central pinhole can be used (depending
on direction of the angle) from 25, up to 45 the offset pinhole is used to ensure that the line of action of the thrust remains through the
bearing plate.

The effective capacity of the strut is also dependant on the local bearing strength of the waling member and/or the shear capacity of the
web if a UC section waling beam is used for example. This should be checked as a matter of course. The bearing plate includes several
22mm diameter pre-drilled holes to enable bolted connections to waling members or to attach a cleat attachment plate.

Note: MP125 Bearing Plate has 102 holes for Swivel Pin

Load Pin: Can be used in


lieu of the standard swivel
pin to monitor real time
loads in individual struts.
See 5.4.3 or contact the
Technical Services
Department for more
information.

Multi-Angle End Bearing Plate: For thrust angles


greater than 30 to the normal, up to 70. Or when a
raking strut (at an angle shallower than 45) is bearing
onto an existing slab.

Mechanical isolation (special order only). It is possible to equip


certain ram units with locking rods to provide full hydraulic
isolation. Contact the Technical Services department for more
information.

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MP250 Hydraulic Strut
5.3.1

Product Link
Strut Ancillaries - Section 5.4
MP500 - Section 6.1

The MP250 is a modular format high load capacity hydraulic strut combining the
compressive strength of steel tube with the convenience of hydraulic actuation for
length adjustment and pre-loading potential. Swivel end bearing units allow for
various strutting alignments within an excavation, with or without waling beams.

MP250 struts use 610mm diameter tubular sections as the main structural member.
At shorter spans, the hydraulic capacity limits the axial load and at longer spans,
the potential for exural buckling of the extension sections dictates overall axial
capacity.

The MP250 has an practical operating range of 3.1m to 25.0m without intermediate
support and can withstand working loads up to 250 tonnes at shorter spans. For
higher load / longer span applications, it is possible to combine the MP250 hydraulic
unit with 1220mm (super tube) diameter extension pieces, using appropriate
adaptor pieces,

Typical Applications

The MP250 is designed to provide direct support between concrete capping beams in
basement type excavations. However it can be used to span steel section waler
beams with appropriate bearing checks.

Features and benets

MP250 struts combines the strength of steel tubes with the convenience of
hydraulic adjustment.

Hydraulic units can be used with super tube extensions to achieve clear spans up to
48.0m, depending on loading conditions.

Swivel end bearing plates provide a zero moment end connection and can
articulate laterally up to 45 for knee brace and raking applications.

Two alternative swivel pin holes are provided to ensure the line of action is
carried through the back face of the end bearing plate at all strut angles (see photo
opposite).

Provides 1m of double acting hydraulic adjustment with integral lock-off valve for
simple zero uid loss installation and removal techniques.

Individual struts can be tted with the Groundforce wireless, fully automated, load
monitoring system.*

The MP250 hydraulic units can be tted with a mechanical lock-off system. - special
order only.*

* please contact Groundforce Technical Services Department for more details if required.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


MP250 Hydraulic Strut
5.3.2

Technical Specication

Operating range 3.1m - 28.0m; unsupported.

Ram Construction: Steel, double acting incorporating a mechanical lock-off valve on the full bore side.

Ram specication: Bore - 250mm, Piston rod diameter 180mm, stroke 1050mm, full bore area 491cm,
annulus area 236cm, uid volume required to achieve 50% stroke = 14 litres.

Pressure/load ratio - 33.8 tonnes per 1000psi (69 bar) induced pressure.

Max working axial load capacity - 2500kN.

Standard Extensions Fabricated from 610 x 12.7 grade S355 CHS; available in 0.5m, 1.0m, 2.0m, 4.0m, 8.0m, 9.0m & 12.0m long.
Standard lengths - see weight chart on 5.3.3. - also compatible with 1220 x 16 super tube extensions.

Connection Flanges 810mm / 30mm thick; connected with 8No. M30grade 8.8 bolts - min tightening torque 1085Nm.

Working bending moment capacity of ange under zero axial load = 336kNm.

Swivel Pin 120mm (EN19T) - optional load pin can be used in lieu.

Bearing Plate Articulation: +/- 45 from the normal.

Ancillary Components

End Bearing Plate: The bearing plate has been designed to efciently distribute load internally into
the waling beam or structure over a stiff bearing length of 750mm up to a maximum inclined thrust
angle of 45 to the normal. Up to 25, the central pinhole can be used (depending on direction of
the angle) from 25 up to 45 the offset pinhole is used to ensure that the line of action of the
thrust remains through the bearing plate.

The effective strength of the strut is also dependant on the local bearing and buckling strength of
the waling member and/or the shear capacity of the web if a UC section waling beam is used for
example. This should be checked as a matter of course. The 750 mm wide end bearing plate
includes several 33mm diameter holes to enable bolted connections to waling members or to
attach a cleat attachment plate.

Load Pin: Can be used in


lieu of the standard swivel
pin to monitor real time
loads in individual struts.
See 5.4.3 or contact the
Technical Services
Department for more
information.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


MP250 Hydraulic Strut
5.3.3

Ancillary Components continued...

Mechanical isolation (special order only). It is possible to equip certain


ram units with locking rods to provide full hydraulic isolation. Contact the
Technical Services department for more information.

MP250 Operating Range/Weight Chart - Standard Extensions

Schedule of Component Weights:


Schedule of Component Weights:
Description Weight per item (kg)
1m Description Weight per item (kg)
2500kN Hydraulic Unit 2255
2500kN Hydraulic Unit 2255
2m Ext End Bearing Plate 255
End Bearing Plate 270
Bolted Flange Swivel Plate 255
Bolted Flange Swivel Plate 270
2m Ext 1m Swivel Pin (load pin) 45
0.5m Extension 250
0.5m Extension 250
4m Extension 1.0m Extension 380
1.0m Extension 380
2.0m Extension 570
2.0m Extension 570
4m Extension 1m 4.0m Extension 945
4.0m Extension 945
8.0m Extension 1720
8.0m Extension 1720
4m Extension 2m Ext
12.0m Extension 2370
* 9.0m Extension 1950

4m Extension 2m Ext 1m 12.0m Extension 2370

* denotes limited availability


8m Extension

8m Extension 1m

8m Extension 2m Ext

8m Extension 2m Ext 1m

8m Extension 4m Extension

8m Extension 4m Extension 1m

8m Extension 4m Extension 2m Ext

8m Extension 4m Extension 2m Ext 1m

8m Extension 8m Extension

The strut has a modular format comprising a hydraulic ram unit and a series of bolt together xed length extension units to obtain the
desired length. The table below shows standard congurations of the strut. The list is not exhaustive as other permutations are possible
and valid, however the strut should not use more than four extension pieces in a single assembly.

Additional mid-span vertical support via say king piles, or plunge columns, can extend the range of maximum performance. This and
requests for non-standard congurations other than those shown below must be veried by the Groundforce Technical Services
Department.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


MP250 Super Extensions
5.3.4

Using standard 610mm diameter extensions the MP250 can


maintain its full capacity of 250 tonnes using its standard extensions
up to a maximum span of 16.0m. After which it would require
intermediate support in order to maintain full capacity at longer
spans.

As intermediate support isnt always possible or convenient, the


MP250 strut can be adapted to incorporate larger diameter Super
Tube extensions. These are 1220mm diameter tubes, rather than
the standard 610mm diameter. These Super Extensions allow the
MP250 strut to span further whilst maintaining its full 250t working
axial capacity.

To connect the standard extensions and the hydraulic ram (all 610mm dia) to the larger
Super Extensions (1220mm), a 1.0m long tapered adapter piece is utilised. For each Brief Technical Specication - refer to

strut assembly, two adapter pieces are required. section 6 for more detail

Note: Super Tube: 1220 x 16mm wall


thickness grade S355 CHS.
Struts incorporating super tubes are very heavy, it is therefore essential to have a
detailed lifting and installation / removal plan in place prior to commencing work. It is Flange connection: 8/16 No. M30 grade

essential that the on-site assembly and installation of these struts is supervised by a 10.9 bolts on 730/1340mm PCD.

Groundforce Engineer.
Flange diameter: 810mm / 1420mm.

Due to the many variables and checks involved in designing using super tubes, it is
Schedule of Component Weights:
strongly recommended that any such design work is carried out by a Groundforce
Description Weight per item (kg)
Engineer, Please contact the Technical Department for advice.
0.5m Super Extension (610 ) 275

1.0m Super Extension 650

2.0m Super Extension 1100

4.0m Super Extension 2100

8.0m Super Extension 4100

10.0m Super Extension 5050

12.0m Super Extension 6000

Std to Super Ext Adapter 1100

Note: Standard Extension: 610 x 12.7mm CHS


Super Extension: 1220 x 16.0mm CHS

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


MP250 Hydraulic Strut
5.3.5

MP250 Hydraulic Strut - Working Load Chart - refer to section i for more information

The lines on the chart below indicate the maximum working axial strut loading at various spans and includes an allowance for either 0kN,
10kN or 20kN accidental load applied at mid-span (see load effect diagram below). The area under the lines indicate the envelope for a
safe solution. It is not considered necessary to account for thermal effects in MP250 struts when used in the UK and therefore this is not
included in this chart. Please refer to section i for more information on load effects on struts.

Explanation: The horizontal Green portion of the lines on the chart indicates the working axial capacity of the strut assembly as limited by
the capacity of the hydraulic unit i.e. 2500kN. The sloping lines indicate a load reduction from this value due to the potential for buckling of
the steel tubular extension members. The sloping Green Line represents the working load after taking into account a 20kN mid-span
accidental load. The Red Line represents the working load after taking into account a 10kN accidental load. The Blue Line represents the
working load without allowing for any accidental loading effects. The blue line must be used with caution and after a full risk analysis. The
Black Line represents the working load with super tube extensions used in lieu of the standard 610mm diameter items. It is strongly
recommended that strut congured with super tube extensions are veried by a Groundforce Engineer

Notes on applied factors of safety:

The lines on the graph below are expressed in terms of working load limit. These values represent the remaining structural capacity or
resistance once allowances have been made for the bending effects induced by self weight, accidental loading, eccentricity and secondary
moments (see diagram below and also notes in section i). A minimum global factor of safety of 2.0 has been applied to all hydraulic
components in order to determine the overall working axial capacity of the hydraulic ram. Regarding steelwork, structural resistances have
been calculated in accordance with BS5950: 2000. A global factor of 1.6 has been applied to ULS values to reduce them to working values.

Notes: 1. Thermal effects are not included in the graph.


2. P-delta effects are taken into account and
include a 10% strut diameter allowance for

Working Load (kN) at Zero Accidental Load


Working Load (kN) at 10kN Accidental Load
Working Load (kN) at 20kN Accidental Load
Working Load (kN) with Super Extensions

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Strut Ancillaries - Raking Strut Adaptors
5.4.1

For raking strut applications, it is necessary to use bespoke strut end adaptors in
lieu of the standard end bearing plates to enable their range of struts to connect
safely and effectively to standard waling beams.

There are three different types of Raking Strut Adapters which permit various
strut / waling combinations as indicated in the matrix opposite. The Raking Strut
Adapters are designed to allow efcient load transfer, distribution and line of
thrust into the waling beam without risk of failure by overturning. It will be
necessary however to provide some form of uplift restraint to the waling beam as
shown in the picture opposite.

Advantages

Provides a connection between waler and prop whilst ensuring efcient load transfer.

Reduces torsional effects induced on the waler from the struts.

Aids with installation / positioning of the struts.

Speeds up installation as there is no need to fabricated complicated connections


between waler and strut.

Compatibility Matrix

Mega Brace combined with MP125 and MP150 struts.

Maxi Brace combined with MP50 and MP60 struts.

Connection Method

Connection of the Raking Strut Adapters for the Mega Brace can only be made at the web stiffener locations. Careful consideration must
therefore be given to the layout of the struts within the excavation. For the Maxi Brace adapter these can be positioned anywhere along
the beam face (except at joint locations) where full contact can be made between the bearing plate and the beam.

Allowable Angles of Rake

Mega Brace and 125 and 150 Tonne Struts - 10 to 45 to the horizontal.

Maxi Brace and 50 or 60 Tonne Struts - 25 to 35 to the horizontal.

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Strut Ancillaries - Connections
5.4.2

Bespoke connections

We have developed a range of ancillary components to assist in facilitating load bearing connections between frame components and the
wall member being supported. Below is a sample of some connection details that can be specied on a site specic basis. Please contact
the Technical Department for more information or advice.

Birds Mouth Adapter Bolted Shear Restraint


Plates
Self restraining strut end
component that is used to These plates act as shear
connect a raking prop to stops which are designed
either a concrete capping to resist the lateral
beam or ground slab movement induced by
edge. the prop acting at a non
perpendicular angle. The
bolts design is critical.

Cast-in Steel Corbel Cast-in Shear Stub

Steel sections for Steel section to provide


connecting shear restraint to
non-perpendicular high non-perpendicular props
load props to an RC to an RC Capping beam.
Capping beam. Avoids the Avoids the use of
use of problematic bolts. problematic bolts.

Gallows Bracket Welded Shear Stop

Support the self weight of Designed to transfer the


the shoring system and lateral shear forces from
are either welded or non-perpendicular props
bolted to the structure. into the steel waling
beam (see also section
3.3 on shear clamp).

Cast-In Shear Key Bespoke Connections

Component welded to the Scheme specic


rear face of a steel waling fabrication solutions to
to resist lateral transmit end forces into
movement of the waling restraining structures.
beam induced by knee
braces and shear stops.
Note: the concrete inll is
not shown.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Load Monitoring of Struts
5.4.3

Groundforce are able to offer a real time monitoring system to report on the actual loads in insitu props. The system uses
wireless technology linked to the GPRS network to provide a 24/7 monitoring service of prop loads from any site location. The
heart of the system is a specially designed, electronic load pin which replaces the standard item within the strut end swivel unit.
When connected to an acquisition module, the pin transmits load data at pre-programmed intervals which is captured either by a
simple hand held reader or via a sophisticated web based system.

Features and Benets

Units are tested and calibrated off site by Groundforce personnel.

Rapid deployment and set up.

Highly accurate and responsive readings.

Automatic trigger level notication.

Manual data access via a hand-held reader, or fully automated web based system
through the Groundforce Online site.

Multiple warning or trigger level alert levels can be programmed into the processor
unit which automatically generates email or SMS notications if exceeded.

Ambient temperature is monitored automatically, actual strut temperatures can also


be monitored if requested through thermal sensors attached to the circumference of
the tubes themselves.

Provides high quality information which is ideal for use or incorporation in an


Observational methodology approach.

Available for MP150, MP250 and MP500 struts.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


HYBRID
STRUTS

6
6.1 MP500 - 500 Tonne Hybrid Strut

HYBRID
STRUTS
MP500 Strut
6.1.1

The MP500 is the pre-eminent prop in the Groundforces


eet of high strength modular struts. When combined with
1.2m super tubes extensions, it is capable of providing a working
axial resistance of up to 5000kN at spans of up to 38m and can clear span
well in excess of 40m at reduced capacity.

The strut has been designed to combine the well known benets of
hydraulic adjustment and pressurisation with the safety and security of
the axial being resisted by large diameter screw jacks. A specially
designed release mechanism on the screws enables the strut to be
released in a controlled manner, even when under signicant residual
loading.

Typical Applications

The MP500 is intended for heavy duty propping directly between


diaphragm walls or concrete capping beams in basement propping type
excavations.

Key Features and Benets

The strut employs an integral hydraulic ram with 0.5m stroke for rapid
installation and on-site adjustment.

The integral hydraulic ram enables pre-loads of up to 200 tonnes to be


induced into the strut. Higher pre-loads can be achieved using specialist
jacking equipment; refer to technical services for more information.

Imposed loads are resisted by twin large diameter mechanically locking


screws, incorporating a release mechanism.

The mechanical load holding feature provide increased strut stiffness over
non-mechanical hydraulic struts.

Employs a modular extension system using 1.2m super tubes to enable Product Link:

large clear spans to be achieved. For further information on


super tube exts refer to 5.3.4
An optional integral wireless on-board load monitoring system can be
tted to these struts.
Design Considerations

Although basic technical information is tabulated in the following pages, it is recommended that the design of MP500 struts and super
tubes is carried out from rst principals on a job by job basis so as to fully assess the loads and combination of loads acting on individual
struts.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


MP500 Strut
6.1.2

MP500 - Product Description

The MP500 strut is made up of a number of distinct components (see picture below) each with their own load characteristics, which when
bolted together in a specic conguration will dictate the overall load capacity of the strut. Some basic technical information on the various
components is provided within this document, however due to the complexity of the design considerations relating to these struts (see
section i) and the combination of components of differing strengths it is strongly recommended that design verication for MP500 struts
are carried out on a rst principal, job specic basis by a qualied and experienced Groundforce Major Project Engineer.

5
4 3

MP500 - Component Identication and Basic Specication

1. Adjustable unit - Offers 0.5m of on-site adjustment. Maximum working axial load capacity is 5000kN: this includes a global FOS = 2.0
Note: this refers to the maximum load capacity (or resistance) of the twin screws without taking into account any load reduction into
account for potential buckling of the complete strut assembly at longer spans. Refer to the basis of design section (section i) and the
load chart accompanying notes on page 6.1.6 for more information.

2. Super tube extensions - Fabricated from 1220mm x 16mm thk grade S355 cold formed CHS of cross-sectional area of 605.3cm2.
They are available in 1m, 2m, 4m, 8m, 10m, & 12m standard modular lengths. The 8m,10m & 12m extensions are pre-cambered to
reduce self-weight deection. Overall ange diameter is1420mm and units are connected by 16No. M30 Grade 10.9 bolts - tightening
torque 1650Nm. Working bending moment capacity of the ange joint is 1567kNm.

3. 1220 / 610 Tapered adaptor piece - 1m long to connect super tubes to end bearing components. The large ange is as per the super
tube. The smaller ange is 810mm overall diameter and uses 8No. M30 Grade 10.9 bolts - tightening torque 1650Nm. The working
bending moment capacity of ange is 420kNm.

4. 0.5m long 610mm short inll extensions - ex 610mm x 13.5mm grade S355 tube with additional stiffening ribs.

5. Non-swivel end bearing unit - bearing plate is


pre-drilled to with 36mm holes accept xing
bolts to connect to a waling, wall or capping beam.

6. Swivel end unit - provides a zero moment


connection to the wall. It can be tted with a
special electronic load monitoring swivel pin if
required. See page 6.1.4 for more information.
Note: this unit is used in lieu of item 5.

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MP500 Strut
6.1.3

MP500 - Technical Specication

Minimum span: 2.77m between bearing faces.

Maximum span (un-supported) ~45.0m - subject to detailed design checks.

Maximum span at maximum load: ~37.0m - subject to detailed design checks.

Component / assembly weights: see conguration chart on page 6.1.5.

Nominal unfactored self-weight (udl) for design purposes = 5.5kN/m length of strut.

Hydraulic Ram Details: Note the ram is used for installation and pre-stressing purposes only.

Ram construction: Steel, double acting hydraulics incorporating a mechanical lock-off valve on the full bore (load bearing) side.

Ram dimensions: Bore - 250mm, piston rod diameter 140mm, stroke 500mm, full bore area 490.9cm, annulus area 336.9cm, uid
volume required to achieve 50% stroke ~ 4 litres.

Pressure / load ratio: ~33.8 tonnes per 1000psi (69 bar) - maximum possible induced pre-stress load ~1,800 kN Note: Higher pre-loads
can be achieved using specialist supplementary jacking equipment; refer to technical services for more information.

Screw Details: Note these are designed to resist all of the applied axial load shared equally between both screws.

Mechanical screws: 2 No. solid 160mm acme thread screw bars with 100mm long locknuts (all Grade ST52 steel) - 500mm of
adjustment is available.

Working axial capacity: 2500kN per screw at max stroke which includes a FOS = 2.0 (proven by test).

MP500 - Mode of Operation

The centrally mounted hydraulic unit (1) with integral hydraulic ram (2) is used to adjust the strut to its desired length and induce pre-load
(up to 1800kN maximum) whilst at the same time, interaction between the sliding inner and oversleeves resists the bending moment and
shear induced by the self weight of the prop. Once pressurised, the twin mechanical screw jacks (3) are locked in place to isolate the
hydraulics from further load increase. The twin screw arrangement transfers the axial load through a heavily reinforced diaphragm plate (4)
and into 1.2m super extensions (5). Special tapered washers (6), retained by a radial spit collars (7), t between the locking nut and the
bearing plate. The collars can be loosened off allowing the washers to self-extrude outwards. This enables the lock nuts to be released
even when the screw is under residual load. A 1.5m long x 0.6m deep 30mm thick stiffened end bearing (8) plate transfers load into the
support walls, waling or a capping beam. The bearing plate is pre-drilled with 36mm holes to accept xing bolts as required.

MP500 - Key Component Identication

7 6
5
3
4
Video Link: Watch this video, 2
8
and more on our YouTube Channel:
www.youtube.com/vpgroundforce
MP500 - Key Component Identication

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MP500 Strut
6.1.4

Ancillary Components

The MP500 strut is designed for spanning between walls or capping beams at a right angles. It is not designed for raking or knee bracing
applications. Consequently connection to non-perpendicular faces will need to be accommodated by corbels incorporated into the capping
beams.

The standard end bearing plates sizes are detailed below:

Adjustable end: Plate size: 1500mm x 600mm x 30mm thick c/w 12No. 36mm holes for xing bolts.

Fixed end: Plate size: 1000mm x 800mm x 20mm thick c/w 8No. 36mm holes for xing bolts.

Note: end xing details can be designed and supplied on request.

Bearing Plate - Adjustable End

Load Monitoring - Schematic Diagram

Load Pin
Bearing Plate - Fixed or Swivel End

Load Monitoring

The MP500 can incorporate an integral on-board load monitoring system


triggered by a calibrated electronic load pin tted within a swivel end unit. This
enables the actual axial load in the strut to be monitored continuously. Load
output is accessed via either a simple hand held reader when located within 50
m of the strut, or alternatively, through a dedicated secure web link. Please Swivel Assembly
contact Groundforce Technical Services for more details.

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MP500 Strut
6.1.5

The strut assembly uses a modular extension format comprising an adjustable unit connected to a series of bolt together xed length
extension units to obtain the desired length. The table below shows standard congurations of the strut. The list is not exhaustive as other
permutations are possible and valid, however the strut should not use more than four extension pieces in a single assembly. Note that
0.5m inll extensions can be incorporated at the non-adjustable end to increase overlap between strut congurations.

MP500 Operating Range/Weight Chart

Schedule of Component Weights:


1m
Description Weight per item (kg)
2m Adjustable Unit 2255

2m 1m 0.5m 610 HD Extension 275

Swivel end assembly 750


4m Ext
Fixed End Bearing Plate 330
4m Ext 1m
1.0m Super Extension 700

4m Ext 2m 2.0m Super Extension 1100

4m Ext 2m 1m 4.0m Super Extension 2100

8.0m Super Extension 4100


8m Extension
10.0m Super Extension 5050
8m Extension 1m
12.0m Super Extension 6000

8m Extension 2m Std to Super Ext Adapter 1100

8m Extension 2m 1m Note: Super Ext tube size is 1220 x 16.0mm CHS

12m Extension

12m Extension 1m

12m Extension 2m

12m Extension 2m 1m

12m Extension 4m Ext

12m Extension 4m Ext 1m

12m Extension 4m Ext 2m

12m Extension 4m Ext 2m 1m

12m Extension 8m Extension

12m Extension 8m Extension 1m

12m Extension 8m Extension 2m

12m Extension 8m Extension 2m 1m

12m Extension 12m Extension

12m Extension 12m Extension 1m

12m Extension 12m Extension 2m

12m Extension 12m Extension 2m 1m

12m Extension 12m Extension 4m Ext

12m Extension 12m Extension 4m Ext 1m

12m Extension 12m Extension 4m Ext 2m

12m Extension 12m Extension 4m Ext 2m 1m

12m Extension 12m Extension 8m Extension

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MP500 Strut
6.1.6

MP500 Hybrid Strut - Load Chart - see section i for denition of terms

The lines on the chart below indicate the maximum working axial strut loading at various spans and includes an allowance for either 0kN,
10kN or 20kN accidental load applied at mid-span (see load effect diagram below). The area under the lines indicate the envelope for a
safe solution. No allowance for thermal effects is included in this chart which can be signicant. Please refer to the design
consideration note in the text box below.

Explanation: The Green horizontal line on the chart indicates the working axial capacity of the strut assembly as limited by the local
capacity of the adjustable unit i.e. 5000kN. The sloping lines indicate a load reduction from this value due to the potential for buckling of
the steel tubular extension members. The sloping Green Line represents the working load after taking into account a 20kN mid-span
accidental load. The Red Line represents the working load after taking into account a 10kN accidental load. The Blue Line represents the
working load without allowing for any accidental loading effects. The blue line must be used with caution and after a full risk analysis.

Design Considerations

Although working strut load capacity is


tabulated in the chart, it is recommended
that these values are used with caution
in the summer months as they do not
take into account thermal load effects.

On receipt of a full design brief, detailed


design proposals for MP500 struts can be
provided by the Groundforce Technical
Department. Please contact Technical
Services on 0845 602 9963 for more
advice.

Working Load (kN) at Zero Accidental Load


Working Load (kN) at 10kN Accidental Load
Working Load (kN) at 20kN Accidental Load

Notes: 1. Thermal effects are not included in the graph.


2. P-delta effects are taken into account and
include a 10% strut diameter allowance for
eccentricity of loading W.

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SHEETS
AND PILES

7
7.1 Trench Sheets
7.2 Sheet Piles

AND PILES
SHEETS
Trench Sheets
7.1.1

Groundforce offer a comprehensive range of cold formed lapped trench sheets and
interlocking light pile sections to provide a cost effective solution for most excavation
support applications. Many of the sections are produced from high yield steel which
provides an exceptional strength-to-weight ratio resulting excellent durability whilst
driving and resistance to on-site damage.

Range of light and heavier sections, ideal for most general situations.

Interlocking and high yield sections for more demanding applications.

Handling and installation accessories available.

Hot rolled sheet piles sections are also available (see section 7.2)

Notes on the selection of trench sheeting

There are a number of factors that need to be considered when selecting a choice of trench
sheet. The rst basic decision is whether to use a lapped or interlocking prole. This decision is
generally linked to the presence of groundwater within the dig zone. Interlocking sheets are
generally used where some degree of water retention is required and to resist the migration of
nes into the excavation i.e. in granular soils below the water table. Cold formed interlocking
sheets have relatively loose clutches and should be therefore be used with care particularly
where water ow is likely to be high such as in gravels.

Interlocking sheets are also recommended for use in cantilever type retaining walls up to 3m high
although deections can be quite high due to relatively low section modulus when compared to
traditional hot rolled sheet piles. Refer to Groundforce Technical Services for further advice.

Other factors to be considered when selecting a sheet type include:

Strength (bending moment) requirement based on a structural analysis of the wall and levels
Re-roll Facilities
of supporting frame.

Deection /stiffness requirements, this is particularly important for cantilever designs.

Installation method i.e. dig and push or pre-drive using a hammer.

Driving hammer type (impact or vibratory methods). Product Link: For advice on
pre-driving sheets contact
Handling or weight issues.
Piletec on 0800 731 4960

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Trench Sheets
7.1.2

Specications

The information below provides specications for each prole to assist designers in specifying the most appropriate sheet type for any
given temporary works application.

Standard Lap - SD33 - A general purpose lightweight lapped sheet GFI - A heavy duty, cold formed, high yield interlocking sheet for
for relatively shallow trenches and shafts in non-water bearing propped excavations up to 6m deep and cantilever support up to
ground. 2.5m in water bearing ground. Can be driven with vibratory
methods. Excellent strength to weight characteristics. Corner piles
are available for closed cofferdam boxes.

KD4 - A general purpose medium duty lapped sheet for propped


excavations up to 6m deep in non-water bearing ground. Can be
driven with vibratory methods.

GFI Corner

KD6 - A heavy duty highly durable lapped sheet for propped excavations up to 6m
deep and cantilever support up to 2.5m in non-water bearing ground. Can be driven
with both impact and vibratory methods.

HY6 - A heavy duty high yield lapped sheet for propped excavations up to 6m deep
and cantilever support up to 2.5m in non-water bearing ground. Excellent strength to
weight characteristics. Can be driven with both impact and vibratory methods.

Cross
t d p Section Moment Maximum bending Available
Sheet w section Weight Weight
Thickness Pan Depth Pan Width Modulus of Inertia moment1 & 2 Lengths3 & 4
Type Width (m) area (kg/Lin.m) (kg/m)
(mm) (mm) (mm) (cm/m) (cm4/m) (kNm/m) (m)
(cm)

Std SD33 0.33 3.4 35 110 13.8 10.9 32.9 48.8 81.4 8.5 2 to 4

KD4 0.4 6.0 50 150 28.3 22.1 55.2 102.0 254.0 19.0 3 to 6

KD6 0.6 8.0 80 120 63.7 50.0 83.3 242.0 968.0 45.0 3 to 7

HY6 0.5 6.0 70 125 42.9 33.7 67.4 160.0 560.0 63.25 4 to 7

GFI
interlocking
0.5 6.0 75 230 43.1 33.8 67.6 186.0 738.0 62.0 4 to 7

Notes:
1. The working bending moment is based on global factor of safety of 1.5 applied to the nominal or characteristic minimum yield stress. A
higher factor is recommended for permanent works applications.
2. Includes a reduction for local buckling effects where appropriate.
3. Longer lengths may be available on request for sale or hire.
4. Supplied in 0.5m increments between the stated limits (GFI sheets are only available in 1.0m increments).
5. Determined from test results, based on statistically reduced characteristic values.

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Sheet Piles
7.2.1

Groundforce, through their sister company Piletec, offer a comprehensive range of U


section hot rolled interlocking sheet piles for use in a variety of temporary or permanent
applications. The available pile sections are designed to be as light as possible without
compromising strength and durability, whilst the design of the interlocks offers a good
degree of water-tightness and aids pitching and driving.

Advantages of using sheet piles

High strength to weight ratio.

Good degree of water tightness.

Comprehensive range of section proles and lengths available.

High section modulus design leading to reduced deections.

Good driving properties and durability.

Lengths up to 10m readily available for hire.

Notes to assist the designer in making the correct sheet selection

Factors which need to be considered in selecting an appropriate pile prole include; bending
strength, presence of groundwater, soil type retained, permeability of soil, method of
de-watering (if applicable), installation method (pre-drive using a hammer is recommended),
driving hammer type (impact or vibratory methods), handling and / or weight issues.

Note: Piletec, with the use of their GFdrive software, are able to offer to customers guidance to assist the customer in selecting the
correct hammer specication for specic ground conditions and pile specication.

Notes on the use of interlocking proles

Interlocking sheet piles are generally used where some degree of water retention is required and to resist the migration of nes into
the excavation i.e. in granular soils below the water table.

Hot rolled sheet piles utilize tighter clutches than the cold formed trench sheet alternative (section 8.1) and hence offer greater degree
of water retention. For watertight sheet piled walls, an additional oil based sealant may be required. Refer to Piletec for further advice
(0800 731 4960).

Interlocking sheets are recommended for cantilever type retaining walls, although retained heights of greater than 3.5m can lead to
large deections and may not be a suitable retaining structure. Refer to Groundforce Technical Services for further advice.

The correct choice of pile is dependent on the steel strength, soil type and required penetration. These must be considered well in
advance of the driving operation to ensure the best results and avoid potentially costly damages through incorrect pile specication.

Sheet piles are not suitable for dig and push installation methods and consequently must always be driven with a suitable combination
of hammers, guide frames or leader rigs.

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Sheet Piles
7.2.2

Specications

The table below gives detailed specications for each prole to assist designers in specifying the most appropriate sheet type for any given
temporary works application.

Cross Permissible Maximum


t pan s web d p Weight Section Moment of
Sheet w section Weight working bending
thickness thickness Pan Depth Pan Width single pile Modulus Inertia
Type Width (m) area (kg/m) stress moment
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (kg/m) (cm/m) (cm4/m)
(cm/m) (N/mm) (kNm/m)

PU8S 0.6 8.0 8.0 283 318 112 52.8 87.9 200 845 11930 166

PU12 0.6 9.8 9.0 360 258 140 66.1 110.1 200 1200 21600 240

PU18-1 0.6 10.2 8.4 430 269 154 72.6 121.0 200 1670 35950 334

PU22-1 0.6 11.1 9.0 450 297 174 81.9 136.5 200 2060 46380 371

PU22+1 0.6 13.1 10.0 450 297 192 90.4 150.7 200 2335 52510 467

PU28-1 0.6 14.2 9.7 452 339 207 97.4 162.3 200 2680 60580 536

Note: The above data relates to steel grade S270.

Corner sections available

Various corner sections are available for applications where fully closed cofferdams are required (high water table, poor ground conditions
etc.). This will offer the advantage of greater water/ne material retention. The use of corner sections will result in specic excavation
dimensions depending on the combination of piles / corner sections used.

Note: Groundforce are able to advise customers of exact cofferdam dimensions by the use of their Sheet to Sheet pile conguration
software as a means of calculating cofferdam size for a combination of pile / corner / junction combinations. Please contact Groundforce
Technical Services for further advice.

Permissible
Weight t thickness
Corner Pile Steel Grade working stress
(kg/m) (mm)
(N/mm)

Omega 18 18.0 8 S270 200


Omega 18 C14
C14 14.4 10 S270 200

Delta 13 13.1 8 S270 200

C9 9.3 10 S270 200

Delta 13 C9

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TRENCH SUPPORT -
LIGHT WEIGHT SYSTEMS

8
8.1 Walers
8.2 Vertishore
8.3 MAP Box
8.4 Quick Access Box

LIGHT WEIGHT SYSTEMS


TRENCH SUPPORT -
Walers
8.1.1

General Product Description

Walers are compact, easily installed hydraulically-expandable shoring


units designed for 2-sided support of trench runs typically up to 4m
wide x maximum 6m deep. They are used in conjunction with trench
sheeting in single frame (propped cantilever) or multi frame
congurations. Support schemes using walers should be designed by a
competent engineer.

Each waler unit comprises two horizontal rails, expanded against the
sheeted trench walls by (typically) two externally interconnected
63.5mm bore hydraulic rams. The rams are expanded and pressured
between the walls of the trench by a manually operated hand pump.

Waler rails are available in both lightweight aluminium and standard


and heavy duty steel sections in a variety of lengths to suit different
applications. A range of hydraulic rams are available to accommodate
trench widths from 0.55m - 4.3m wide.

The sections below and on the following pages provide technical


information for the various waler types.

A) Steel Waler Range - Technical Specication

Waler Rail

Section Size - 200x100x10 RHS steel grade S355J0.

Working Bending Moment in rail = 40.5kNm (FOS 1.5 to yield).

Hydraulic Rams - single acting incorporating a mechanical lock off valve


locating in mounting plates welded on the front face of the rail.

Note: the system does not articulate once assembled. See 8.1.4 for ram
specications.

Hydraulic Cylinder Types


Technical Specication
A B C C1 C2 C3

5.0m Walers c/w 2 Hydraulic Cylinders


Maximum Working Load Limit (kN/m) 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0
Weight of Complete Frame (kg) 454 458 462 468 470 472

Min Sheet-to-Sheet Trench Width (mm) 570 1000 1500 2100 2700 3300
Max Sheet-to-Sheet Trench Width (mm) 1050 1500 2400 3000 3600 4200

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Walers
8.1.2

B) HD & Super HD Steel Waler Range - Technical Specication

The system comprises two steel UC section rails strutted apart two hydraulic
rams.

Six different ram types enable the support of different trench widths
between 850mm and 4300mm wide (sheet to sheet).

The relevant technical specication and material properties are as follows:

Waler Rail (Heavy Duty)

Section Size - 152x152x37 UC - Steel Grade - S355J0.

Working Bending Moment in rail = 63.0kNm (FOS 1.5 to yield).

Waler Rail (Super Heavy Duty)

Section Size - 152x152x37 UC + 12mm thick doubler plates - Steel Grade


- S355J0 (50B).

Combined Section Modulus - 512cm4

Working Bending Moment in rail = 118.0kNm (FOS 1.5).

Hydraulic Rams - single acting incorporating a mechanical lock off valve


locating in a mounting shoe bolted to the front face of the rail (see photo).

Note: the system does not articulate once assembled. See 8.1.4 for ram
specications

The maximum working loads, frame weights and achievable trench widths
for each combination of rail and ram unit are indicated in the table below.

Hydraulic Cylinder Types


Technical Specication
A B C C1 C2 C3

3.9m Walers c/w 2 Hydraulic Cylinders


Maximum Working Load Limit (kN/m) 40.4 40.4 40.4 40.4 40.4 40.4
Weight of Complete Frame (kg) 307 311 315 321 323 325

5.0m Walers c/w 2 Hydraulic Cylinders


Maximum Working Load Limit (kN/m) 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0
Weight of Complete Frame (kg) 338 393 396 402 404 406

5.0m (SHD) Walers c/w 2 Hydraulic Cylinders


Maximum Working Load Limit (kN/m) 40.0 * 40.0 * 40.0 * 40.0 * 32.0 * 32.0 *
Weight of Complete Frame (kg) 558 562 566 572 574 576

Min Sheet-to-Sheet Trench Width (mm) 850 1100 1600 2200 2800 3400
Max Sheet-to-Sheet Trench Width (mm) 1150 1600 2500 3100 3700 4300

* denotes working load limit is determined by the Hydraulic Cylinder and not the Heavy Duty Waler Rail (see 8.1.4)

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Walers
8.1.3

C) Aluminium Range - Technical Specication

The system comprises two extruded aluminium rails strutted/supported by either two
or three cylinders. Suitable for light duty applications in trenches up to 4.0m deep
where the low weight of equipment is a primary consideration.

Waler Rail

Aluminium Grade - 6082 T6.

Ix-x = 709cm4

Zx-x = 121.0cm

A = 39.1cm

Weight = 10.6kg/m.

Allowable Bending Moment in rail = 18.6kNm (FOS 1.5).

Hydraulic Rams - single acting incorporating


mechanical lock off valve pinned directly
within the rail recess to locate on the rear face
of the rail (see photo).

Note: the rails / rams are able to articulate for


ease of installation in multi frame systems if
assembled with the pins in the appropriate
holes. See 8.1.4 for ram specications

Section Through Rail

Hydraulic Cylinder Types


Technical Specication
A B C C1 C2 C3

2.0m Walers c/w 2 Hydraulic Cylinders


Maximum Working Load Limit (kN/m) 63.7 63.7 63.7 63.7 63.7 63.7
Weight of Complete Frame (kg) 66 70 74 80 108 140

3.0m Walers c/w 2 Hydraulic Cylinders


Maximum Working Load Limit (kN/m) 23.6 23.6 23.6 23.6 23.6 23.6
Weight of Complete Frame (kg) 90 94 98 104 132 164

4.0m Walers c/w 2 Hydraulic Cylinders


Maximum Working Load Limit (kN/m) 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2
Weight of Complete Frame (kg) 114 118 122 128 156 188

5.0m Walers c/w 2 Hydraulic Cylinders


Maximum Working Load Limit (kN/m) 29.7 29.7 29.7 29.7 29.7 29.7
Weight of Complete Frame (kg) 138 142 146 112 180 212

Min Sheet-to-Sheet Trench Width (mm) 550 800 1300 1900 2500 3100
Max Sheet-to-Sheet Trench Width (mm) 850 1300 2200 2800 3400 4000

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Waler Rams
8.1.4

D) Hydraulic Rams - all units:

A range of six hydraulic rams are available to accommodate nominal overall trench width ranges of 0.55m - 4.0m alloy rails and 0.85m -
4.3m when used with steel rails. The ram units themselves are predominantly of aluminium construction and are single acting (pump out
only). A mechanical lock-off valve (see photos below) is incorporated for additional hydraulic security and to enable the pump hose to be
connected and disconnected with zero uid loss.

Type C rams can be extended using a bolt together extension system as illustrated below. The working load of the rams is as follows:

Ram types A, B, C & C1 - Rated load = 100kN (min FOS 2:1 - hydraulic failure dictates failure criteria).

Ram Types C2 & C3 - Rated load = 80kN (min FOS 2:1 - piston rod buckling dictates failure criteria).

Pressure to axial force ratio ~ 1000psi (69 bar) pump pressure induces - 21.5 kN jacking force.

Steel Oversleeve 600mm extension piece 600mm plain end extension

Component Name Weight (kg)

Ram Type A 8.5

Ram Type B 10.0

Ram Type C 18.0

Oversleave 16.0

600mm Plain End 13.0

600 Extension 13.5

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Aluminium Waler End Bearers
8.1.5

E) Aluminium Waler End Bearers - Introduction

Waler End Bearers (WEB`s) are used to provide structural support across the open end(s) of a trench
and thus enable the ground in this hazardous area to be safely supported by trench sheeting.

Each WEB comprise two sliding telescopic aluminium box sections that connect to the opposing
ends of a standard aluminium waler rail (refer to section 8.1.3) and thus allow multiple-sided
support for light duty applications in trenches up to 4.0m deep.

Design verication

The inner & outer box sections of the WEB are free to slide or telescope and therefore provide
resistance to lateral bending forces only. Design checks are therefore carried out to ensure that the
moment capacity of the extrusions and that the shear and bending resistance in the locating pin
are both adequate. The lateral load capacities stated in the table below only relate to the structural Features and benets

capacity of the WEB and its connection and not their parent rails which should be checked The Waler End Bearer assembly
separately. Note that when only one end of a frame s supported, there is potential for the waler to incorporates an integral stainless steel
slide along the trench once friction between the main rails and trench sheeting is overcome; an spring and damper mechanism to
issue that becomes more acute with short/wide walers frame congurations. Consequently in ensure safe handling at all times.

situations where the width of the trench is greater that the waler rail length, it is recommended WEBs are compatible with Aluminium
that additional checks for resistance to sliding be made. Refer to the Technical Department for Waler Rails only.
more advice.

Technical specication: Aluminium Grade - 6082 T6 - Material Yield Strength , py = 260N/mm

Innersleeve Section Outersleeve Section

Ix-x = 312.8m4 Ix-x = 630.3m4

Zx-x = 73.6cm Zx-x = 103.3cm

A = 30.13cm A = 32.44cm

Weight = 8.14kg/m Weight = 8.76kg/m

Working Bending Moment* = 12.0kNm Working Bending Moment* = 16.8kNm

*FOS = 1.6

Pin Properties

20mm EN16 pin.

Maximum Resistance of pin = 37.8kN


(FOS =1.6).

As limited by bending in the pin


across the shear planes.
Innersleeve section Outersleeve section

Waler End Bearer Type Reference

Technical Specication Used with Ram Type A Used with Ram Type B Used with Ram Type C

AA AB BA BB CA CB C1 C2

Weight (kg) 8.7 10.0 12.0 14.1 19.0 22.9 28.7 34.0

Min pin-to-pin Width (mm) 457 562 687 887 1212 1612 1812 2412
Max pin-to-pin Width (mm) 602 762 937 1187 1662 2112 2712 3312

Min Sheet-to-Sheet Width (mm) 545 650 775 975 1300 1700 1900 2500
Max Sheet-to-Sheet Trench Width (mm) 690 850 1025 1275 1750 2200 2800 3400

Working Load Limit (kN/m) * 63.7 63.7 63.7 59.2 40.6 27.4 14.2 10.6

*The Working Load limits for the various types are stated in the table above includes for a global factor of safely of 1.6
Note that as these are maximum possible values the overall load capacity of the system may be limited by the strength
of the waler being used. Hence this should be checked in conjunction with section 8.1.3.

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Vertishore
8.2.1

The Vertishore is a lightweight compact easily installed shoring unit designed for short term
use in relatively shallow trenches in stable non-water bearing ground conditions. The units are
designed to be installed from ground level by one man in a matter of seconds thus providing
safe effective shoring without operatives having to enter an un-shored excavation.

Each unit comprises two aluminium rails, expanded against the cut trench walls by a pair of
interconnected hydraulic rams. The rams are expanded and pressured between the walls of the
trench by a manually operated hand pump.

The units are designed to be used intermittently along the trench without additional trench
sheeting, however horizontal spacing of Vertishores should not exceed 1.2m centres along the
trench.

Vertishores are available in two alternative rail lengths and with a range of four hydraulic rams to
cater for trench widths from 0.45m - 1.6m wide.

Vertishores
Technical Specication
Type A Type

Rail Length (mm) 1500 2100

Minimum excavation width (mm) 450 450

Maximum excavation width (mm) 1600 1600

Clearance below cylinder (mm) 570 570

Typical unit weight (kg)# 27 34

Rail working load (kN/m)** 20 20

# Weights will vary with cylinder lengths used.

** The cantilever effect of the shore rail under the lower ram is the limiting factor on uniformly distributed load ratings. The
working axial load capacity of individual cylinders is 80kN

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Vertishore
8.2.2

Rail Details

Fabricated in 6082T6 extruded aluminium alloy.


Note: rails are handed to allow unit to be
hinged during installation.

Rail Properties

Ix-x = 61.04cm4

Zx-x = 23.4cm

A = 39.1cm
Cross-section through Vertishore Rail
Weights: Type A - 8.6kg: Type B - 12kg.

Working Bending Moment about x-x - 3.6kNm


(FOS 1.5 to yield).

Ram Details

Two single acting, all aluminium alloy


construction rams with permanent
interconnection hose between upper and
lower rams.

Quick release coupling for manual hose


removal on upper ram only.

50.8mm Bore, stroke - varies see table below.

Sheet-to-Sheet Width (mm) Ram Working


Ram Type Load Capacity
Min Max (kN) FOS=2
General Arrangement of Vertishore Ram
1 450 680 80

2 550 880 80

3 650 1080 80

4 1000 1600 80

General Arrangement & Assembly Details

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Vertishore
8.2.3

Technical Specication

How do they work?

Support of the trench relies on the ground behind the units arching between the Vertishore centres
as illustrated in the diagram below. Compact or cohesive soil will demonstrate a greater ability for soil
arching than will loose and cohesion less soils. It is therefore essential that Vertishores are only
considered for use in ground that is self supporting or has the ability to stand, once excavated, to a
vertical face as in predominantly cohesive soil.

Arching in soils occurs any time the stiffness of the supporting structure is different than the stiffness
of the surrounding soil. If the structure is stiffer than the soil then load arches ONTO the structure. In
this instance the supports are the Vertishore units which, once pressurised hydraulically against the
walls of the trench, form a very rigid support which consequently induces this arching effect in the
surrounding ground.

The amount of arching depends on the relative difference in stiffness and the amount of load
available to arch.

The general design procedure for Vertishore rails is to assume one half the Vertishore spacing either
side acts as a panel loaded with active soil pressures and surcharge loadings above the depth of
excavation.

The strength characteristics of the Vertishores have been determined to satisfy the worst case load
conditions within the depth limitation of the units. No further support calculations are therefore
generally necessary. If in doubt however about the suitability of Vertishores, a close sheeted system
of shoring such as walers and trench sheets or trench boxes is recommended, designed by an
experienced engineer.

Key points for safe Vertishore usage

Only use in stable non water bearing ground.

Only use in short-term situations.

Ensure all personnel are appropriately trained.

Perform a risk assessment prior to digging.

Inspect the installation regularly.

Take care to protect the Vertishore unit from accidental strikes and concrete accumulation.

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Modular Aluminium Panel (MAP) Box
8.3.1

The MAP (Modular Aluminium Panel) Box is a lightweight


aluminium modular box system that can be assembled by hand
and handled on sites by small excavators.

Using just three main components - panels, struts and corner posts - the MAP
system can be congured to provide either 2, 3 or 4-sided support offering
the user great versatility on site. Being predominantly of aluminium
construction, an assembled box can weigh as little 236kg, whilst providing
the strength of a conventional steel trench box.

MAP boxes are designed to be used in short-term applications in stable, non-water


bearing ground conditions. Pre-assembled and adjusted units are thus rapidly
installed by lowering into a pre-dug trench from ground level thus providing a safe
effective shoring shield without operatives having to enter an un-supported
excavation.

The portability and ease of handling make the


system ideal for emergency type usage where
rapid response and limited working space rule
out heavier equipment.

For more advice on the suitability of MAP Boxes


in specic applications please contact the
Technical Services Department.

Technical Specication

Technical Specication 990 Panel 1600 Panel 2200 Panel 2800 Panel

Plate Length (mm) 996 1606 2182 2825

Overall Box Length (mm) 1224 1834 2410 3053

Individual Panel Height (mm) 600 600 600 600

Plate Thickness (mm) 63 63 63 63

Clearance between struts in plan (mm) 1045 1705 2232 2875

Clearance between corner posts (mm) Strut/Panel length - 102mm Strut/Panel length - 102mm Strut/Panel length - 102mm Strut/Panel length - 102mm

Earth to Earth distance (mm) Strut length + 228mm Strut length + 228mm Strut length + 228mm Strut length + 228mm

Weight (kg)# 236 288 336 388

# Weights are derived theoretically and may vary with strut lengths and box congurations used.

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Modular Aluminium Panel (MAP) Box
8.3.2

Component description and specication

Panels

Four panel lengths are available extruded from grade 6005-T6 aluminium alloy and these
are 996mm, 1606mm, 2182mm and 2825mm in length. Individual panel assemblies are
600mm high and have an allowable* bowing moment capacity (M1)** = 23.4kNm.
Therefore a 1.8m high box comprising three panels will have a total (allowable)
bowing moment capacity of 70.2kNm.

Corner posts

Two lengths of corner posts are available, either 1.2m or 1.8m long, they are extruded
from grade 6005-T6 aluminium alloy. Posts can be joined together with connectors to
form taller boxes. It is not recommended that more than two posts of any size be joined
together. When assembled with panels to form a box plate, it is the posts that provides Lifting Eye set into top of corner post

longitudinal strength i.e. resistance to kicking moments (M3)**. Individual posts have an
allowable* kicking moment capacity (M3)**= 11.3kNm.in both X-X and Y-Y axes.
Therefore a box panel comprising a number of panels and two end posts will have
a total (allowable) kicking moment capacity of 22.6kNm.

Struts

Struts are available in four sizes as specied in the table opposite. Working Load Working Load
Strut Length (mm)
They are manufactured from square box section steel grade S355 Strut Weight Capacity in Capacity in
Type (kg) compression tension (kN)
to form sliding inner and outer sections. The outer being 90 x 90 x 5 Min Max
(kN) FOS = 1.6 FOS = 1.6
SHS and the inner 75 x 75 x 5 SHS. A single 24mm diameter (gr8.8)
1 20 680 1070 79.9 -24.0
pin located in pre-determined holes to provide an incremental
2 24 900 1410 79.9 -24.0
adjustment facility. The struts are designed to resist purely axial
3 36 1410 2325 79.9 -24.0
compression and tension forces and not bending forces.
4 44 1710 2825 79.9 -24.0
* - a lumped factor of safety of 1.6 is applied to determine
allowable values of resistance .

** - see section 9.1 for explanation of bowing and kicking moments.

General Arrangement & Assembly Details

Strut end plate

2 No. 12mm (gr 5.8) retaining

24mm (gr8.8) adjustment pin

Corner post Telescopically


adjustable strut

Side panels

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Modular Aluminium Panel (MAP) Box
8.3.3

System Specication

Taking into account the limiting structural resistances (as dened on the previous page) when the panels, posts and struts are combined in
the various congurations, the allowable uniform pressures on the pox panels are dened in the tables below for each conguration of box
(The following data assumes uniform pressure distribution on the back of the box panels).

2 and 3 Sided Congurations

Distance from lower strut


990 Panel 1600 Panel 2200 Panel 2800 Panel
to base

900mm 45.6kN/m 30.4kN/m 23.2kN/m 18.3kN/m

600mm 102.6kN/m 68.5kN/m 52.1kN/m 39.1kN/m

300mm 145.0kN/m 96.8kN/m 65.5kN/m 39.1kN/m

4 Sided Congurations (No Struts)

990 Panel 1600 Panel 2200 Panel 2800 Panel

314.5kN/m 121.0kN/m 65.5kN/m 39.1kN/m

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Quick Access Box (QAB)
8.4.1

The Quick Access Box (QAB) is an ultra


lightweight compact shoring box designed for
short term ground support of relatively shallow trenches
up to 1.8m deep. Whilst each of the individual components are
light enough to allow assembly by hand, it is recommended that
assembled boxes are handled by a small excavator using appropriate lifting
equipment. QAB units are designed to be used in short-term applications in
stable, non-water bearing ground conditions. Pre-assembled with adjustable
struts, it can be rapidly installed into a pre-dug trench by lowering from ground
level thus providing a safe and effective shoring shield without operatives
having to enter an un-supported excavation.

Each unit comprises two lightweight aluminium plates, held apart at each end by pairs
of acrow type adjustable struts. The latter are available in a range of four different
sizes to accommodate trench widths between 0.4m to 1.8m.

The maximum recommended depth of trench that can be supported (without specic
supporting calculations) is 1.8m; equivalent to a base and single top unit combined.

Technical Specication

Plate Length 1225mm

Plate Height base / top 1200 / 600mm

Plate Thickness 25mm

Clearance below struts 170 / 265mm

Clearance between struts in plan 1045mm

Clearance between corner posts Strut length - 76mm

Earth to Earth distance (mm) Strut length + 50mm

Nominal Box Weight 75kg#

Allowable uniform panel pressure 20.9kN/m**

# Weights may vary with strut lengths and box congurations used.

** Limiting by the bowing moment (M2) capacity of the corner posts (see page 2).

Note: The allowable axial load capacity of the struts is 30kN (all lengths) with a factor of safety of 2

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Quick Access Box (QAB)
8.4.2

Construction and structural considerations

The structural strength of the QAB is dened by its ability to resist


ground pressure on the rear of the panels as follows and indicated on
the diagrams opposite.

1. By the panel sections in plan to resist inward bowing moment (M1).

2. Bt the panel corner posts in a vertical plane to resist kicking


moment (M3) under the lower strut and bowing moment (M2)
between the struts. The panels are capped at
each end and supported by
3. By the axial resistance of the struts.
an integral end post which
For simplicity, taking into account the light duty nature of the QAB, the also provides structural
box capacity is generally dened by an allowable uniform panel resistance in a vertical plane
pressure on the back of the box panels considering the limiting value in terns of kicking
of either M1, M2 or M3 in its assembled conguration, as stated in the resistance M3 and bowing
summary table on 8.4.1. More rigorous checks can be performed by resistance M2. The
checking the box components against the specic capacities stated supporting struts are
below. mounted into these end

Moment capacities support channels at specic


locations as shown on 8.4.1.
Corner Post - Allowable Bending Moment (M2 & M3) = 0.98kNm
(FOS 1.6)- material - (6063-T6 aluminium alloy).

Panels - (Base and Top) - Allowable Bending Moment M1 = 5.9kNm/m


height (FOS 1.6) - material (6063-T6 aluminium alloy).

Strut Component Properties Strut Length (mm) Axial Load Axial Load
Capacity in Capacity in
Strut Type Weight (kg)
Strut Outer Tube = 60.3mm x 3.6mm (S355). compression tension (kN)
Min Max
(kN) FOS = 2 FOS = 1.6 #
Strut Inner Tube = 48.3mm x 3.2mm (S355). 0 4.0 330 480 30 -24

Adjustment Pin = 110mm long, 16mm (S355). 1 5.8 500 740 30 -24

Retaining Pins = 2 No. 124mm long, 9.5mm (S275). 2 7.7 700 1100 30 -24

3 11.0 1040 1740 30 -24

# limited by shear capacity of the rough adjuster pin


General Arrangement & Assembly Details

Lifting Eye (as shown)


9.5mm retaining pin above or panel connector
and below the trench strut plate (see insert)

Corner Post Box Plate

Trench Strut (acrow type)

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TRENCH SUPPORT -
BOX SYSTEMS

9
9.1 Box Systems - Basis of Design
9.2 Trench Boxes
9.3 Manhole Boxes
9.4 Backhoe Trench and Manhole Boxes
9.5 Box Spindles and Struts
9.6 Drag Boxes
9.7 Box Ancillaries

TRENCH SUPPORT -
BOX SYSTEMS
Box Systems - Basis of Design
9.1.1

Introduction

All trench and manhole boxes are designed as standalone products unlike other
support systems such as sheets and frames. It is therefore common practice to
specify the structural capacity of trench and manhole box systems by
the allowable uniform panel pressure that the panels can sustain
over the full panel area. Simple verication calculations can thus
be completed by comparing the worst case calculated soil
pressure with the allowable panel pressures. Whilst this simplied
approach will provide a safe solution it can result in pessimistic
values and sometimes render solutions where the box is
inadequate to resist the loads. A more rigorous analysis may
demonstrate otherwise.
The latter is a common situation where excavations are deeper and/or
ground conditions are poor. Note that trench boxes are heavy and can be
difcult to remove from the ground due to suction pressures on the panels. Using
a detailed lifting plan consideration should always be made to the weight of the
box, potential extraction forces and the capability of the lifting equipment
employed to safely lift, handle and extract it.

Failure mechanisms

Boxes generally comprise just two structural elements, side panels and struts, the latter
usually incorporating some form of mechanical adjustment facility.

There are three main potential failure mechanisms in a simple box assembly namely:

Inward bowing of the box panel between the struts - Bowing moment
(denoted M1). Plan view of box panel indicating

Bending (in plan) of the end return panels (denoted M2) this applies to manhole bowing moment (M1)

boxes only.

Bending of the panel under the lower strut - kicking moment (denoted M3).

Failure of the strut in compression (either buckling or local component failure) or


in tension.

Design considerations for panels

Consider resistance to M1 bowing. This is determined by the bending strength of


Plan view of end post indicating
the panel in the plane of bending. Panels are typically of cellular construction and it the
corner moment (M2)
strength is proportional to the section modulus of the component parts in the plane of
Manhole boxes only
bending.

Consider resistance to M2 bending. This is determined by the specic construction


detail of the manhole box panels in the comers. Generally M2 bending is not a critical
factor in determining the limiting box capacity.

Consider resistance to M3 bending. Box panels themselves have little natural


strength in this (vertical) plane of bending. It is simpler therefore to ignore this and
relate M3 bending resistance to the strength of the end posts which also double up as
Section through a typical box panel
strut housings. M3 bending capacity of each panel is therefore twice the bending
indicating kicking moment (M3)
resistance of the end posts.

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Box Systems - Basis of Design
9.1.2

Design considerations for struts

There are several types of strut within the Groundforce box eet comprising
xed, incremental (by pin) and fully adjustable (by screw) mechanisms. These
are illustrated in the pictures opposite.

Considering the axial capacity of any strut assembly, there are typically two
modes of failure; either by local failure of an individual strut components such as
a pin or screw, or at longer spans, lateral buckling of the unit as a whole. For
Fully adjustable box strut
simplicity and to produce the most conservative result, we have considered the
various modes of failure at the maximum length stated within relevant
conguration specication for the particular box in question. The limiting load
capacity is therefore dictated by failure criteria (either local component failure or
buckling).

Note that to allow for robust design and hard use on sites which boxes are
typically subject to, struts are over typically over-designed in bending and
buckling so that it is generally a local component failure such as a pinned
connection that determines the limiting strut capacity.

Extraction Forces - design of lifting lugs

Incrementally adjustable
Very large frictional and suction forces can be generated on box panels which
telescopic strut
can make them difcult to pull out of the ground. This problem can be
particularly acute when working in soft clay type ground conditions. Damage to
lifting points and lifting equipment can easily occur if over-large extraction forces
are used, or the chain is snatched during the extraction process.

It is common practice to design a single lifting lug to resist forces equivalent to at


least 25% of the force calculated by multiplying the allowable uniform panel
pressure by the area of the box panel in contact with the ground. Generally the
capacity of the lugs will exceed the capacity of the lifting equipment used. The
maximum lifting lug capacities are tabulated for each box type. Fixed length strut

Summary

Two types of design verication is possible with conventional trench box


equipment. Firstly a simple check can be carried out by comparing calculated
with allowable panel pressures. It is however possible to undertake a more
rigorous verication by analysis of the various modes of failure to determine the
limiting value. The latter procedure is recommended in deeper trenches and or
when working in poorer ground where a simple check may provide unduly
pessimistic results.

Structural data is published within the relevant section for each box type, to
enable a designer of checker to verify the limiting system capacity. It is the
designers decision whether they adopt a simple panel pressure verication
approach or a more detailed resistance check using limiting component
resistances.

Extraction forces must be observed when working in poor ground conditions to


prevent damage to equipment and lifting gear.

For more advice please contact the Technical Services Department.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Trench Boxes
9.2.1

Trench boxes are generally the rst choice for the rapid
shoring of trench runs in non-urban environments due to the
speed and simplicity of installation. In reasonable ground
conditions, they are generally suitable for use in trenches up to
4m wide x 6.6m deep, depending on box type, and used where
prevention of ground movement is not a key issue. They are often
installed longitudinally in multiple units to continuously support a
length of trench.

Groundforce offer a wide range of trench box sizes with two basic strut
types. The Multi-Box type of strut is a heavy duty, incrementally
adjustable, telescopic strut whereas the spindle type uses the more
traditional screw thread method of adjustment. Multi-box struts are more
suited to wider trench widths. A maximum of two top extension boxes
can be added to increase the height of a base box.

Trench widths of between 520mm and 4650mm (inside of box) can be


achieved with various combinations of adjustable spindle and
extensions.

It is recommended that all trench boxes are used with integral Edgesafe
and Laddersafe barrier and access systems.

Features and benets

Simple installation methodology.

Extension boxes can be quickly added to achieve deeper


trenches; up to a maximum to two top boxes.

Various sizes available to cater for a wide variety of applications.

Trench boxes may be installed in either a pre-dug trench in stable


ground, or by a progressive `dig & push method.

Enables rapid construction of pipe work chambers and


interceptors.

Strut Types

Multibox incremental telescopic system (mini & standard box).

Heavy duty incremental telescopic system (premier box).

Adjustable spindle system.

Product Link
Box Struts - Section 9.5
Box Ancillaries - Section 9.7

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Trench Boxes
9.2.2

Technical Specication

The table and cross sections below states box dimensions, weights, and the various structural parameters for all available Trench Boxes.
Design verication can be undertaken by either a simple panel pressure comparison or by a more rigorous bending moment and strut
capacity check. (For further details see Box Systems - Basis of design, section 9.1. Strut capacity data can be found in section 9.5 box
spindles & struts). All of the boxes can be used in conjunction with Groundforce end closure panels in applications where full width earth
retention across the end(s) of the box is required.

Mini Trench Box Standard Trench Box Premier Trench Box

Trench Box Type


Specication
Mini Trench Box Standard Trench Box Premier Trench Box

Plate Length (m) 3.0 3.5 3.5

Plate Height (m) 2.0 (base) 1.0 (top) 2.6 (base) 1.35 (top) 3.9 (base) 1.35 (top)

Plate Thickness (mm) 60 107 105

Weight of Plate (kg) 580 (base) 316 (top) 1042 (base) 616 (top) 1600 (base) 630 (top)

Maximum Trench Depth (m) [1]


4.0 5.3 6.6

Internal width (mm) 510 - 4310 510 - 4310 560 - 4682

External width (mm) 650 - 4450 730 - 4530 760 4882

Clearance below strut (mm) 1190 1440 2455

Clearance between struts (mm) 2500 3000 2930

Strut centres (mm) 2725 3225 3200

Strut length from pin to pin (mm) 410 4210 410 4210 440 4562

Allowable plate bowing moment, M1 (kNm/m) [2]


30.4 81.5 55.1

Allowable plate kicking moment, M3 (kNm) [2]


43.2 103.2 453.6

Allowable plate panel pressure (kN/m) [2 & 3]


32.8 35.2 39.7

Max allowable extraction force per lifting lug (t) 3.0 6.0 12.0

Allowable strut load (kN) [4] Dependant on strut type used refer to section 9.5 (box spindles & struts)

1. Maximum depth is based on 1No. base and 2No. top extensions being connected together.
2. For all above data, the minimum global load (or safety) factor is 1.6.
3. The allowable uniform panel pressure is determined from limiting values of kicking and bowing moments and can be affected by
the strut type/length used within the box make up.
4. Refer to section 9.5 on box struts for more information.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Manhole Boxes
9.3.1

Manhole boxes are similar to trench boxes


in their basic function, however they
incorporate integral end return panels to
provide additional ground support across the
end of a trench making them ideal for
installing precast manhole rings within trench
runs. There are ve basic sizes of Manhole Box
available within the Groundforce eet to cater
for all common sizes of precast manhole rings.
Each box can be assembled and installed quickly
using appropriate machinery and without the
need for an operative to enter the unsupported
excavation.

Manhole Boxes can be used in most ground conditions to support


trenches of up depths of up to 5.5m by utilising the base module with two
interconnected box top units. Trench widths of between 1.6m and 5.4m
can be achieved with various combinations of strut and panel type.

Note that manhole boxes are heavy and therefore great consideration should always
be made to the weight of the box and the capability of the lifting equipment employed
to lift and handle it.

It is recommended that all manhole boxes are used with integral Edgesafe and
Laddersafe barrier and access systems.

Features and benets

Simple installation methodology.

Extension boxes can be quickly added and connected by a simple pinned


arrangement to achieve deeper trenches; up to a maximum to two top
boxes can be added.

A large range is available to cater for a wide variety of manhole rings.

Manhole boxes may be installed in either a pre-dug trench in stable ground,


or by a progressive `dig & push` method.

A full range of integrated handrail systems are available along with end
closure panels.

End closure panels are available to support the open ends of the manhole
box (see Box Ancillaries 9.7.2).

Compatible Strut Types


Product Link
Multibox telescopic incrementally adjustable system (2.5m to 4.0m Boxes). Box Struts - Section 9.5

Adjustable Spindle system (2.5m to 4.0m Boxes). Box Ancillaries - Section 9.7

Fixed Length Extension (4.7m Box only).

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Manhole Boxes
9.3.2
Technical Specication

The table and cross sections below states box dimensions, weights, and the various structural parameters for all available Manhole Boxes.
Design verication can be completed by either a simple panel pressure comparison or by a more rigorous bending moment and strut
capacity check. (For further details see Box Systems - Basis of design, section 9.1. Strut capacity data can be found in section 9.5 box
spindles & struts). All of the boxes can be used in conjunction with Groundforce end closure panels in applications where full width earth
retention across the end(s) of the box is required.

2.5m, 3.0m, 3.5m and 4.0m Manhole Boxes 4.7m Manhole Box

Manhole Box Type Reference (plate length)


Specication
2.5m Box 3.0m Box 3.5m Box 4.0m Box 4.7m Box

2.5 (base) 2.46 (base)


Plate Height (m)
1.5 (top) 1.4 (top)

Plate Thickness (mm) 107 100

1045 (base) 1163 (base) 1282 (base) 1400 (base) 1450 (base)
Weight of Plate (kg)
745 (top) 824 (top) 903 (top) 982 (top) 900 (top)

Maximum Trench Depth (m) [1]


5.5 5.26

Internal width (m) 1.31 - 5.11 (strut length + 900mm) 4.5

External width (m) 1.53 - 5.33 (strut length + 1120mm) 4.7

Clearance below strut (m) 1.5 1.5

Clearance between struts on plan (m) 2.15 2.65 3.15 3.65 4.43

Strut centres on plan (m) 2.34 2.84 3.34 3.84 4.58

Strut length (from pin to pin) (mm) 410 - 4210 - depending on strut type tted 2750

Allowable plate bowing moment, M1 (kNm/m) [2] 81.5 93.0

Allowable plate kicking moment, M3 (kNm) [2]


307.4 234.4

Allowable plate end moment, M2 (kNm) [2]


175.0 166.4

Allowable plate panel pressure (kN/m) [2 & 3]


101.1 80.8 58.4 44.2 33.6

Max allowable extraction force per lifting lug (t) 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 10.0

Allowable strut load (kN) [4]


Dependant on strut type used refer to section 9.5 (box spindles & struts)

1. Maximum depth is based on 1No. base and 2No. top extensions being connected together
2. For all above data, the minimum global load (or safety) factor is 1.6
3. The allowable uniform panel pressure is determined from limiting values of kicking and bowing moments and can be affected by
the strut type/length used within the box make up.
4. Refer to section 9.5 on box struts for more information

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Backhoe Trench & Manhole Boxes
9.4.1

The Backhoe Trench and Manhole Boxes are lightweight


alternatives to the standard Groundforce Trench and Manhole box
ranges. They have been developed to optimise strength whilst
ensuring their weight remains low enough to be handled by smaller
excavators on site.

All boxes are capable of supporting trenches up to 4m deep when a


base module is connected to two top extension units.

Trench widths of up to 2.2m (earth to earth) for the Trench Box and
3m for the Manhole Boxes can be achieved by using a variety of
xed length strut extensions. These are connected to the box
plates using a simple pin arrangement for speedy on-site assembly.

Features and benets

A robust yet lightweight box system suitable for use with backhoe (180
degree) and mini excavators.

Base box weighs typically only 740kg (Trench Box) or 915kg (Manhole
Box).

Suitable for supporting excavations depths up to 4.0m in reasonable


ground.

Simple pinned strut arrangement for rapid on-site assembly and


adjustment.

1.2m clearance under bottom strut for large diameter pipes.

End closure panels are available to support the open ends of the boxes
Product Link
(see Box Ancillaries 9.7.2).
Box Struts - Section 9.5
Box Ancillaries - Section 9.7

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Backhoe Trench & Manhole Boxes
9.4.2

Technical Specication

The table and cross sections below provides box dimensions, weights, and the various structural parameters for all available Backhoe
Boxes. Design verication can be undertaken using either a simple panel pressure comparison, or by a more rigorous bending moment and
strut capacity check. Note: strut capacity data can be found in section 9.5 (box spindles & struts). When specifying backhoe boxes,
consideration should always be made to the weight of the box and the capability of the excavator employed to lift and handle it.

Backhoe Trench Box Backhoe Manhole Boxes

Backhoe Box Type


Specication
Trench Box 2.0m Manhole 2.5m Manhole 3.0m Manhole

Plate Length (m) 2.85 2.0 2.5 3.0

Plate Height (m) 2.0 (base) 1.0 (top) 2.0 (base) 1.0 (top)

Plate Thickness (mm) 63 60

344 (base) 420 (base) 427 (base) 487 (base)


Weight of individual plates (kg)
174 (top) 220 (top) 225 (top) 280 (top)

Maximum Trench Depth (m) [1] 4 4

Internal width between plates (m) 0.3 - 2.1 1.35 - 1.88 1.35 - 2.38 1.35 - 2.88

External width (m) 0.43 - 2.23 1.47 - 2.0 1.47 - 2.5 1.47 - 3.0

Clearance below strut (m) 1.215 1.18

Clearance between struts on plan (m) 2.55 1.8 2.3 2.8

Distance between struts centres on plan (m) 2.68 1.93 2.43 2.93

Strut length to achieve a square box (mm) -


N/A 850 (800) 1280 (1230) 1780 (1730)
pin to pin length shown in brackets.

Allowable plate bowing moment, M1 (kNm/m) [2]


18.4 43.6

Allowable plate kicking moment, M3 (kNm) [2]


30.1 117.4

Allowable plate end moment, M2 (kNm) [2] N/A 58.7

#Allowable uniform plate panel pressure


20.6 30.0 30.5 21.1
(kN/m) [2 & 3]

Allowable strut load (kN) [2 & 4] 98kN in both compression and tension irrespective of length of strut

1. Maximum depth is based on 1No. base and 2No. top extensions being connected together
2. For all above data, the load (or safety) factor is 1.6
3. The allowable uniform panel pressure is determined from limiting values of kicking and bowing moments and strut capacity
4. Refer to section 9.5 on box struts for more information

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Trench and Manhole Box Struts
9.5.1

In a trench box assembly it is the struts that transmit


the forces generated by earth pressures between the
opposing walls of the trench. They need to be robustly
constructed to accommodate potentially large
compressive forces as well as to be able to resist the
inevitable accidental impacts incurred in trenching
operations with large machinery.

There are three basic types of box strut namely:

Fixed length struts.

Incrementally adjustable struts.

Fully adjustable struts (known as spindles).

Due to continuous development of the Groundforce range of box systems, there are several
types of struts that can be used throughout the box range, some dedicated to specic box
types and some interchangeable. This document will cover struts that can be used in the
following box types:

Backhoe Type (see section 9.4) - trench and manhole boxes.

Standard range (see section 9.2) - mini and standard trench boxes.

Manhole box range (see section 9.3).

Premier trench box (see section 9.2). An example of an incrementally


adjustable strut
The table below indicates the application or each type of strut to each box type and the
subsequent pages within this section describe the physical and structural properties of each
strut type.

Strut Type
Box Type
Fixed Incremental Fully Adjustable

Not
Backhoe Trench Box Compatible Compatible
Compatible
An example of xed length strut
Not Not
Backhoe Manhole Box Compatible
Compatible Compatible

Not
Mini Trench Box Compatible Compatible
Compatible

Not
Standard Trench Box Compatible Compatible
Compatible

Not
Premier Trench Box Compatible Up to 2.5m wide
Compatible

Not
Standard Manhole Box Compatible Compatible
Compatible

Not
4.7m Manhole Box Compatible Compatible An example of a fully
Compatible

adjustable strut (or spindle)

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Box Struts - Spindle Type
9.5.2

General description

This is a fully adjustable strut, traditionally known as a spindle due to its relative slender prole. It
comprises an adjustable left and right handed screw threaded section (four sizes are available) a series of
xed length plug in extension pieces and a pair of spring spindle holders located at each end to form
the connection to the box panels. The latter allows a degree of strut articulation to facilitate a typical dig
and push installation sequence. The spindle assembly, although robust, does need to be specied with
care at longer spans as the plug in joints between the extension bars will promote a degree of sag in
the struts, reducing its load carrying capacity due to potential buckling effects (see load/span chart below).

Limitations

On Premier Boxes, the maximum length of strut is limited to 2.5m due to their greater load carrying capacity.

On all other box types, the maximum length of strut is limited to 4.2m.

To avoid excessive deection, the number of joints in a single strut assembly is limited to a maximum of 4 (including end connections
to the spring spindle holders).
3
3
5 2
3 5

3 5
5
4
2
7
6
1

Components
1. Adjustable Spindle
2. Spring Spindle Holder
3. Spindle Pin (20mm dia.)
4. Spring Spindle Holder Pin (40mm dia.)
5. Small R Clip
6. Large R Clip
7. Spindle Extension Tube(s) - available in a variety of sizes

Description Pin to Pin Range Weight (kg) Allowable axial Allowable axial tensile
L (mm) compressive force (kN) force (kN)

Super Mini Fixed 440 8 600

Mini 530 630 18 -272.5


Varies with span
Small 610 710 23 (limited by shear in the
See graph above
Midi 710 965 30 pin connectors)
FOS = 1.65
Standard 880 1210 37

0.5m xed extension 500 20 N/A N/A

1.0m xed extension 1000 31 N/A N/A

2.0m xed extension 2000 78 N/A N/A

Spring Spindle Holder 135# 15 N/A N/A

# - pin to bearing face (approx)

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Box Struts - Multi-Box Type
9.5.3

General description

This family of struts comprises inner and outer telescopic steel box sections incorporating end rockers
with a series of pin location holes along the length to provide an incrementally length adjustment facility.
The end rockers allow a degree of strut articulation to facilitate a typical dig and push installation
sequence. Multi-box struts are constructed from sufciently large box section steel so that lateral bucking
is not a design limitation within the operating width range of the box. Consequently the axial resistance
or capacity of these struts is limited by local effects such as the bearing, shear and bending strength of
the two 20mm diameter adjustment pins. A pair of standard rockers combine with a central oversleeve
to increase their length and range of adjustment (Figure 1). Mini and narrow rockers permit narrower
trenches and both incorporate a standard rocker, but no central oversleeve (Figure 2 and Figure 3
overleaf). They also only require a single pin connection between the inner and outer sleeve

Design data

Controlling section size for structural assessment:

Mini/Std Narrow Inner Rocker 80x80x6.3 SHS, Grade S355 (50C) steel.

Mini/Std Outer Rocker 100x100x6.3 SHS, Grade S355 (50C) steel.

Standard Extensions oversleeves 120x120x8 SHS, Grade S355 (50C) steel.

Connection between all telescopic components is by 2 No. 20mm 605M36T (EN16) pins.

Connection between rocker and the box panel is by 1 No. 40mm 605M36T (EN16) pin.

Bearing and side plates are all 10mm thick Grade S355 (50C) for both rockers.
3
Figure 1.

3 1

Components
1. 1No. 40mm dia. Pin and Clip (GF Ref. 1 Pin).
2. 2No. 20mm dia. Pins and Clips (GF Ref. 3 Pin). Note: double pin connection

1 3. Multi-Box Standard Rocker.


4. Strut Oversleeve (various sizes available, see table below).

Data table for standard strut combinations

Description Component Pin to Pin Range Weight (kg) Allowable axial Allowable axial tensile
Combination L (mm) compressive force (kN) force (kN)

Standard - 690 o/sleeve 858 - 1258 47

Standard - 1190 o/sleeve 1358 - 1758 61 +167.6 with a FOS = 1.6 -167.6 with a FOS = 1.6

Standard - 1690 o/sleeve 1858 - 2258 75 (limited by bearing (limited by bearing


resistance of the double resistance of the double
Standard - 2190 o/sleeve 2358 - 2758 89 20mm pin connection) 20mm pin connection)
Standard - 2690 o/sleeve 2858 - 3258 103

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Box Struts - Multi-Box Type
9.5.4

Figure 2.
3

2 1

5
Figure 3.

1
2

Components
1
1. 40mm dia. Pin and Clip (GF Ref. 1 Pin).
2. 20mm dia. Pin and Clip (GF Ref. 3 Pin). Note: single pin connection
3. Multi-Box Mini Rocker.
4. Multi-Box Mini Inner Rocker. 1
5. Multi-Box Standard Rocker.
6. Multi-Box Standard Inner Rocker. 7
7. Panel Connector (4 required per panel extension).

Data table for mini and narrow strut combinations (note that no oversleeve extensions are required)

Description Component Pin to Pin Range Weight (kg) Allowable axial Allowable axial tensile
Combination L (mm) compressive force (kN) force (kN)

Mini Inner / Mini Rocker 410 - 560 22.5


+83.8 with a FOS = 1.6 -83.8 with a FOS = 1.6
Mini Inner / Std Rocker 517 - 617 25.0
(limited by bearing (limited by bearing
Std Inner / Mini Rocker 597 - 747 25.5 resistance of the 20mm resistance of the 20mm
pin connection) pin connection)
Std Inner / Std Rocker 604 - 804 28.0

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Box Struts - Premier Multi-Box Type
9.5.5

General description

Due to the requirement for greater load capacity and physical size, Premier boxes have a stronger
version of the multi-box strut. Various permutations of strut are available for these boxes including both
xed and incrementally adjustable struts. The xed length strut comprises heavy duty end rocker units
linked together by a series of xed length oversleeves whilst the incrementally adjustable strut
incorporates an incrementally adjustable oversleeve unit. The rockers allow a degree of strut articulation
to facilitate a typical dig and push installation sequence. Premier multi- struts are constructed of
sufciently large box section steel so that lateral bucking is not a design limitation within the operating
width range of the box. Consequently, the axial resistance or capacity of these struts is limited by local effects such as shear, bearing and
bending strength of the 40mm diameter adjustment pin.

Design data

Controlling section size for structural assessment:

Premier Rocker 120x120x10 SHS, Grade S355 (50C) steel.

Outersleeve (Type B-J) 150x150x12.5 SHS, Grade S355 (50C) steel.

Outersleeve (Type K-L) 200x200x12.5 SHS, Grade S355 (50C) steel.

Adjustable Unit (A1) 180x180x10 and 150x150x12.5 SHS, Grade S355 (50C) steel.

All pinned connections incorporate a 40mm 605M36T (EN16) pin.


2

Components
1. 40mm dia. Pin and Clip (GF Ref. 2 Pin).
2. Premier Rocker.
3. Fixed Extension (various sizes available).

Data table for xed length struts

Strut Reference Pin to Pin Range Weight (kg) Allowable axial Allowable axial tensile
L (mm) compressive force (kN) force (kN)

Strut B 962 75

Strut C 1062 80

Strut D 1162 85
+266.0 with a FOS = 1.6 -266.0 with a FOS = 1.6
Strut E 1262 91
(limited by bearing (limited by bearing
Strut F 1462 103 resistance of the 40mm resistance of the 40mm
pin connection) pin connection)
Strut G 1762 118

Strut H 2062 134

Strut J 2562 160

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Box Struts - Premier Multi-Box Type
9.5.6

Premier Multibox Telescopic System (incrementally adjustable) - Strut Assembly Option 2 & 3

Conguration and data for the adjustable strut options is shown below:
2
3
4

2
1
1
1

Strut Assembly Option 2


1

1 2
4
3
4
1
2 1
1
1

1
Strut Assembly Option 3
1

Components
1. 40mm dia. Pin and Clip (GF Ref. 2 Pin).
2. Premier Rocker.
3. Fixed Extension (various sizes available).
4. Adjustable Extension A1.

Strut Reference Pin to Pin Range Weight (kg) Allowable axial Allowable axial tensile
L (mm) compressive force (kN) force (kN)

Strut B 1262 - 1462 100

Strut C 1262 - 1562 105


OPTION 2

Strut D 1362 - 1662 110


+266.0 with a FOS = 1.6 -266.0 with a FOS = 1.6
Strut E 1462 - 1762 116
(limited by bearing (limited by bearing
Strut F 1662 - 1962 128 resistance of the 40mm resistance of the 40mm
pin connection) pin connection)
Strut G 1962 - 2262 143

Strut H 2262 - 2562 159

Strut J 2762 - 3062 185

Strut Reference Pin to Pin Range Weight (kg) Allowable axial Allowable axial tensile
L (mm) compressive force (kN) force (kN)

Strut D 2062 - 2162 173

Strut E 2062 - 2262 179


+266.0 with a FOS = 1.6 -266.0 with a FOS = 1.6
OPTION 3

Strut F 2062 - 2462 191


(limited by bearing (limited by bearing
Strut G 2162 - 2762 206 resistance of the 40mm resistance of the 40mm
pin connection) pin connection)
Strut H 2462 - 3062 222

Strut J 2962 - 3562 248

Strut K 3462 - 4062 260


+213.0 with a FOS = 1.6 -213.0 with a FOS = 1.6
Strut L 3962 - 4562 284

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Box Struts - 4.7m Manhole Box
9.5.7

General description

Due to their size and specialist nature, the 4.7m manhole box has its own dedicated struts. Both
xed length and incrementally adjustable struts are available. Two types of xed length unit are
available, the original design provides a square box conguration whilst the later design permits
varying widths. The incrementally adjustable struts are similar the struts used in the premier
trench box but with a different end connection. All types of strut are constructed out of
sufciently large box section steel so that lateral bucking is not a design consideration at the
relative small spans involved. Consequently the axial resistance or capacity of these struts is
limited by local effects such as shear strength of the 40mm diameter adjustment / connector
pins.

Fixed length struts (original design)

Design Data:

Maximum Strut Length (pin to pin) - 2.75m. Note that when assembled
this will provide a square box conguration.

Connection between box panels and struts is by a 605M36T (EN16)


35mm pin.

The weight of the xed strut is 1750kg.


Fixed length strut (original design)
Axial Capacity - xed length struts

Allowable axial compressive force = 308.0kN.

Allowable axial tensile force = -144.4kN.

Fixed length struts (later design)

These struts use the premier box xed length beams tted with a shoe
adaptor pinned on at each end to facilitate the connection to the panel at
each end.

Data for this type of strut is stated in the table below.


Fixed length strut (later design)

Data table for xed length struts (later design)

Strut Reference (and Box width (external) Strut Weight Allowable axial Allowable axial tensile
length #) (mm) c/w two end compressive force (kN) force (kN)
adaptors (kg)

Strut B - 614mm 3138 103

Strut C - 714mm 3238 108

Strut D - 814mm 3338 113

Strut E - 914mm 3438 119


+266.0kN with a FOS = 1.6 -266.0kN with a FOS = 1.6
Strut F - 1114mm 3638 131
(limited by bearing (limited by bearing
Strut G - 1414mm 3938 146 resistance of the 40mm resistance of the 40mm
pin connection) pin connection)
Strut H - 1714mm 4238 162

Strut J - 2214mm 4738 188

Strut K - 2714mm 5238 200

Strut L - 3214mm 5738 224

# - refers to the overall length of the extension piece

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Box Struts - 4.7m Manhole Box
9.5.8

General description

These struts utilise the premier box range of strut components in combination with a heavy duty rocker at each end to facilitate the
connection to the panel. Two different congurations options are available incorporating an A1 adjustment sleeve at one or both ends of
the strut.

Data for these two strut options is given in the tables below.

Incrementally adjustable strut type 1

Strut Reference (and Box width (external) Strut Weight Allowable axial Allowable axial tensile
length #) (mm) c/w two end compressive force (kN) force (kN)
adaptors (kg)

Strut D - 814mm 3538 - 3838 158


INCREMENTAL TYPE 1

Strut E - 914mm 3638 - 3938 164

Strut F - 1114mm 3838 - 4138 176


+266.0 with a FOS = 1.6 -266.0 with a FOS = 1.6
Strut G - 1414mm 4138 - 4438 191
(limited by bearing (limited by bearing
Strut H - 1714mm 4438 - 4738 207 resistance of the 40mm resistance of the 40mm
pin connection) pin connection)
Strut J - 2214mm 4938 - 5238 233

Strut K - 2714mm 5438 - 5738 245

Strut L - 3214mm 5938 - 6238 269

# - refers to the overall length of the xed length extension piece

Incrementally adjustable strut type 2

Strut Reference (and Box width (external) Strut Weight Allowable axial Allowable axial tensile
length #) (mm) c/w two end compressive force (kN) force (kN)
INCREMENTAL TYPE 2

adaptors (kg)

Strut G - 1414mm 4338 - 4938 236 +266.0 with a FOS = 1.6 -266.0 with a FOS = 1.6

Strut H - 1714mm 4638 - 5238 252 (limited by bearing (limited by bearing


resistance of the 40mm resistance of the 40mm
Strut J - 2214mm 5138 - 5738 278
pin connection) pin connection)

Strut K - 2714mm 5638 - 5938 290


+213.0 with a FOS = 1.6 -213.0 with a FOS = 1.6
Strut L - 3214mm 6138 - 6438 314

# - refers to the overall length of the central extension piece

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Box Struts - Backhoe Type
9.5.9

General description

Backhoe manhole and trench boxes as their name suggests are designed as relatively lightweight units
and therefore have their own dedicated strutting system designed to minimise weight. Both xed length
and incrementally adjustable struts are available. The former tend to be used for manhole boxes to form
a square box conguration, the adjustable struts are generally used on the trench boxes to provide the
ability to adjust the box width on-site.

The xed length unit is fabricated from a single piece 100mm tubular steel section with a single 20mm
pin connection at each end. The incrementally adjustable struts employ a central oversleeve section
with a selection of adjustment holes. Both types of strut are constructed out of sufciently large section
steel so that lateral bucking is not a design consideration at the relative small spans involved.
Consequently the axial resistance or capacity of these struts is limited by local effects such as shear
strength of the 20mm adjustment / connector pins.

Connection

Connection between box panels and all strut components is by a 20mm 605M36T (EN16) pin.

Strut Sections sizes

The controlling section size of the various sections for the basis of structural assessment is:

Standard Tube Sizes 101.6x9.5 CHS, Grade S275 (43) steel.

Oversleeve Size 127x11.5 CHS, Grade S275 (43) steel.

Plate Mounting Tube 76.1x12.5 CHS, Grade S275 (43) steel.

Backhoe (standard) strut assembly


Axial Capacity

Allowable axial compressive and tensile force = 98kN with a factor of


safety of 1.6 (As limited by the bearing stress of the 20mm pin in
the 9.5mm wall thickness innersleeve sections).

Backhoe (incrementally adjustable)


strut assembly

Standard Congurations Alternative Congurations (with oversleeve connector)

Incrementally
Strut Reference adjustable strut type
Strut Length 2
Strut External External Strut Reference Strut Length Strut External
(and length #) L weight Trench Box Manhole (and length #) (pin to pin) weight Trench Box
(mm) (pin to pin) (kg) width Box width (mm) (mm) (kg) width
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

250 200 5.4 430 1470 800 (long) 1030 (long)


250 +250 650(inter) 26.2 880 (inter)
375 325 8.1 555 1595 500 (short) 730 (short)

550 500 11.5 730 1770 1050 (long) 1280(long)


375 +375 900 (inter) 1130(inter)
700 650 15.1 880 1920 31.6
750 (short) 980(short)

850 800 18.3 1030 2070 1400 (long) 1630 (long)


550 +550 1250 (inter) 38.4 1480 (inter)
1150 1100 24.8 1330 2370 1100 (short) 1330 (short)

1280 1230 27.6 1460 2500 1700 (long) 1930(long)


700 +700 1550 (inter) 45.5 1780 (inter)
1780 1730 38.4 1960 3000 1400 (short) 1630 (short)
420 long 2000 (long) 2230 (long)
Connector 250 inter 15.4 See chart N/A 850 +850 1850 (inter) 52.0 2080 (inter)
100 short 1700 (short) 1930 (short)

# - refers to the overall length of the tubular extension piece Note: Strut length must not exceed 2m (pin to pin)

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Hi-Clearance Manhole Box Posts
9.5.10

General Description

Hi-Clear manhole box posts facilitate the connection of a Multi Manhole Box base
unit to a top unit, thus providing a 4m high box with only two struts, as opposed to
three struts in the normal base / top conguration. The lower strut is positioned
higher in the assembly so as to provide the added benet of greater under-strut
clearance. This conguration improves height-to-width ratio, which is a crucial
requirement on wider boxes when large diameter pipes and chambers need to be
installed.

Four, Hi clear posts are required per box with connection to the base & top plate
proles via three existing three contact points. Upper and lower pairs of struts span
between the opposing opposite posts. All connections use 40mm GF ref 1 pins.
The Hi-Clearance system uses a unique xed length strutting system that is available
in three different lengths.

This product is available for all standard manhole boxes in the range except for the 4.7m
and backhoe versions.

Benets:

Provides greater clearance below lower strut

Accommodates larger diameter pipes, culverts & chambers

Eliminates one level of strutting

Design data for the posts

Each of the four posts is a specially fabricated steel box section (S355) which
connects to the base & top of the manhole box using 3No. 605M36T (EN16)
40mm GF ref 1 pins. The posts themselves have the following properties about
their principal axis of bending

Cross sectional area, A = 119cm

Elastic Section modulus, Wel = 725 cm

Moment of inertia, I = 13391cm4

Working moment capacity = 161kNm (with a global factor of safety of 1.65) -


in bending, directly under the lower strut position

Weight of a post = 240kg

Design data of the struts

The xed length struts are fabricated from grade S355 150x150x8 SHS They connect to
the posts with a single 605M36T (EN16) 40mm pin, GF ref 1, at each end.

Data table for strut conguration


Strut Overall Pin to Pin External Box Internal Box Weight Allowable axial Allowable axial
Designation Length Length Width Width (kg) compressive force tensile force (kN)
(mm) L (mm) (mm) (kN)
(mm)

1.25m 1250 1168 3008 2788 75


+500.0 -266.0 *
1.75m 1750 1668 3508 3288 90
(FOS = 1.6) (FOS = 1.6)
2.25m 2250 2168 4008 3788 110

* tensile force limited by the bearing resistance of the 40 mm pin connection

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Super Drag Boxes
9.6.1

Introduction and application limitations

Drag Boxes, as their name suggests, are intended to


be pulled or dragged through the excavation as the
work proceeds. They are therefore designed to be
used as localised support in steeply battered
excavations in reasonable ground conditions. They are
not intended to be dug into the ground in a similar
manner to trench boxes, as friction generated by ground
In full height contact with the box panels would likely prevent the
box from being dragged along. They are therefore intended to act as shields to
protect the workforce rather than provide positive ground support to vertically dug faces.
They are not therefore recommended for use in situations where ground retention and prevention of
ground movement is important. It is important therefore that Drag Boxes are used correctly with a site specic risk assessment being
carried out where rst hand knowledge of ground conditions and hence short-term ground stability is available.

All Groundforce drag boxes use incrementally adjustable, telescoping, heavy duty, 180mm square steel box section struts. Width
adjustment, in 50mm increments, can be simply achieved by removing a 40mm locating pin and sliding the inner sleeve to the required
pin hole. The same basic strut conguration is used for all six box sizes throughout the range.

Drag Boxes are moved along the trench by hooking the excavator bucket around the front strut.

Typical Drag Box Installation Sequence

1. Excavate in front of the box, battering the sides of the trench to an angle so
that the ground will stand unsupported.

2. Drag the box forward by the use of chains via the pulling points.

3. Lay pipe & make connections within the safety of the box. Backll and repeat sequence.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Super Drag Boxes
9.6.2

Structural verication

Despite their intended use as shields, drag boxes are still able to provide structural resistance to earth pressure loading commensurate with
their height should the trench walls collapse. If required, it is recommended that structural verication is simply carried out by comparing
the calculated lateral pressure within the trench, taking into account any surcharges with the allowable panel pressure for the relevant box
type as stated in the table below.

Features and benets

Versatile design - simple and easy to assemble and install on site.

Simple on-site incremental width adjustment.

High clearance is available under the rear strut to


Lifting / connecting points
accommodate larger diameter pipes. Rear (telescopic)
Struts
Comprehensive range of plates sizes are
available using a common strut type.

Lighter than traditional rigid strut boxes.


Pulling Points
Boxes can be connected together for deeper
(for chain
excavations subject to handling restrictions. attachment)

40mm dia Pins

Front (telescopic) struts.


Note: These struts must
Lifting / connecting points
not be used for dragging
Housing the box along when over
1m wide

Super Super
Technical Specication Super Mini Super Midi Super Maxi Super Mega
Standard Magnum

Length (m) 3.2 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 7.0

Height (m)** 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.5 3.2 2.9

Plate thickness (mm) 60 90 90 100 100 150

Weight (kg)* 1610 1846 2196 2990 3650 5700

Internal width (m) 0.65 - 2.75 0.65 - 2.75 0.65 - 2.75 0.65 - 2.75 0.65 - 2.75 0.65 - 2.75

External width (m) # 0.77 - 2.87 0.83 - 2.93 0.83 - 2.93 0.85 - 2.95 0.85 - 2.95 0.95 - 3.05

Clearance below rear strut (m) 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.1 1.7

Plan clearance between struts (m) 2.6 2.9 3.9 4.1 4.1 6.1

Allowable uniform panel pressure (kN/m) 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 20.0

* Weight may with extensions used.


** Boxes can be stacked on top of one another to accommodate deeper trenches.
# Wider struts are available on request.
The axial capacity of the strut is 266kN both in tension and compression throughout its operating range as limited by the 40mm pin.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Box Ancillaries
9.7.1

Groundforce Shorco are always striving to develop ancillary equipment to enhance their product offerings. Illustrated above is
an example of associated products that can be used in conjunction with Trench and Manhole Boxes to improve safety and
access in and around trench runs.

Key:

1. EdgeSafe - Barrier System

2. TrenchSafe - Handrails

3. EndSafe - Trench Closure Panels

4. LadderSafe - Access Systems, available in Mini, Maxi, Mega and Premier versions

5. StepSafe - Access System

6. SurroundSafe - Manhole Ring Working Platform

7. FallSafe - Davit Arm

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Box Ancillaries
9.7.2

EndSafe closure panels are used to close off the open end of a trench run to
avoid battering back the ground to a safe angle of repose. The panels are
designed to transfer lateral load from the ground into the strong points of the
box panels as opposed to adopting the bad practice method of using the box
struts to support lateral load.

EndSafe panels are available in various lengths from 1.5m to 4.5m to accommodate
most box types as indicated in the table below.

Advantages

Quick, and to install.

Safely retains backll material.

Can be used with the EdgeSafe barrier system.

Has integral lifting and handling points.

Its use can be supported by structural calculation.

Base and top plates are available.

End Closure Panel Type

1.5m Panel 2.5m Panel 3.5m Panel 4.5m Panel

Plate Length (m) 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5

Base Plate Height (m) 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6

Top Plate Height (m) 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35

Plate Thickness (mm) 60 60 60 107

Weight of Base Plate (kg) 305 490 675 1175

Weight of Top Plate (kg) 190 310 410 700

Allowable plate bowing moment, M1 (kNm/m) 29.5 29.5 29.5 79.1

Allowable plate panel pressure (kN/m) 120 41 20 32

Deection (mm) 7 18 34 33

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Box Ancillaries
9.7.3

EdgeSafe barrier system

1.8m and 2.7m long panels available.

Hinged manhole box return panels available.

Integral toeboard within panels.

Simple, adjustable universal clamping arrangement.

Cost effective, light weight and quick and easy to erect without lifting equipment.

Designed to BS EN 13374 (class A).

Laddersafe systems

Mini and maxi systems are ideal for trenches supported with boxes.

Premier system is used for framed excavations where a larger platform outstand is required.

Self-closing gated entry onto platform.

Standard pole ladder clamps directly to the unit.

Can be used with either boxes or sheeted excavations.

Maximum recommended excavation depths - 4.0m (mini and maxi) 6m (premier).

Maximum allowable load on platform1kN/m2 (one person access).

StepSafe access system

The ultimate system for safe access/egress to a trench or excavation.

Integral handrails.

Lightweight yet robust and quick and easy to install.

Attaches directly to the premier LadderSafe platform.

Maximum allowable load on platform and stairs 1kN/m2 (one person access).

SurroundSafe manhole ring safety platform

Platform is strong enough to support a pyramid of wet concrete over its full diameter.

Integral handrail and gated entry and ladder support arm.

Range of units to suit most pre-cast manhole ring sizes.

Aids safe placement of concrete at height.

Reduction in overspill and material wastage.

FallSafe davit arm

Winch capacity 200kg (SWL).

Can clamp directly to either box panels of trench sheets or piles.

Lightweight design.

Fully LOLER certied.

Fall arrest device available.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


ROLLING STRUT LINEAR
SUPPORT SYSTEMS

10
10.1 Rolling Strut - Basis of Design
10.2 Rolling Strut Trench Box
10.3 Rolling Strut Double Slide Rail

ROLLING STRUT LINEAR


SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Rolling Strut Systems - Basis of Design
10.1.1

Rolling Strut Box Unit

Rolling strut (RS) linear support


systems are available in either
slide rail or trench box formats and
offer a number of advantages over Rolling strut slide rail system

their traditional xed strut (single bay only is illustrated)

counterparts in terms of strength


and functionality.

The system employs a single (rolling)


strut assembly at the front and rear of
the plates which as the name suggests,
is able to slide or roll up down vertically. Much
greater versatility can thus be achieved enabling larger
and longer pipes to be installed with rolling struts compared to standard trench boxes.

The multi position rolling strut concept does however, add a level of complexity to the
determination of structural capacity (or overall resistance to lateral earth pressures) of
the unit.

One can appreciate that the overall box capacity will be dependant on the position of
the strut within the post. It is therefore safer to specify its capacity when the strut is
positioned in such a way that it induces the most onerous forces in the supporting
components. This is generally with the strut at its uppermost position. As with traditional
trench boxes, capacity or resistance is usually quoted in terms of allowable uniform panel
pressure. Minimum values for RS system resistance are quoted in sections 10.2 and
10.3. Should the designer wish to carry out an analysis with the strut positioned lower
down in the posts to give higher system capacity, it is necessary to carry our a more
rigorous structural analysis as described in the following sections.

Failure mechanisms

Both RS slide rail and boxes incorporate three basic structural elements; posts, panels and
struts. In the case of boxes the posts are integral within the panels themselves. There are
three main potential failure mechanisms in a simple box assembly namely:

Inward bowing of the box panel between the struts - Bowing moment (denoted M1).
Plan view of box panel indicating
Bending of the post under the strut - kicking moment (denoted M3).
bowing moment (M1)

Failure of the strut; see page 10.1.2.

Design considerations for panels

The overall structural capacity of the box or slide rail is the least value to induce failure
due to the following:

Bowing of the panels (M1). This is determined by the bending strength of the panel
in the plane of bending. Panels are typically of cellular construction and it the strength is
proportional to the section modulus of the component parts in the plane of bending (or
Section through a typical box panel
bowing).
indicating kicking moment (M3)

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Rolling Strut Systems - Basis of Design
10.1.2

Design considerations for panels continued...

Bending of the end posts (M3). The panels themselves have little natural
strength in this (vertical) plane of bending. RS box panels incorporate
strengthened end posts to resist kicking moments whilst slide rail system used
separate posts.

Design considerations for rolling struts

Both RS box and slide rail use the same basic design of rolling strut albeit of
different sizes and capacities. The strut assembly comprises three basic
components namely left and right hand roller carriages connected together by
rectangular fabricated anged box section spacers of variable width, as
illustrated in the photograph opposite.

In their simplest congurations both RS slide rail and box systems use a single
strut in each post therefore the struts themselves have to be capable of resisting
large bending moment (induced by kicking moments) as well as axial
compression induced by lateral pressure on the panels.

Considering the overall capacity (or resistance) of the RS assembly; there are
typically three potential modes of failure:

Local failure by overloading of the roller contact points in ether tension or


compression.

Combined bending / axial failure of the box section extension bars.

Failure of the bolted joint.

Note that RS struts are not susceptible to lateral torsional buckling failure due to
their rectangular hollow section type of construction.

RS Design verication

Once the site specic geotechnical calculations have been completed in order to
determine lateral forces on the system, it is relatively straightforward to create a
simple statically determinate structural model of the RS systems from which the
design effects on the various components can be calculated. It is then a matter of
comparing these to the quoted resistance values for the various components (these
are tabulated in sections 10.2 & 10.3), using the limiting value as the measure of
overall system capacity.

Summary

The ability to position the rolling struts in various locations adds a degree of complexity
to the determination of overall RS system capacity or resistance when compared with
conventionally strutted box systems. Published values for capacity (in terms of
allowable uniform panel pressure) relate to the strut being positioned in its most
onerous location, that is when it is raised to its highest point. This will induce the
largest kicking moments in the support posts and greatest bending forces in the struts.
When the struts are to be positioned lower down the posts it will be necessary to carry
out a more rigorous check on individual system parameters. This will produce greater
values for overall system capacity.

For more advice please contact the Technical Services Department.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Rolling Strut Linear Support Systems
10.1.3

Typical Installation Sequence

Installation Of Long Pipes


A B A-A B-B

A B
After installing the Rolling Strut Boxes the struts can be moved easily, up or down, to provide the clearance required for the installation of
long pipes.

The pipes can be lowered into position easily without the obstruction that is usually caused by the xed double struts of traditional box
systems.

As construction progresses the struts can be moved to create the required working space.

Dual Pipelines

Full trench support can be provided to dual pipelines


and trenches with stepped formation levels. Each
side plate can be moved independently and pushed
down to the required dig depth.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Rolling Strut Trench Box
10.2.1

Rolling Strut (RS) Trench Boxes employ a radically different


methodology to support trench runs compared to traditional xed
position strut trench boxes. As the name suggests, the RS Trench Box
employs a single strut that is able to be moved via integral rollers,
vertically up and down the plates.

The RS system has been specically developed to allow greater


working clearances for the installation of long and/or large diameter
pipes, and precast box culverts. The other main advantage is that
parallel plate movement is maintained during installation and removal,
which minimises potential undesirable ground movement outside the
trench

Each box consists of two large independently moving plates (3.45m


long x 4.0m deep) and 2 moveable, incrementally adjustable length
struts.

Advantages

Parallel plate movement enables easy installation and removal


with minimal ground settlement.

The moveable (rolling) struts permit better access for installation


of long pipes, and facilitate good access for an excavator bucket
as well as providing good visibility for the operator.

Under-strut clearances of up to 3.1m are available, this enables


installation of larger diameter pipes or culverts compared to
traditional boxes.

Strut width adjustment is by bolted extensions which provided


better rigidity and thus allows trenches up to 6.6m wide to be
supported.

Plates can be pushed down to different invert levels for full


support of stepped trenches.

High loads can be accommodated by positioning the strut lower


down the box plates. Problem ground conditions can thus be
accommodate where traditional boxes would be not have
sufcient structural capacity.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Rolling Strut Trench Box
10.2.2

Technical Specication - Rolling Strut Trench Boxes

The maximum system capacity, or allowable lateral uniform panel pressure, is 35.6 kN/m2 (in terms of working load). This value is dened
by the limiting bowing moment in the plates for strut clearances up to 2.5m. Overall system capacity is signicantly less than this when the
clearance under the rolling strut is increased and overall system capacity is then governed by the plate kicking moment. The allowable
uniform pressures for all of the RS Box strut positions is given on 10.2.3.

Typical Section showing lower and upper box Plan View


conguration to support a maximum 6m deep trench

General data

Parameter Value Component weight schedule:

Item Description Weight per item (kg)


Plate Length (m) 3.45
Base Plate 1455
Plate Height (m) 4.0 (base) 2.0 (top)
Top Plate 903
Plate Thickness (mm) 80
Rolling Strut 310

Weight of Plate (kg) 1455 (base) 903 (top) 150mm Extension 80

Maximum allowable Trench Depth (top and 200mm Extension 90


6.0
base combined) (m)
250mm Extension 100

Internal width - between posts (m) 1.24 - 6.24 300mm Extension 110

External width (m) 1.6 - 6.6 500mm Extension 130

1.0m Extension 188


Clearance below strut (m) Up to 3.1
2.0m Extension 306
Clearance between struts (m) 2.89
3.0m Extension 482
Strut centres (m) 3.14
Connecting Bolts 1
Extension length between roller carriages (m) 0.0 - 5.0 Limit Pin 3

Technical Specication - plates and posts

Strength Parameter Value

Allowable plate bowing moment, M1 (kNm) Base - 196.0 (FOS = 1.6)


Top - 98.0 (FOS = 1.6)

Allowable plate kicking moment, M3 (kNm) 379.8 (FOS = 1.6)

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Rolling Strut Trench Box
10.2.3

Technical Specication - Rolling Struts and Extension Bars

Roller axial capacity (R): RT = 100kN (tension) RC = 639kN (compression) - global FOS =1.65.

Roller centres: 1000mm.

Extension bars: Fabricated Section size: 390mm (height) x 220mm (width),

Cross Sectional Area (A): 144cm

Moment Capacity (Mx): 455.7kNm (global FOS =1.65)

Moment Capacity (My): 206.5kNm (global FOS =1.65)

Extension bars joints Flange: 590mm x 250mm

Bolted connection: 4No. M30 (grade 10.9) bolts c/w washers 1350Nm torque required

Joint Moment capacity (Mx): 209.3kNm (global FOS =1.5)

Joint Moment capacity (My): 67.0kNm (global FOS =1.5)

Strut locations and limit pins

The Rolling Strut can be positioned at any one of ve possible positions along the post depending on the required capacity of the box and
under strut clearance. Limit pins are inserted in pre dened slots in the posts above and below the roller carriage so as to limit the range of
movement of the strut; see diagram below. Refer to the user guide for more information on the correct use of limit pins.

Clearance Below Allowable Panel


Strut (m) Pressure (kN/m)

1.775 35.6

2.295 35.6

2.565 35.6

2.835 29.0

3.105 23.8

Note: Clearances will be reduced by 270mm if the standard limit pin is used below the roller.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Rolling Strut Double Slide Rail
10.3.1

The Rolling Strut (RS) Double Slide Rail system is a high strength,
highly versatile trench lining system for the support of wide deep
trenches in all ground conditions. The system uses a combination high
strength steel posts, rolling struts and plate sections that link
together in bays to form continuous supports. The concept of a single
rolling strut offers the same functionality and versatility as with the
RS Trench Box in that larger and longer pipes and culverts can be
accommodated that with traditional xed position strut systems. It is
possible to accommodate trench runs up to 9m deep and 7m wide.

Advantages

Parallel plate movement enables easy installation and removal


with minimal ground settlement.

Moveable (rolling) struts allow maximum access for installation of


long pipes, maximum access for excavator bucket and good
visibility for the operator.

Under-strut clearances of up to 3.67m can be achieved which,


enables the installation of large diameter pipes or culverts.

Strut width adjustment is by bolted heavy duty extensions which


provided better rigidity and thus allows trenches up to 7m wide
to be supported.

Plates can be pushed down to different invert levels for full


support of stepped trenches.

High loads can be accommodated by positioning the strut lower


down the box plates. Problem ground conditions thus can be
accommodate where traditional boxes would be under-strength.

Trench depths up to 9m can be achieved depending on the


strength requirements of the system.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


Rolling Strut Double Slide Rail
10.3.2

Technical Specication - Rolling Strut Double Slide Rail

The maximum system capacity, or allowable lateral uniform panel pressure, is 39.5 kN.m 2 (in terms of working load). This value is
dened by the limiting bowing moment in the plates and generally governs the overall system capacity for all standard congurations
detailed in this section. Overall system capacity may however be signicantly less than this for non standard applications. Checks should
therefore be made to determine the actual system capacity by calculating the post kicking moments, the plate bowing moments and strut
capacities and comparing them to the limiting values tabulated below. Refer to section 10.1. for more information.

Typical Section showing lower and upper posts to Plan View


support a maximum 9m deep trench

General data

Parameter Value Schedule of Component Weights:

Description Weight per item (kg)


Plate Length (m) 4.0
Lining Plate 1010
Plate Height (m) 2.4 (Lining) 1.2 (Ext)
Extension Plate 650
Plate Thickness (mm) 107
Post 1170 (Base) 650 (Top)

Maximum achievable trench depth (m) 9.0 Rolling Strut 903 (Base) 310 (Top)

Trench Width - internal, between posts (m) 1.24 - 6.24 150mm Extension 133 (Base) 80 (Top)

200mm Extension 148 (Base) 90 (Top)


Trench Width - external (m) 2.05 - 7.05
250mm Extension 163 (Base) 100 (Top)
Maximum clearance below struts (m) 3.675
300mm Extension 165 (Base) 110 (Top)
Clearance between struts on plan (m) 3.87
500mm Extension 201 (Base) 130 (Top)

Strut centres on plan (bay length) (mm) 4.27 1.0m Extension 277 (Base) 188 (Top)

Extension length between roller carriages (m) 0 - 5.0 2.0m Extension 437 (Base) 306 (Top)

3.0m Extension 597 (Base) 482 (Top)

Technical Specication - plates and posts Connecting Bolts 1

Strength Parameter Value Extension Post Pin 7

Limit Pin 3
Allowable plate bowing moment, M1 (kNm/m) 2.4m (Lining) - 189.8
1.2m (Ext) - 94.9
(FOS = 1.65)

Allowable plate panel pressure (kN/m) see note 1 39.5 (FOS = 1.65)

Allowable post kicking moment, M3 (kNm) 672 (FOS = 1.65)

Note: The stated allowable panel pressure considers the allowable bowing
moment, based on uniform pressure distribution, in the panels only

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 Download at: www.vpgroundforce.com/technical-library


Rolling Strut Double Slide Rail
10.3.3

Technical Specication - Rolling Struts and Extension Bars - note that the information stated below relates to the lower rolling strut and
extensions only, if upper rollers are required, these are identical to the rollers and struts used for the RS box (for the technical
specication of these struts see section 10.2.3)

Roller axial capacity (R): RT = 200 kN (tension) RC = 780 kN (compression) - global FOS =1.65.

Roller centres: 1790mm.

Extension bars: Fabricated Section size: 690mm (height) x 220mm (width),

Cross Sectional Area (A): 192cm

Moment Capacity (Mx): 1011.9 kNm (global FOS =1.65)

Moment Capacity (My): 313.5 kNm (global FOS =1.65)

Extension bars joints Flange: 720mm x 405mm

Bolted connection: 8No. M30 (grade 10.9) bolts c/w washers 1350 Nm torque required

Joint Moment capacity (Mx): 527.5 kNm (global FOS =1.5)

Joint Moment capacity (My): 313.5 kNm (global FOS =1.5)

Strut locations and limit pins

The Rolling Strut can be positioned at any one of ve possible positions along the post depending on the requirements of the system. Limit
pins are inserted in pre dened slots in the posts above and below the roller carriage so as to limit the range of movement of the strut; see
diagram and photograph below. Refer to the user guide for more information on the correct use of limit pins.

Note: Clearances shown are when the Tuning Fork limit pin is used below the roller. Clearances will be decreased by 260mm if
the standard limit pin is used below the roller.

Groundforce Shorco | Technical File Issue 3.1 technical@vpplc.com www.vpgroundforce.com


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