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- The Australian Colonies -

Analysing change and empathising with different perspectives of the British Colonisation of Australia
through History, English and the Creative Arts

Prepared for EDMT6533: Programming K-6 Curriculum

by Olivia Hutchinson-Smith 312121865


Susie Song 430457533
& Megan Underwood 450590133
History Stage 3: Australian Colonies Duration: 4 weeks (2-3 lessons per week)

Integrated Unit of Work: History


Unit Inquiry question: How have people and the environment changed since Australias colonisation?
Concept: Change and Perspectives

Unit overview:
In this unit, students are presented with numerous opportunities to understand, empathise and analyse the historical time of Australia's colonisation. This unit aims to develop student
historical inquiry skills and consolidate historical concepts through the use of Creative Arts and English. The unit offers an exploration of colonial Australia in the 1800s focussing on
what life was like for people and groups who migrated to Australia during this time. Students will investigate the development of a colony, significant events and people, political
dynamics, social aspects and settlement patterns.

Historical skills: Historical Concepts:


Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts Continuity and change: some things change over time
respond, read and write to show understanding of historical matters and others remain the same
sequence historical people and events Cause and effect: events, decisions or developments
use historical terms and concepts in the past that produce later actions, results or
Analysis and use of sources effects
locate relevant information from sources provided Perspectives: people from the past will have different
compare information from a range of sources views and experiences
Perspectives and interpretations Empathetic understanding: an understanding of
identify different points of view in the past and present anothers point of view, way of life and decisions
Empathetic understanding made in a different time
explain why the behaviour and attitudes of people from the past may differ from today Significance: the importance of an event,
development or individual/group
Research
Contestability: historical events or issues may be
identify and pose questions to inform an historical inquiry
interpreted differently by historians
identify and locate a range of relevant sources to support an historical inquiry
Explanation and communication
develop historical texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, which incorporate source material
use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies

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Olivia Hutchinson-Smith 312121865 - Susie Song 430457533 - Megan Underwood 450590133
EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

Key Inquiry Questions


What do we know about the lives of people in Australias colonial past and how do we know?
How did an Australian colony develop over time and why?
How did colonial settlement change the environment?
What were the significant events and who were the significant people that shaped Australian colonies?

Syllabus Content Teaching, Learning and Assessment Resources

Reasons (economic, political Lesson 1 - Why did the British government set up colonies in Australia after 1800? Australian government website:
and social) for the http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-sto
Activity 1: Teacher in Role as English Woman ry/convicts-and-the-british-colonies/
establishment of British
Teacher beings the lesson dressed and acting as an English woman during industrial
colonies in Australia after 1800 revolution London (this role will require dedication and prior knowledge)
My Place - Colonisation website:
(ACHHK093) Respond to student questions and feed information about:
Industrial revolution and the impact on farming http://www.myplace.edu.au/decades_timeline/1780/
The explosion of crime and prisoners decade_landing_22.html?tabRank=2&subTabRank=2
Overall poverty
The teacher must maintain this role until all important information has either been Teacher in Role:
asked or offered so that students may move onto the next activity. https://museumvictoria.com.au/pages/2495/drama-s
ettlers-under-sail.pdf
Activity 2: Thought Tunnel
Students are divided into partners to take two opposing views: the English woman
should stay in England or she should go to Australia.
The teacher (now out of role) scaffolds discussions of differing by providing some
example questions and ideas:
What about her family?
What about work?
What about children?
Students consider the views and then switch roles to have the opposing view
After 5 minutes, students line up into two rows and create a thought tunnel.

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EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

The teacher (now back in role) takes a journey down the tunnel and listens to all
reasons the students have come up with and by the end of the tunnel, she decides
to go.

Assessment for Learning: Advertisement


Generate and compose key ideas and images by mind mapping around the three
main categories of reasons: economic, political and social. Key causes may include
the Industrial Revolution, poverty, overpopulated cities, crime and punishment
(including transportation).
Students create a persuasive advertisement for the new colony in New South
Wales trying to entice English men and women to immigrate
Teacher to discuss what kind of language should be used to
persuade/entice
Teacher to discuss what kind of persuasive imagery could be used to
depict Australia in an enticing way
Curriculum links: Creative Arts (drama and visual arts), English

The nature of convict or Lesson 2 - How did settlement patterns in the 19th century affect the lives of the First Dust Echoes - Stories of the Dreamtime website:
colonial presence, including Australians and the environment? http://www.abc.net.au/dustechoes/
the factors that influenced
Activity 1: Dreamtime Story Sharing ABC splash video:
patterns of development, http://splash.abc.net.au/home#!/media/2443651/int
Whole-class discussion: Teacher chooses a story from Dust Echoes website to
aspects of the daily life of eractions-between-europeans-and-aboriginal-tasmani
view together with the class. Revise and review students understanding of the
inhabitants (including relationship of Aboriginal peoples and the land. Students are divided into groups ans
Aboriginal and Torres Strait and allocated another story to read/listen to. Each group shares the theme/ideas of
Islander peoples peoples) and the story with the class.
Key inquiry Questions to consider during discussion:
how the environment changed
What do these stories reveal about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders culture
(ACHHK094) and lifestyle?
What type of relationship do they have with the environment?
Whole-class discussion: Watch the ABC Splash video and discuss the diverse
relationships between Aboriginal peoples and the British. Describe some of the

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EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

consequences of British invasion for Aboriginal people. Discuss the number of


introduced species (both animal and plant) that have impacted on the Australian
environment since European settlement.

Activity 2: T-Charts
Students use a T-Chart and organise information gathered from the first half of the
lesson to compare and contrast the impact of settlement on Aboriginal people and
the environment i.e. before settlement vs. after settlement.

Curriculum links: English

Lesson 3 - What were the lifestyles of people in Australias colonial past and how do we IWB: Powerpoint slides with various primary and
know? secondary sources

Activity 1: Source analysis Sources retrieved from State Library of NSW websites:
Using See, Think, Wonder visible thinking routine, students take on the role of an Portraits of significant people
archaeologist to make inferences and analyse the lives of people in Australias colonial past. http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/learning/history-si
gnificant-people-governor-macquarie/signific
ant-people-governor-macquarie
Firstly, discuss:
Portrait of a convict
What is a primary source? http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/stories/convict-ex
First-hand evidence such as: artefacts, autobiographies, diaries, certificates, memoirs perience/convict-lives
What is a secondary source? Artworks
Second-hand information such as: biographies, history books, factual textbooks, http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/stories/convict-ar
documentaries tists-time-governor-macquarie
What makes a source reliable, valid, useful? Landscape
http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/learning/source-a
Sources provide clues for people to understand the history of something. Therefore, the more
nalyses
evidence you can collect and analyse will enable you to form a better understanding of what
Johnny Kangatong
has happened in the past.
http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/learning/johnny-k
angatong-making-sense-world

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Olivia Hutchinson-Smith 312121865 - Susie Song 430457533 - Megan Underwood 450590133
EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

Prior to conducting the source analysis, brainstorm what archaeologists need to consider Poster, diary entry, sketch of immigrant
when analysing a historical source: barracks
Author and his/her contextual background (e.g. occupation; socio-economic status http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/learning/migratio
etc.) n-australia-1800s
Time (when) and place (where)
Audience and purpose
Limitations of the source

Think, Pair, Share: Teacher presents the powerpoint on the IWB of various sources and asks
students to write down what they see, think and wonder. Students will describe what they
see and share it with their friend. Students will also need to make inferences from what
they see to then determine whether they think the source is primary or secondary and if it is
biased. Students are then asked to generate statements that make them curious about the
source and share them with the class.

Curriculum Links: English, Creative Arts (Drama)

Lesson 4 - What were the lifestyles of people who lived in Australia during post-1800 ABC 1860s Colonial life video:
colonial times? http://splash.abc.net.au/home#!/digibook/618324/co
lonial-life
Activity 1: Facebook Character profile
Teacher plays the ABC splash video and asks the following inquiry based questions: A Day in the Life of a Convict website:
How do you think it felt to be a convict? http://sydneylivingmuseums.com.au/stories/day-life-
How would you describe the dress worn? convict
What was the mode of travel used?
How did they prepare newspapers? Walking The Rocks App - Walking the Waterfront
Students then browse through the Day in the Life of a Convict website and using
this information, they create a character profile of a 1800s conflict using the The Rocks Past - A Virtual View
Facebook Profile template https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QAUnJoxIjGk

Activity 2: Role Walk

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EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

Whole-class: Using the Walking The Rocks app, students explore the section called Facebook Profile Template (see Appendix)
Walking the Waterfront. The interactive walking tour takes students back to the
earliest days of first settlement, when The Rocks was a place of merchants,
warehouses and wharfing. Using the augmented reality tool, students are shown
how the location looked in the past and how it looks in present times.
The role walk is conducted in the classroom, where the scene is set in The Rocks,
1800s. Open up the Youtube Video, The Rocks Past - A Virtual View on the IWB
and leave it as the background stimulus to help students get into role. The students
use their character that they had developed for the Facebook Profile and bring
them to life through this activity. The teacher directs students to walk around the
room, then freeze to meet and greet different characters. Students embody their
character using the information gained from the ABC Splash video. They will make
up a story that correlates with life in the 1800s.

Curriculum links: Creative Arts (Drama), English

Lesson 5 - Demonstrate understanding of settlement patterns, its impact on people and Video: Make paper look 200 years old by using
environment and adopt historical perspectives to outline life in Australia in the 1800s. coffee
https://paper-design.wonderhowto.com/how-to/mak
Activity 1: Coffee Painting e-paper-look-200-years-old-using-coffee-325396/
Teacher will need to prepare an exemplar of the aged paper for students to
observe before they make their own. Teacher will need to familiarise themselves Instant coffee
with the coffee painting process by watching the video on the Paper Design Water
website before teaching this lesson. White paper
Whole-class discussion on coffee painting techniques: Paint brushes
Q: What does the coffee do to the paper?
A: Stains the white paper, makes it brown
Q: What effect does it have?
A: Makes the paper look aged
Q: Why did we scrunch up the paper before staining the paper?

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A: Makes the paper looked like it has been handled by lots of different
people, passed down from generations
Q: What is the purpose of coffee painting activity?
A: To create our own primary source from the 1800s

Activity 2: Judgment Drop


As the students wait for their coffee aged paper to dry, teacher invites students to
participate in a judgement drop by answering a series of questions. Students are to
decide whether they strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree by
standing in a line that represents a scale from agreement on one end, to
disagreement on the other end. Students will need to provide verbal explanations
(based on their prior knowledge from previous lessons) as to why they chose their
position along the scale.
Questions:
Do you think the impact of settlement was positive or negative for
Aboriginal people?
Do you think the Aboriginal and British settlers had a positive or negative
relationship?
Should the words British settlement be replaced with the British
invasion when studying the history of Australia?

Assessment of Learning: Diary Entry


Students will write a diary entry from the perspective of a person living in the
1800s colonial period
i.e. Aboriginal person, British settler, convict, sailor, whaler, business owner etc.
Using the information gathered from previous lesson activities including: T-chart,
source analysis, judgement drop to create their diary entryA draft copy will be
firstly written in their English book.
Once the coffee aged paper has dried, students will copy their final draft onto the
coffee aged paper that they created.

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Teachers will assess students writing style, language choices, tense and depth of
empathetic understanding.

Curriculum Links: Creative Arts (Visual Arts), English

The impact of a significant Lesson 6 - What events occurred in the 19th century and how did they impact the Website: www.timetoast.com/
development or event on a Australian colonies?
colony; for example, frontier National Museum Australia:
Activity 1: Timeline creation www.nma.gov.au/education-kids/classroom_learni
conflict, the gold rushes, the
Create a timeline of significant events or developments in Australia in the ng/multimedia/interactives/gold-rush
Eureka Stockade, internal nineteenth century. Timelines can be created using Timetoast website.
exploration, the advent of rail, Students are encouraged to use the resources provided but also to find
National Library of Australia:
the expansion of farming, some of their own in order to accurately place their event on the timeline
http://treasure-explorer.nla.gov.au/collectionitem
with a short description
drought (ACHHK095) /gold-rush
Students may work in small groups and then come together to add their
event to the class timeline.
Once the timeline has been created, the class will explore it together, Australian government websites:
discuss the events and break into smaller groups to further analyse an http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-
individual significant event. story/austn-farms-and-farming-communities

Activity 2: Presentation research http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-


In small groups, students investigate and research one significant event or stories/history-colonial-conflict-and-modern
development that shaped Australias identity.
Students begin to prepare a presentation to be performed in role to http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-
describe to the class what the people of the colony experienced through story/eureka-stockade
these events.
Research is undertaken to delve deeper into the particular event and the www.infrastructure.gov.au/rail/trains/history.aspx
people involved.
Students will need to begin to choose a role which they would like to play
in relation to the event they are researching.
Curriculum links: Creative Arts (Drama), English

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Olivia Hutchinson-Smith 312121865 - Susie Song 430457533 - Megan Underwood 450590133
EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

Lesson 7 - What events occurred in the 19th century and how did that impact the
Australian colonies? Explore from the perspective of someone at that time.

Activity 1: Preparing and practicing presentation


Students continue to research their event and choose roles that the the students
will take on in order to discuss how that event has impacted their lives and the
colony in which they live (ie: prospectors in the gold rush)
Students are encouraged to dress up and or get creative, using the
teachers example as an English woman from the first lesson as an idea of
what being in role looks like.

Assessment for Learning - Role presentations


Students are assessed on their roles and ability to hold discussions with other
students while staying in role and accurately describing their significant historical
event.
Students take on their individual roles and respond to questions from
other students regarding that particular event and the impact on their life
in that role at that time.
The teacher must assess the students ability to remain in role, respond to
questions and correctly describe the event that they have researched.

Curriculum links: Creative Arts (Drama)

The reasons people migrated Lesson 8 - Why do you think people move from one country to another? The Arrival by Shaun Tan
to Australia from Europe and
Activity 1: Textual analysis Work sheet with storyboard images
Asia, and the experiences and
Read The Arrival by Shaun Tan. This book tells the story of migration through a
contributions of a particular series of images.
migrant group within a colony Once reading/viewing is over, teacher will initiate discussion with the following key
(ACHHK096) inquiry questions:
Why do you think people move from one country to another?

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EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

How do you think the arrival of people from different societies and
cultures contribute to making up Australian society?
Why do you think it is important to understand diversity and different
cultures present within Australia?

Activity 2: Interpreting and responding to a text


Present students with a storyboard of images from The Arrival.
Students write a small paragraph describing their own ideas and perspective of
each image.
Students are to focus on the feeling of the characters, the themes present within
the image and the action happening within the scene.

Curriculum links: English

Lesson 9 - How would you feel if you migrated to Australia and worked in a particular Australian government website:
industry? http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-sto
ry/changing-face-of-early-australia
Activity 1: Pair online research
Using the Australian government website students work in pairs to research a
particular industry presented e.g.
The Goldfields
The Overland Telegraph
Vineyards
Farming
Pearling
Inland transport
Commerce
Student will take notes on the following points presented to them on an IWB:
identify the migrant group that contributed to a certain industry
The process of the industry
The reasons for the industry in developing Australian economic
environment

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EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

The types of workers within that industry

Activity 2: Writing of a letter


Students write a letter to a family back home in their mother country explaining
and describing their new life in Australia.
Students are to use the information from the website and organise it for a letter.

Lesson 10 - How do you think the Chinese migrants felt when they migrated to Australia ABC Splash video:
during 1800? http://splash.abc.net.au/home#!/media/1957515/chi
nese-migration
Activity 1: Watch Splash video and take notes
Student watch ABC Splash video describing the experience of Chinese immigrants. Laminated De Bonos coloured hats to be held up
Students are advised to take note on any key points presented.
during discussion
Activity 2: De Bono six thinking hats
Feelings chart worksheet
Teacher instigates conversation using De Bonos six thinking hats to explore the
perspective of a Chinese immigrant:
The white Hat: calls for information known or needed.
The red hat: signifies feelings, hunches and intuition.
The black hat: judgement/devils advocate
The yellow Hat: symbolizes brightness and optimism.
The green hat: focuses on creativity and possibilities
The blue hat: used to manage the thinking process.
Teacher will record information on IWB.

Activity 3: Feelings chart


Using the main points established in the from the thinking hats process students
will complete a feelings chart exploring each perspective of how a chinese
immigrant may have felt creating a new life in Australia.

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Olivia Hutchinson-Smith 312121865 - Susie Song 430457533 - Megan Underwood 450590133
EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

The role that a significant Lesson 11 - What role did an individual or group play during the time of Australian Aussie Doctor website:
individual or group played in colonisation? http://www.aussieeducator.org.au/reference/famo
shaping a colony; for example, usaustralians.html
Activity 1: Online research
explorers, farmers, In groups of 3-4 using the Aussie Doctor website students will choose a particular
entrepreneurs, artists, writers, group or individual to research and investigate their impact or contribution during
humanitarians, religious and colonisation.
political leaders, and Students will pick 3 key/significant points or events describing what that the
particular individual or group were apart of during colonisation and how their
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait
contribution helped shaped Australian Identity.
Islander peoples (ACHHK097)
Activity 2: Drama Tableaus
With these 3 key/significant points or events student will create 3 tableaus
representing their interpretation and empathetic ideas towards what happened,
focussing on:
Why and how were they significant to the development of Australia as a
nation?
How do you think this person felt during this moment?
How do the people involved in this situation feel to be experiencing your
event?

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Olivia Hutchinson-Smith 312121865 - Susie Song 430457533 - Megan Underwood 450590133
EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

Rationale
This unit of work aims to develop student understanding of change and continuity within the development of Australia. Students will explore why and how Australia was colonized
by the British and which groups and people were involved in planning, living and the development of the colonies in Australia. Within this unit of work, there are a range of
opportunities and activities that will cater to any classroom or school context. It is aimed to delve deep into the understanding of different perspectives and allow students the
ability to develop empathy toward the people of Australia, both immigrants and original landowners or Indigenous peoples during the time of colonization within Australia.
The integration of English and Creative Arts content and outcomes was almost necessary as history lends itself to both of these curriculums so well. By using the Creative Arts
curriculum areas, it allows students the opportunity to relate to the History components in a social and personalized way (Carlisle, 2011) and as Beane (1996) argues, curriculum
integration gives students the chance to search for meaning beyond that one subject area. Because much of the unit of work has been designed so that students may seek to
understand and even take on the roles of people during this historical time, students are then able to understand different perspectives and this can serve a real world purpose that
really values the student (Brinegar, & Bishop, 2011, pp 220).
When considering to integrate the creative arts, the idea that it has the potential to greatly improve learning was well considered (Melnick, Witmer & Strickland, 2011). The creative
arts can affect students in deep and meaningful ways (Ewing & Gibson, 2007) and therefore has the potential to greatly enrich students understanding of historical people and their
perspectives. The use of cooperative learning to construct knowledge within a small group provides a safe and supportive space for students when exploring this part of history.
With the teacher being the first participant to be in role, it allows the students to not only become engaged in the content, but understand what play and being in role looks like
for their assessment.
There is significant use of ICT within this unit of work to allow for really rich learning sequences and experiences. With the use of video, websites and apps such as Walk the Rocks
app, technology can be used as a tool to create a powerful and meaningful lesson for students (Jonassen, Peck, & Wilson, 1999). There will need to be significant caution by the
teacher in order to ensure that students are aware of the safe web surfing rules and that students remain on-task using the technology.
Because this unit of work integrates the Creative Arts, it is recommended that teachers create what a good one looks like for the visual art tasks and the ability to successfully get
into role which requires some dramatic dedication (you can do it!).

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EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

WEEKLY OVERVIEW

Week Lesson Specific weekly focus Specific outcomes focus

1 1 History, English, Drama & Visual Arts: HT3-5 applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication
Teacher in Role EN3-3A uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and comprehend a wide range of texts
Debate in different media and technologies
Thought Tunnel EN3-5B discusses how language is used to achieve a widening range of purposes for a widening range of audiences and
Advertisement Writing and contexts
Creating EN3-8D identifies and considers how different viewpoints of their world, including aspects of culture, are represented in
texts
DRAS3.4 Responds critically to a range of drama works and performance styles.
VAS3.2 Makes artworks for different audiences assembling materials in a variety of ways.
2 History and English HT3-1 describes and explains the significance of people, groups, places and events to the development of Australia
Dreamtime Story Sharing HT3-5 applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication
T-Chart EN3-8D identifies and considers how different viewpoints of their world, including aspects of culture, are represented in
texts
3 History and English HT3-5 applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication
Source Analysis EN3-3A uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and comprehend a wide range of texts
in different media and technologies
EN3-8D identifies and considers how different viewpoints of their world, including aspects of culture, are represented in
texts
2 4 English, History and Drama EN3-7C thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies
Facebook Character Profile connections between texts when responding to and composing texts
Role Walk HT3-2 describes and explains different experiences of people living in Australia over time
DRAS3.1 Develops a range of in-depth and sustained roles
5 History, Visual Arts and English HT3-2 describes and explains different experiences of people living in Australia over time
Coffee Painting VAS3.2 Makes artworks for different audiences assembling materials in a variety of ways
Judgement Drop VAS3.4 Communicates about the ways in which subject matter is represented in artworks
Diary Entry Writing EN3-2A composes, edits and presents well-structured and coherent texts
6 History and English HT3-1 describes and explains the significance of people, groups, places and events to the development of Australia

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EDMT6533 Programming K-6 Curriculum

Timeline Creation HT3-5 applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication
Presentation Research EN3-8D identifies and considers how different viewpoints of their world, including aspects of culture, are represented in
texts
3 7 History and Drama HT3-1 describes and explains the significance of people, groups, places and events to the development of Australia
Presentation Research HT3-5 applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication
Role Presentations DRAS3.2 Interprets and conveys dramatic meaning by using the elements of drama and a range of movement and voice
skills in a variety of drama forms.
DRAS3.4 Responds critically to a range of drama works and performance styles.
8 English EN3-2A composes, edits and presents well-structured and coherent texts
Textual Analysis:
reading, discussing,
interpreting, responding
9 History and English HT3-1 describes and explains the significance of people, groups, places and events to the development of Australia
Online Research HT3-2 describes and explains different experiences of people living in Australia over time
Letter Writing EN3-2A composes, edits and presents well-structured and coherent texts
4 10 History and English HT3-1 describes and explains the significance of people, groups, places and events to the development of Australia
De Bonos Thinking Hats HT3-2 describes and explains different experiences of people living in Australia over time
Feelings Chart EN3-7C thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies
connections between texts when responding to and composing texts
EN3-8D identifies and considers how different viewpoints of their world, including aspects of culture, are represented in
texts
11 History and Drama HT3-1 describes and explains the significance of people, groups, places and events to the development of Australia
Online Research HT3-5 applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication
Tableaus DRAS3.1 Develops a range of in-depth and sustained roles
DRAS3.2 Interprets and conveys dramatic meaning by using the elements of drama and a range of movement and voice
skills in a variety of drama forms.

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References

Beane, J. (1996). On the Shoulders of Giants! The Case for Curriculum Integration. Middle School Journal, 28(1), 6-11.

Brinegar, K., & Bishop, P. (2011). Student Learning and Engagement in the Context of Curriculum Integration. Middle Grades Research Journal, 6(4), 207-222.

Carlisle, K. (2011). The Quest for Coherent Curriculum Through a Performing Arts-Focused Curriculum Integration Project. Middle Grades Research Journal, 6(4), 223-234.

Ewing, R. & Gibson, R. (2007). Creative teaching or teaching creatively? Using creative arts strategies in preservice teacher education. Waikato Journal of Education, 13(1),
161-179.

Jonassen, D., Peck, K., & Wilson, B. (1999). Learning with technology (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.

Melnick, S, Witmer, J & Strickland, M. (2011). Cognition and Student Learning through the Arts. Arts Education Policy Review, 112(3), 154-162.
Retrieved 22 October, 2016, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10632913.2011.566100

NESA NSW. (2006). Creative Arts K-6 Syllabus. Retrieved from: http://k6.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/wps/portal/go/creative-arts

NESA NSW. (2013). English K-6 Syllabus. Retrieved from: http://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/english/english-k10/

NESA NSW. (2013). History K-6 Syllabus. Retrieved from: http://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/hsie/history-k10/

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Focus and Content
Australian Colonies/History/Stage 3

Concept and question


Change and Continuity
How have people and the environment changed since Australias colonisation?

Key idea and question Key idea and question Key idea and question
Creative Arts History English
Using both drama and visual arts to embody concepts How have people and the environment changed since How can we better understand what life was like for people
and ideas related to the colonisation of Australia. Australias colonisation? during Australia colonisation?

Outcomes
History:
HT3-1 describes and explains the significance of people, groups, places and events to the development of Australia
HT3-2 describes and explains different experiences of people living in Australia over time
HT3-5 applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication
Creative Arts:
DRAS3.1 Develops a range of in-depth and sustained roles
DRAS3.2 Interprets and conveys dramatic meaning by using the elements of drama and a range of movement and voice skills in a variety of drama forms.
DRAS3.3 Devises, acts and rehearses drama for performance to an audience.
DRAS3.4 Responds critically to a range of drama works and performance styles.
VAS3.2 Makes artworks for different audiences assembling materials in a variety of ways.
VAS3.4 Communicates about the ways in which subject matter is represented in artworks.
English:
EN3-6B uses knowledge of sentence structure, grammar, punctuation and vocabulary to respond to and compose clear and cohesive texts in different media and technologies
EN3-5B discusses how language is used to achieve a widening range of purposes for a widening range of audiences and contexts
EN3-8D identifies and considers how different viewpoints of their world, including aspects of culture, are represented in texts
EN3-5B discusses how language is used to achieve a widening range of purposes for a widening range of audiences and contexts
EN3-3A uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and comprehend a wide range of texts in different media and technologies
EN3-2A composes, edits and presents well-structured and coherent texts
EN3-7C thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding to and composing texts

Pre-testing: T-chart, 6 thinking hats, mind map, thought tunnel, judgement drop, character profile, timeline creation, online research, source analysis
Creative Arts History English
Teaching strategies: Guided, scaffolded and modelled Teaching Strategies: Inquiry based learning, individual and Teaching Strategies: Independent writing, group
individual and group work group online research discussion, perspective writing
Teaching Activities: Communicates to an audience Teaching activities: Analysis of primary and secondary sources, Teaching activities: Verbal presentation (speech),
(speech), interprets and conveys meaning through a online research and analysis, feelings chart, creation of independent writing (diary), persuasive text
tableau, coffee painting as stimulus for diary entry. timeline (advertisement)

Teaching strategies: Individual, pair, group work, inquiry based Lessons: History x3, Drama x4, English x3, Visual Arts x1
learning, research and analysis, perspective writing

Resources: A variety of digital resources have been used including websites, videos and applications
History sample unit The Australian Colonies Stage 3
Please note that the highlighted sections are the Duration: Two terms (20 weeks)
parts that we used in our re-designed UOW.

Unit description Key inquiry questions


This topic provides a study of colonial Australia in the 1800s. Students look at What do we know about the lives of people in Australias colonial past and how
the founding of British colonies and the development of a colony. They learn do we know?
about what life was like for different groups in the colonial period. They examine How did an Australian colony develop over time and why?
significant events and people, political and economic developments, social
How did colonial settlement change the environment?
structures and settlement patterns.
We have used this unit overview as inspiration for our unit of work about What were the significant events and who were the significant people that shaped
Australian colonies. It gives a concise but detailed description of the content Australian colonies?
covered. It presents a holistic explanation of the content in the syllabus and
closely reflected what we were trying to achieve.

Outcomes Historical skills Historical concepts


HT3-1: describes The following historical skills are integrated into the lesson sequences: The following historical concepts are integrated
and explains the into the lesson sequences:
significance of Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts
people, groups, respond, read and write to show understanding of historical matters Continuity and change: some things change over
places and events time and others remain the same
sequence historical people and events
to the development
of Australia use historical terms and concepts
Cause and effect: events, decisions or
developments in the past that produce later
HT3-2: describes Analysis and use of sources
actions, results or effects
and explains different locate relevant information from sources provided
experiences of people compare information from a range of sources
Perspectives: people from the past will have
living in Australia different views and experiences
over time Perspectives and interpretations
identify different points of view in the past and present Empathetic understanding: an understanding
HT3-5: applies a of anothers point of view, way of life and decisions
variety of skills of Empathetic understanding made in a different time
historical inquiry and
explain why the behaviour and attitudes of people from the past may differ from today
communication
Significance: the importance of an event,
Research development or individual/group
identify and pose questions to inform an historical inquiry
identify and locate a range of relevant sources to support an historical inquiry Contestability: historical events or issues may
be interpreted differently by historians
Explanation and communication
develop historical texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, which incorporate
source material
use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies

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Content Teaching, learning and assessment Resources
Reasons (economic, Brainstorm the sources that may tell us about the establishment of British colonies in Australia
political and social) after 1800. Teachers may need to suggest a range of primary and secondary sources, Australian government website:
for the establishment websites, etc and discuss the question: How do we know about this period? http://australia.gov.au/about-
of British colonies in Discuss life in Britain during the Industrial Revolution and how it led to the British government australia/australian-story/convicts-
Australia after 1800 setting up colonies in Australia after 1800, using visual images if possible, eg drawings of and-the-british-colonies/
(ACHHK093) convict hulks, images of poverty, crowded and poor city housing, pollution.
Generate and compose key ideas and images by mind mapping around the three main
categories of reasons: economic, political and social. Key causes may include the Industrial
Revolution, poverty, overpopulated cities, crime and punishment (including transportation).
Dictionary of classroom strategies
Class discusses the concept of cause and effect, creating a sequence chart showing visually K6 BOS (mind mapping)
the link between major causes and effects.
Group students for a research activity. Each group is to investigate one of the following factors that
led to British colonisation:
economic
political
social.
The group must include at least three sources of evidence used in their research. Each group
reports their findings back to the class. Create a classroom display as a record of learning.
Sequence significant events that led to the establishment of British colonies in Australia and
create a timeline that is then annotated or Illustrated by the class. www.timetoast.com/

The nature of convict Revise and review students understanding of the relationship of Aboriginal peoples and the Invasion and Resistance Kit BOS
or colonial presence, land. Provide an overview of the lifestyle of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples prior
including the factors to British colonisation. Students should be encouraged to read a selection of stories written by Aboriginal stories
that influenced Aboriginal authors, including stories of the Dreaming.
patterns of The teacher leads the discussion on the diverse relationships between Aboriginal peoples and
development, aspects Teacher reading: The Other
the British. Side of the Frontier by
of the daily life of
Describe some of the consequences of British invasion for Aboriginal people. Henry Reynolds, 1990
inhabitants (including
Aboriginal and Torres Choosing a specific incident/situation, provide students with relevant background material.
Strait Islander Role-play the situation, allowing for a range of perspectives to be included. Discuss why
peoples) and how the different groups or individuals may view the incident/situation differently. How might this affect
environment changed a history being written about it?
(ACHHK094)
Assessment activity 1
Students write a journal entry from the perspective of both a settler/convict and an Aboriginal or
Torres Strait Islander, including possible scenarios that may have occurred. Dictionary of classroom strategies
K6 BOS (journal writing)
Invite a guest speaker (an ideal example would be an Aboriginal ranger from a local national
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park) to discuss the impact on the environment of European settlement.
Discuss the number of introduced species (both animal and plant) that have impacted on the The Convict Years 17881830 by
Australian environment since European settlement. Students discuss the extent of the impact Michael Dugan, MacMillan
and suggest solutions.
We have used majority of the teaching and learning activities suggested for this syllabus
outcome as we found that it they were relevant in developing students empathetic
understanding. We added in a few more drama activities and source analysis tasks to this
section to further enable students to take on historical perspectives and gain a deeper
understanding of the lives of the people who inhabited Australia in the 1800s. The
resources listed were quite limited in scope, therefore, we incorporated extra web-based
resources to our re-designed UOW that we believed were more informative and interactive
for students.

The impact of Create a timeline of significant events or developments in Australia in the nineteenth century. Dictionary of classroom strategies
a significant Timelines can be created using Timetoast website. K6 BOS (jigsaw strategy)
development or In small groups, students investigate one significant event or development that shaped www.timetoast.com/
event on a colony; Australias identity. Groups could conduct an in-depth study using the jigsaw strategy and
for example, frontier report their findings to the class, or the class may select one event to study in greater detail. National Museum Australia:
conflict, the gold Investigations should involve using a range of sources. www.nma.gov.au/education-
rushes, the Eureka
We decided to maintain the timeline creation activity in our unit of work as it not only kids/classroom_learning/multimedia/i
Stockade, internal
scaffolded well into the following lesson and assessment, but it allowed students to use ICT nteractives/gold-rush
exploration, the advent
in a way that we had not yet explored in this UOW.
of rail, the expansion
of farming, drought Many of the resources listed for this outcome we have kept due to their rich and informative National Library of Australia:
(ACHHK095) nature for the significant events that affected the colonies. Students will still be encouraged http://treasure-
to access more resources for further information, but these will provide an excellent explorer.nla.gov.au/collectionitem/go
starting point. ld-rush

Assessment activity 2: Empathy exercise Australian government website:


Students consider the significant event/development that they researched and choose http://australia.gov.au/about-
a character who may have lived through that time. They write a diary or journal entry from australia/australian-story/austn-
the perspective of that character, describing their life and the impact of the event/development. farms-and-farming-communities
When writing an empathy activity, it is important for students to be immersed in the period under
study. They will require details of life at the time, such as housing, transport, work, food, beliefs http://australia.gov.au/about-
and clothing, through visual sources, artefacts, stories and ICT. They will need to be introduced australia/australian-stories/history-
to some of the historical terms and concepts from that time and be encouraged to use them in colonial-conflict-and-modern
their own work.
Once students have some historical background, the following may help them to pad out http://australia.gov.au/about-
their character: australia/australian-story/eureka-
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Who are you? An actual historical character or a fictional character? stockade
Why do you have a story to tell?
Are you male/female, old/young? www.infrastructure.gov.au/rail/trains/
Do you have a family? history.aspx
Where and how do you live?
What is your daily routine?
How does the event/development affect your life?
Some possible characters could be a convict, wealthy landowner, poor gold-prospector,
bushranger, squatter or Aboriginal drover.
The reasons people Read The Arrival by Shaun Tan. This text tells a migrant story through a series of wordless Australian government website:
migrated to Australia images. A man leaves his family to seek better prospects in an unknown country, where he http://australia.gov.au/about-
from Europe and Asia, must find housing and employment. australia/australian-story/changing-
and the experiences Discuss how and why people from all over the world have made Australia their home, focusing face-of-early-australia
and contributions of on how their lives and experiences have influenced all aspects of Australian life.
a particular migrant The Arrival by Shaun Tan
Identify the European and Asian countries from which people migrated to Australia during the
group within the
nineteenth century and the reasons for their migration.
colony (ACHHK096)
The use of Shaun Tans book The Arrival was a choice made due to the opportunity it
presents to develop visual literacy within the classroom. A reading takes place in our re-
adapted unit of work to which the activity has been re-worked. Once the reading is
finished students use the pictures to make judgement and interpret what they feel is
happening within the scene. The reason we chose this part of the unit of work as it
develops students critical thinking skills, empathy skills and inferential skills. In relation
to literacy.
Students work individually or in pairs to investigate the contributions that particular migrant
groups made within the colony. Relevant aspects of colonial life may include:
- the Goldfields
- the Overland Telegraph
- vineyards
- farming
- pearling
- inland transport
- commerce.
Discuss how the arrival of people from different societies created a cultural diversity that is
now an integral part of Australian society and identity.
In order to better consolidate the different industries, present during colonial life in
Australia we believed the resource used in this activity offered was of reliability and quality.
After exploring the website, we felt this resource was full of information and relevant
material that would match perfectly with understanding the contributions different people
made to different industries. Being an Australian Government website the information is

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valid and this could be used as a teaching point to developing student understanding of
reliable information sites, explaining that being a government website we can trust the facts
presented.
Use technology to document the experiences of a particular migrant group and the
contributions they made to society.
Create a graphical representation of the countries from which migrants originated.
The role that a Use a range of sources to investigate the role of one significant individual or group in the Explorers:
significant individual shaping of a colony. www.teachers.ash.org.au/jmresourc
or group played in Develop a concept map of the significant role the individual or group had in shaping our colony. es/achievers/explorers.html
shaping a colony;
What were the significant events? Why and how were they significant?
for example, Aussie Educator Famous
explorers, farmers, Australians:
entrepreneurs, artists, www.aussieeducator.org.au/referenc
writers, humanitarians, Assessment activity 3 e/general/famousaustralians.html
religious and political Students prepare an oral presentation on an individual or group that played a significant role in
leaders and Aboriginal shaping a colony. Their presentation must communicate how and why their role was significant.
and/or Torres Strait In our re-adapted unit of work we
They respond to questions at the conclusion of the presentation.
Islander peoples used this resource yet changed
Following the presentations, students vote on the most significant individual or group and the way it would be used. As this
(ACHHK097)
explain why they are significant. content is focused on significant
people at the time of colonisation
in order to really consolidate the
characters of these people and
how life back then may have been
we attached a drama activity to
their research. The choice for
drama using the information
presented on the website we
believe will help students
understanding different
perspectives through embodied
learning where they become the
character in a tableau.

National Gallery of Australia:


http://nga.gov.au/AustralianArt/

Assessment overview
Ongoing assessment student understanding may be assessed through the use of observational checklists, anecdotal records and analysis of contributions
to class discussions.
Students complete a variety of work samples, including designated assessment activities. When completing designated assessment activities, students
engage in peer assessment based upon jointly derived criteria for activity completion. Students will undertake self-assessment of their learning in relation
to the assessment criteria in these activities. They will also receive peer and teacher feedback through the use of an evaluation sheet.

Assessment activity 1
Students write a journal entry from the perspective of both a settler and an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, including possible scenarios that may have occurred.

Assessment activity 2
Students choose one significant event that shaped Australias identity. They write a diary or journal entry from the perspective of someone who lived through
the event.

Assessment activity 3
Students prepare an oral presentation on an individual or group that played a significant role in shaping a colony. Their presentation must communicate how and
why their role was significant. They respond to questions at the conclusion of the presentation.