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D Ceiling

Sprinkler Open web steel

or wood truss


Plan View of Column Elevation View of Truss

A 3C or 3D
(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater)

FIGURE Minimum Distance from Obstruction (CMSA Sprinklers).

(1) Upright sprinklers shall be permitted to be attached di- Table Obstruction Entirely Below Sprinkler
rectly to branch lines less than or equal to 4 in. (100 mm) (CMSA Sprinklers)
nominal in diameter.
(2) Upright sprinklers shall be permitted to be offset horizon- Distance of Deflector
tally a minimum of 12 in. (300 mm) from the pipe. Minimum Distance to Side of Above Bottom of
(3) Upright sprinklers shall be permitted to be supplied by a Obstruction (ft) (A) Obstruction (B) [in. (mm)]
riser nipple (sprig) to elevate the sprinkler deflector a
minimum of 12 in. (300 mm) from the centerline of any Less than 6 in. (150 mm) 112 (35)
pipe over 4 in. (100 mm) nominal in diameter. 6 in. (150 mm) to less than 3 (75)
12 in. (300 mm)* Obstructions that Prevent Sprinkler Discharge from 12 in. (300 mm) to less than 4 (100)
Reaching Hazard. Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that
18 in. (450 mm)
18 in. (450 mm) to less than 5 (125)
24 in. (600 mm)
interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane below the 24 in. (600 mm) to less than 512 (140)
sprinkler deflector in a manner to limit the distribution from 30 in. (750 mm)
reaching the protected hazard shall comply with 30 in. (750 mm) to less than 6 (150)
36 in. (900 mm) Sprinklers shall be positioned with respect to fluo-
rescent lighting fixtures, ducts, and obstructions more than Note: For A and B, refer to Figure
24 in. (600 mm) wide and located entirely below the sprinklers
so that the minimum horizontal distance from the near side of
the obstruction to the center of the sprinkler is not less than
the value specified in Table and Figure Sprinklers installed under open gratings shall be
shielded from the discharge of overhead sprinklers.
Ceiling Where the bottom of the obstruction is located
24 in. (600 mm) or more below the sprinkler deflectors, the
following shall occur: 24 in. (600 mm) or more

(1) Sprinklers shall be positioned so that the obstruction is B

centered between adjacent sprinklers in accordance with
(2) The obstruction width shall meet the following require-
ments: Pipe, conduit,
(a) The obstruction shall be limited to a maximum width of or fixture
24 in. (600 mm) in accordance with Figure
(b) Where the obstruction is greater than 24 in. (600 mm)
wide, one or more lines of sprinklers shall be installed FIGURE Obstruction Entirely Below Sprinkler
below the obstruction. (CMSA Sprinklers).

2016 Edition

HANGING, BRACING, AND RESTRAINT OF SYSTEM PIPING 13119 Longitudinal braces shall be allowed to act as lateral Table Seismic Coefficient Table
braces if they are within 24 in. (600 mm) of the centerline of
the piping braced laterally. SS Cp SS Cp The distance between the last brace and the end of
0.33 or less 0.35 2.2 1.03
the pipe or a change in direction shall not exceed 40 ft (12 m).
0.4 0.38 2.3 1.07 Pipe with Change(s) in Direction. 0.5 0.4 2.4 1.12
0.6 0.42 2.5 1.17 Each run of pipe between changes in direction shall 0.7 0.42 2.6 1.21
be provided with both lateral and longitudinal bracing, unless 0.8 0.44 2.7 1.26
the requirements of are met. 0.9 0.48 2.8 1.31* Pipe runs less than 12 ft (3.7 m) in length shall be 1 0.51 2.9 1.35
permitted to be supported by the braces on adjacent runs of 1.1 0.54 3 1.4
pipe. 1.2 0.57 3.1 1.45
1.3 0.61 3.2 1.49 Sway Bracing of Risers. 1.4 0.65 3.3 1.54* Tops of risers exceeding 3 ft (900 mm) in length 1.5 0.7 3.4 1.59
shall be provided with a four-way brace. 1.6 0.75 3.5 1.63
1.7 0.79 3.6 1.68 Riser nipples shall be permitted to omit the four- 1.8 0.84 3.7 1.73
way brace required by 1.9 0.89 3.8 1.77
2 0.93 3.9 1.82 When a four-way brace at the top of a riser is at- 2.1 0.98 4 1.87
tached on the horizontal piping, it shall be within 24 in.
(600 mm) of the centerline of the riser and the loads for that
brace shall include both the vertical and horizontal pipe. Distance between four-way braces for risers shall not
exceed 25 ft (7.6 m).* When riser nipples are provided in systems requir-
ing seismic protection, they shall satisfy the following equa- Four-way bracing shall not be required where risers tion, unless one of the following conditions is met:
penetrate intermediate floors in multistory buildings where
the clearance does not exceed the limits of 9.3.4. (1) Where riser nipples are 4 ft (1.2 m) or less in length and
Cp is 0.50 or less* Horizontal Seismic Loads. (2) Where riser nipples are 3 ft (900 mm) or less in length
and Cp is less than 0.67
{2FC84572-0B19-4D3C-B16A-15DE6BAFE1FD}* The horizontal seismic load for the braces shall be
as determined in or, or as required by the
authority having jurisdiction.
(3) Where riser nipples are 2 ft (600 mm) in length or less
and Cp is less than is 1.0 The weight of the system being braced (Wp) shall be (H r W p C p )F []
taken as 1.15 times the weight of the water-filled piping. (See S

where: The horizontal force, Fpw , acting on the brace shall Hr = length of riser nipple piping (in inches)
be taken as Fpw = CpWp , where Cp is the seismic coefficient Wp = tributary weight (in pounds) for the branch line
selected in Table utilizing the short period response or portion of branch line within the zone of
parameter, Ss . influence including the riser nipple The value of Ss used in Table shall be Cp = seismic coefficient
obtained from the authority having jurisdiction or from seis- S = sectional modulus of the riser nipple pipe
mic hazard maps. Fy = allowable yield strength of 30,000 psi (2070 bar)
for steel, 30,000 psi for copper (soldered),* Linear interpolation shall be permitted to be used 8000 psi (550 bar) for CPVC
for intermediate values of Ss . If the calculated value is equal to or greater than* The horizontal force, Fpw , acting on the brace shall the yield strength of the riser nipple, the longitudinal seismic
be permitted to be determined in accordance with Sec- load of each line shall be evaluated individually, and branch
tion 13.3.1 of SEI/ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads of Buildings lines shall be provided with longitudinal sway bracing per
and Other Structures, multiplied by 0.7 to convert to allowable
stress design (ASD). The zone of influence for longitudinal braces shall* Where data for determining Cp are not available, include all mains tributary to the brace.
the horizontal seismic force acting on the braces shall be de-
termined as specified in with Cp = 0.5. Net Vertical Reaction Forces. Where the horizontal
seismic loads used exceed 0.5 Wp and the brace angle is less* The zone of influence for lateral braces shall in- than 45 degrees from vertical or where the horizontal seismic
clude all branch lines and mains tributary to the brace, except load exceeds 1.0 Wp and the brace angle is less than 60 degrees
branch lines that are provided with longitudinal bracing or as from vertical, the braces shall be arranged to resist the net
prohibited by vertical reaction produced by the horizontal load.

2016 Edition


Table A. Required Yield Strength Calculation Based on Riser Nipple Length on Cp

Seismic Coefficient

Cp 0.50 Cp 0.67 Cp < 1.0 Cp > 1.0

Riser Nipple >4 ft (1.2 m) X X X X

Length 4 ft (1.2 m) X X X
3 ft (915 mm) X X
2 ft (610 mm) X

Note: Conditions marked X are required to satisfy the equation provided in

ACI 355.2, Qualification of Post-Installed Mechanical Anchors in The applied tension equation includes the prying effect,
Concrete and Commentary, or other approved qualification pro- which varies with the orientation of the fastener in relation-
cedures (ASCE/SEI 7, Section This information is ship to the brace necessary at various brace angles. The letters
usually available from the anchor manufacturer. A through D in the following equations are dimensions of the
attachment geometry as indicated in Figure A.
The variables below are among those contained in the ap-
through Figure A.
proved evaluation reports for use in ACI 318, Chapter 17 calcula-
tions. These variables do not include the allowable tension and where:
shear capacities but do provide the information needed to calcu- Cr = critical angle at which prying flips to the toe or the heel
late them. The strength design capacities must be calculated us- of the structure attachment fitting.
ing the appropriate procedures in ACI 318, Chapter 17 and then Pr = prying factor for service tension load effect of prying
converted to allowable stress design capacities. Tan = tangent of brace angle from vertical
Da = Anchor diameter Sin = sine of brace angle from vertical
hnom = Nominal embedment The greater Pr value calculated in tension or compression
hef = Effective embedment applies
hmin = Min. concrete thickness The Pr value cannot be less than 1.000/Tan for designated
Cac = Critical edge distance angle category A, B, and C; 1.000 for designated angle cat-
Nsa = Steel strength in tension egory D, E, and F; or 0.000 for designated angle category G, H,
le = Length of anchor in shear and I.

Np,cr = Pull-out strength cracked concrete
Kcp = Coefficient for pryout strength
For designated angle category A, B, and C, the applied ten-
sion, including the effect of prying (Pr), is as follows:
Vsa,eq = Shear strength single anchor seismic loads
Vst.deck,eq = Shear strength single anchor seismic loads in- Cr = Tan 1 [A.]
stalled through the soffit of the metal deck D
For braces acting in TENSION
A. The values for the wedge anchor tables and the If Cr > brace angle from vertical:
undercut anchor tables have been developed using the follow-
ing formula: C + A
D [A.]
T T Pr =
+ 1.2 [A.] A
Tallow Vallow If Cr < brace angle from vertical:
T = applied service tension load including the effect D [A.]
of prying (Fpw Pr) Pr = Tan
Fpw = horizontal earthquake load B
Pr = prying factor based on fitting geometry and For braces acting in COMPRESSION
brace angle from vertical If Cr > brace angle from vertical:
Tallow = allowable service tension load
V = applied service shear load C B
D [A.]
Vallow = allowable service shear load Tan
T/Tallow = shall not be greater than 1.0. Pr =
V/Vallow = shall not be greater than 1.0. If Cr < brace angle from vertical:
The allowable tension and shear loads come from the an-
C + A
chor manufacturers published data. The design loads have D [A.]
been amplified by an overstrength factor of 2.0, and the allow- Pr = Tan
able strength of the anchors has been increased by a factor of A
1.2. The effect of prying on the tension applied to the anchor For designated angle category D, E, and F, the applied ten-
is considered when developing appropriate capacity values. sion, including the effect of prying (Pr), is as follows:

2016 Edition