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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Rationale of the Study

In our daily living, we tend to save every bit of the things that could be saved in

order to live. Nowadays, our country is experiencing some difficulties. One of these is,

Global Warming. Global Warming is the increasing of Earths temperature due to

greenhouse gases especially carbon dioxide. To prevent this, one way is to plant trees.

But how can we help if people are always cutting trees? We were the ones to be blamed.

As we can see, people cut trees to make it as a raw material in making houses and

furniture. But these furniture and houses are easily destroyed and rotten. Keeping your

wooden furniture in your home or anywhere and your houses wooden walls long-lasting

or durable as much as possible requires a frequent care and when necessary, an

application of insecticide is needed. An insecticide is a chemical used in killing insects.

One of these insects is drywood termites. With that, we can lessen the use of woods and

its cutting. And also, we can help in preventing Global Warming.

The researchers study deals on the Lethal Effect of Tuba-tuba (Jatropha curcas)

and Chili Pepper (Capsicum annum) on Drywood termites (Cryptotermes cavifrons). It

was developed to lessen the number of termites and to investigate its capabilities in

killing drywood termites. It also aims to know more about the components of Tuba-tuba

(Jatropha curcas) and Chili Pepper (Capsicum annum) in killing Drywood termites. In a
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way, this study would help the environmen by lessening the use of woods and the cutting

of trees.

Statement of the Problem and Objectives

It will be the purpose of the research team to study the Lethal Effects of Tuba-tuba

(Jatropha curcas) and Chili Pepper (Capsicum annum) on Drywood termites

(Cryptotermes cavifrons).

Specifically, this sought to answer these following queries:

How does the mixture of tuba-tuba fruit extract and chili pepper extract affect the

number of dead drywood termites?

1. What is the number of dead drywood termites treated with different insecticide

(Tuba-tuba extract only, Chili pepper only, Combination of tuba-tuba seed extract

and chilli pepper, commercial, and water) in these times of observation?


a) 1st hour
b) 6th hour
c) 12th hour
d) 24th hour
e) 48th hour

2. Which of the mixtures (Tuba-tuba extract only, Chili pepper only, Combination

of tuba-tuba seed extract and chilli pepper, commercial, and water) is most

effective in killing drywood termites in terms of:

a) Number of dead drywood termites


b) Mortality rate
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Statement of Hypotheses (Ho)

Ho1 The different termiticide has no significant effect in killing drywood termites.

Ho2 The mixture of tuba-tuba and chilli pepper has no significant difference in the

number of drywood termites killed.

Conceptual Paradigm
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INPUT
Tuba-tuba (Jatropha curcas) Seed Extract and Chili
Pepper (Capsicum annum)

PROCESS
Counting the dead drywood termites

OUTPUT
Lethal Effects of Tuba-tuba (Jatropha curcas) Seed
Extract and Chili Pepper (Capsicum annum)
against drywood termites (Cryptotermes cavifrons)

Figure 1.1 This paradigm is a study of Tuba-tuba and Chili pepper against drywood

termites.

Significance of the Study


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As humans, we are craving for changes and its continuous capture for

accessibility and satisfaction. There is a boundless creation of advance products and

services. Nevertheless, in venturing cutting-edge creations, one must be knowledgeable

enough about it and should have the capacity to cater its needs. This research study is

believed to give a significant impact on the following sectors:

Environment- This would provide an environmentally friendly termite killer spray

to the environment.

Lumber Industries- This would provide lumber industries to have a new way to

lessen the termites.

Researchers- this would help other researchers to have a guide and a study to be

improved.

Scope and Limitations

This study entitled Lethal Effect of Tuba-tuba (Jatropha curcas) and Chili

Pepper (Capsicum annum) on Drywood termites (Cryptotermes cavifrons) was

conducted at Yongcos residence in Tawason Mandaue City. The study was focused on

the lethal effect of Tuba-tuba fruit and Chili pepper on drywood termites. Nine-hundred

(900) drywood termites were gathered and were divided into three (3) for there were

three (3) trials conducted. So, each trial made use of three-hundred (300) drywood

termites. There were five (5) treatments namely, Set-up A (treated with tuba-tuba fruit

extract only), Set-up B (treated with chilli pepper extract only), Set-up C (treated with the
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mixture of tub-tuba fruit and chilli pepper extracts), Set-up D (treated with commercial

product or the positive control), and Set-up E (Treated with water or the negative

control). Assignment of the termites into which group it would be assigned was done

randomly to give each termite equal chances to be included in the study. Each treatment

had three (3) replicates. Drywood termites in each treatment were observed for two (2)

days. Recording was done during the 1st, 6th, 12th, 24th, and 48th hour.

Definition of Terms

Certain terms within the course of the study might not be recognizable by

the general readers. In line with this, a listing of these terms and their corresponding

definitions has been compiled to provide convenience to the users of the study.

Lethal Effects- Deadly effects on insects specifically on drywood termites.

Termiticide- Termite insecticide

Mortality rate- The number of dead drywood termites at the given hours

Decoction- a process of extracting the tuba-tuba fruit and chili pepper, where it was sliced

into pieces and was boiled for 15 minutes.

Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES


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Review of Related Literature

Insecticides are used to kill insects. This controls the insects that may harm crops

or this may eliminate disease-carrying insects. Insecticides are often used in agriculture,

industry, and by the consumers. Insecticides are helpful and also dangerous. Insecticides

affect or harm the environment.

On Chili peppers

Chili peppers are garden vegetables that can be used against termites. Chili pepper

contains capsaicin which produces mild to intense spice. They are characterized by their

extreme pungency. Chili pepper may irritate the insects or worse, kill them. Chili

peppers are available throughout the year to add zest to flavorful dishes around the world

and health to those brave enough to risk their fiery heat. This is the plant that puts fire on

your tongue and maybe even a tear in your eye when you eat spicy Mexican, simmering

Szechuan, smoldering Indian, or torrid Thai food. Chili peppers belong to the family of

foods bearing the Latin name Capsicum.

On Jatropha curcas

Jatropha curcas is a poisonous, small tree. It is one of the shrubby trees that is

found in Central America. Jatropha curcas is a wonder plant that produces seeds with

oil. The oil is mainly converted into biofuel for diesel engine. Jatropha leaves helps in

dressing the wound. Dark blur dye and wax can be produced from the plant. Its extract is

good for tanning. It can be also an organic fertilizer and soil improver. Varnishes,
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illuminants, soap, pest control, as purgative and other medicinal for skin diseases.

On Termites

Termites are well-known for their wood-eating habits. Termites live in colonies.

The colony includes nymphs, workers, soldiers and reproductive individuals of opposite

sexes. The queen of the termites can lay 3,000,000 or more eggs in a year. The termites

work as a group to keep themselves strong. Drywood termites tend to cut across wood

grain destroying both the soft spring wood and the harder summer growth. Subterranean

termites typically follow the grain of the wood, feeding primarily on the soft spring

wood.

Related Review of Studies

According to the study of Z. A. Habou and A. Haougui (2011) about

Insecticidal effect of Jatropha curcas oil on the aphid Aphis fabae (Hemiptera:

Aphididae) and on the main insect pests associated with cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in

Niger the insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas has been evaluated on various crop

pests. Oil concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15% were first tested on the black bean

aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) as part of an efficacy test conducted in the laboratory. During a

second stage, the insecticidal efficacy of 5 and 7.5% oil concentrations was evaluated on

the main pests infesting cowpea crops (Vigna unguiculata L.) as part of a field test

conducted at the University of Niamey (Niger). The results obtained in the two tests

demonstrate the biocidal effect of the treatments applied, which increases with the
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concentration. On the black bean aphid, the biocidal effect increases during the hours

following the application of oil before reaching a peak after 4 days. On cowpeas, J.

curcas oil concentrations of 5% and 7.5% make it possible to reduce the level of attack by

aphids (Aphis craccivora) by 10 and 50% respectively compared to the control. A 50%

and 75% fall in the number of thrips (Megalurothrips sjstedti) and bugs (Anoplocnemis

curvipes), respectively, can be observed under the same conditions. This treatment made

it possible to greatly increase yields compared to the untreated control.

Pesticide making is popular nowadays and it is also very helpful in our world in

the field of agriculture. Thus many people continue to experiment pesticides to produce

better quality and quantity. Pesticide can be applied to the treatment of an organism, such

as a cropor ornamental plant, against damage by other plants, insects, fungi, or animals.

The researcher aims to produce pesticide out of malunggay leaves and chilli fruit which

isknown in our country. And is very useful to many people and also to have

another alternative of pesticide.

The process in making pesticide was quite difficult and simple. First are you had to

prepare all the materials needed .Second get the extract of the malunggay leaves and

chilli fruit. Next ,mix the the extract of the malunggay leaves and chilli fruit. After that

store the solution in 5-7 days and aging process will then be continue.
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The data and observation gathered is clearly state that the malunggay leaves and chilli

fruit as pesticide is easily be contaminated when aging and the researcher therefore

conclude that the malunggay leaves and chili fruit is feasible in making pesticide.

[ CITATION Eli12 \l 1033 ]

Chapter III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
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Research Design

This study made use of the Experimental Design where the dependent variable is

the mortality rate of drywood termites, while the independent variable is the type of

treatment.

SET-UPS

Set-up A Set-up B Set-up C Set-up D Set-up E

(Tuba- (Chili pepper (Tuba-tuba Commercial Water

Conditions tuba fruit extract) fruit Chili termiticide (Negative

extract) pepper (Positive control)

extract) control)
Size of Big/ Adult Big/ Adult Big/ Adult Big/ Adult Big/ Adult
termite
termites termite termite termite termite
Suze of 100 Ml 100 Ml spray 100 Ml 100 Ml 100 Ml spray
bottle
spray bottle spray bottle spray bottle spray bottle

bottle
No. of 3 3 3 3 3

sprays

Research Procedure

A. Container Procedure
For the container of the subjects, 45 transparent jars or container were prepared.

Each set-up used 3 jars for there were 3 replicates per treatment. There are 5 set-
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ups, so, the researchers made use of 15 jars per trial. The termites or subjects were

observed in these jars for two days per trial.


B. Gathering/ Assigning subjects to different treatment
In gathering the subjects which are the termites, the researchers gathered 900

termites. In this study, three (3) trials were performed. There were five (5) set-ups

namely, Set-up A (treated with tuba-tuba fruit extract only), Set-up B (treated with

Chili pepper extract only), Set-up C (treated with the combination of tuba-tuba

fruit and chili pepper extract), Set-up D (treated with commercial termiticide or

the positive control), and Set-up E (treated with water or the negative control). In

assigning the termites to different treatment or set-up, the researchers selected

randomly to give each termite an equal chances to be included.


C. Feeding and Rearing
The termites in each set-up were fed with rotten woods for them to live.
D. Extraction of Tuba-tuba fruit and Chili pepper
Before the extraction of the tuba-tuba fruit and chili pepper was done, the

researchers wore protective gears, for the extracts are dangerous when made

contact with the skin. In the extraction of tuba-tuba fruit and chili pepper, the

researchers made use of the decoction process, where, the tuba-tuba fruit and chili

pepper were sliced into pieces and was boiled for fifteen (15) minutes. Right after

boiling, the extracts were measured with 100 Ml and was put into its designated

spray bottles.
E. Testing the Product
In evaluating each treatment, the researchers tested the products on the termites.

Set-up A was treated with tuba-tuba fruit extract only; Set-up B was treated with

chili pepper extract only; Set-up C was treated with the mixture of tuba-tuba and

chili pepper extract; Set-up D was treated with the commercial termiticide or the

positive control; Set-up E was treated with water or negative control. Each set-up
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was sprayed with the assign treatment for three times which contained 20

termites. Right after spraying the researchers monitored the number of dead

termites in 1st hour, 6th hour, 12th hour, 24th hour, and 48th hour. The results were

recorded.
F. Proper Disposal of Subjects
First, trash bins were prepared by the researchers. The materials used were

washed thoroughly and thrown into the non-biodegradable bin. In the proper

disposal of the termites. They were buried 1foot beneath the ground.
G. Data Gathering
The data was gathered by the researchers observing the effect of the treatments

on the termites for at least 48hours/2 days.


H. Statistical Treatment
The ANOVA(Analysis of Variance) Statistical treatment were used by the

researchers for treating the data with the following formulas:

Where,

F= Anova Coefficient
MST= Mean sum of squares due to treatment.
MSE= Mean sum of squares due to error.

Where,
SST= Sum of Squares due to treatment.
p = Total number of populations
n = Total number of samples in population.

Where,
SSE= Sum of squares due to error
S= Standard deviation of the samples.
N= total number of observations.
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References

A. Books

Z.A.Habou and A. Haougui. (2011). Insecticidal effect of Jathropha curcas oil on

the aphid Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on the main insect pests

associated with cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in Niger.

J. Heller. (1996). Physic Nut, Jatropha Curcas L. Promoting the conservation and use of

underutilized and neglected crops. 1. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant

Research, Gatersleben/ International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.

B. Internet

E. Antoniette., The feasibility of malunggay leaves and chili fruit as pesticide. Feb. 14,

2014. Retrieved December 14, 2014, from

http://www.scribd.com/doc/81575963/The-Feasibility-of-Malunggay-Leaves-and-

Chili-Fruit-as-Pesticide#scribd.

C. Chomchai et al., Toxicity from ingestion of Jatropha curcas fruits in thai children. July
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2011. Retrieved December 20, 2014, from

http://www.tm.mahidol.ac.th/seameo/2011-42-4/21-5042.pdf

K. Smith, Drywood Termites. June 2001. Retrieved December 10, 2014, from

http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/insects/az1232/.