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Research and Evaluation: The Application of Mobile Technology in

the Education Sectors:

The innovation of mobile technologies has an incredible impact on our daily lives, which

provides an exceptional opportunity for transmitting information. According to Wexler et al.

(2008) defines the mobile device as any activity that allows individuals to be more

productive when consuming, interacting with, or creating information mediated through a

compact digital portable device that the individual carries on a regular basis, has reliable

connectivity and fits in a pocket or purse (p.51). Mobile technology has created a new way

of teaching and learning in the classroom, as this provides an opportunity for the

instructors as well as the students to get access their course materials and tools over the

mobile accessories at any time from any places.

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MD MOZAMMAL HOQUE
ST ID: 5234153
ASSESSMENT 3
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
Annotate 1:

Pastore, R, S., Martin, F., (2013). Designing and Developing Mobile Based Instruction: A

designers Perspective. Design & Technology Education, Vol. 18 Issue 3, pp. 60-72.

Purpose of the Research

The purpose of this research study was to examine students perceptions of designing and

developing mobile based instruction.

Intended Audience

Teachers, Students, Journalists, Doctors, Nurses and Museum Visitors.

Research Methodology

The authors of this study employed qualitative research to identify the students perception

of designing and developing mobile based instruction. A sample of 28 graduate students

ages ranged from 23-40 were selected from three different courses. The researcher has

conducted an interview and that took place 20-40 minutes with every participant.

Research Finding

The results of the survey and qualitative data analysis suggest that mobile phone users

prefer quick and easy access, large buttons, single column layouts and user control. Results

also indicated that usability is the key concern for the mobile phone users.

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MD MOZAMMAL HOQUE
ST ID: 5234153
ASSESSMENT 3
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
Research Limitations

Appropriate Sampling is one of the key tasks in research for increasing the validity of the

processed data (Hossain, 2010). In this research, it is significantly clear that a very weak

representation of the sample where the participants were only 28. To get the empirical

research findings the authors could employ a quantitative research approach in their study,

as this approach is capable to deal with big number of sample size.

How the Study Supports the Topic?

This study has a significant contribution to the literature base on the design and

development of a mobile based delivery. The study shows that designer should follow

proper guidelines when they building apps and websites which will be used in mobile, users

needs to have proper guidelines for their usability as they can able to get the full benefits of

mobile based learning. This study recommended that mobile apps and website content has

to be presented with less number of text and graphics which can able to adjust with the

mobile phone screen size for the users.

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MD MOZAMMAL HOQUE
ST ID: 5234153
ASSESSMENT 3
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
Annotate 2:

Santos, I. & Bocheco, O. (2010). Instructor Perceptions of Using Mobile Phones in Teaching

and Learning: The Case of a Group of Instructors in the UAE. In Z. Abas, I. Jung & J. Luca

(Eds.), Proceedings of Global Learn 2010 (pp. 212-217). Association for the Advancement of

Computing in Education (AACE).

Purpose of the Research

The objective of this research is to examine and analyse the instructors perceptions of using

mobile devices into their teaching and learning in the classroom.

Intended Audience

Instructors, Teachers and students.

Research Methodology

The authors of the study adopted a qualitative research approach and conducted in-depth

interview with 7 foreign instructors from a college in UAE to identify the instructors

experience and perceptions of using mobile devices in their classroom. The authors in the

current study have conducted a semi-structured interview with their research participants

and used four different research variables to conduct in-depth interviews, such as:

instructors background information, level of intimacy with mobile usage, level of experience

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MD MOZAMMAL HOQUE
ST ID: 5234153
ASSESSMENT 3
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
of using mobile technology in the classroom environment and perceptions of the mobile

device integration in teaching and learning in the classroom environment.

Research Finding

The findings of the research study clearly indicated that all the instructors have a lack of

skills and knowledge to deal with the mobile device in the classroom. Most of them are

using their mobile phone just for phone calls and SMS. The findings of the study also

indicated that all the instructors are very keen to learn the effective use of mobile

technology in the classroom for their teaching and learning, as they were fully aware of the

educational opportunities if they integrated mobile technology into their teaching and

learning in the classroom.

Research Limitations

In light of the overall discussion, there are several limitations including the sample size and

data source. The authors of this study have randomly selected only 7 instructors from a one

single university which represents a very small sample size and a single data source. Also,

the current study has followed only the qualitative method to analyse and examine the

instructors perceptions and experience of the use of mobile device in the classroom for

their teaching and learning. The study could employ a mixed method approach to

understand better picture of instructor perceptions on mobile devices for their teaching and

learning. The mixture of qualitative and quantitative techniques (Tashakkori & Teddlie,

1998; Kelle, 2006) is called the mixed method approach. Also, a larger simple size of the

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MD MOZAMMAL HOQUE
ST ID: 5234153
ASSESSMENT 3
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
different other universities around the world could have enlarged the findings of this

research study.

How the Study Supports the Topic?

Based on the findings from this study, it shows that instructors are keen to learn the use of

mobile technology for their teaching and learning. This study helps to understand the

significance of mobile device into teaching. It shows the importance of training and coaching

and professional development for the teachers and instructors for their effective use of

mobile device in the classroom.

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MD MOZAMMAL HOQUE
ST ID: 5234153
ASSESSMENT 3
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
Annotate 3:

Cater, S. & Garza, R. (2015). Mobile Device use in the Classroom: High School Students

Experiences and Perceptions. In D. Rutledge & D. Slykhuis (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for

Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2015 (pp. 1592-

1597). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE)

Purpose of the Research

The aim of this action research was to identify schools students experiences and

perceptions of mobile devices as a learning tool.

Intended Audience

Teachers, Students, Journalists, Doctors and Nurses.

Research Methodology

In order to identify the high school students perception this action research study adopted

a mixed methods approach. A sample of 67 participants was selected out of 1800 students

from a high school in the southwestern part of the U.S, 29 males and 38 females from three

different sections and their ages 16-19.

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MD MOZAMMAL HOQUE
ST ID: 5234153
ASSESSMENT 3
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
Research Finding

The findings of the research show that high school learners perceptions about mobile

technology reflected three main matters, such as: easy, fast and enjoyable. This study also

shows that the current directions in mobile technology emulated on looking up words,

research and text messaging.

Limitations of This Study

This research study only analysed and justified high school students perception. Also, the

sample size was too sample and gathering of the data just from one single high school from

a one type of course. Future studies could conduct with the larger size of samples from the

different high schools following face to face survey, in-depth interview, observations and

experimental research.

How the Study Supports the Topic?

The study shows that the students perception about mobile use indicated that, mobile

technologies are suitable and appropriate for their learning activities. Through the mobile

text message learners are setting up their meetings and can able to exchange important

information for their learnings as well (Rideout et al., 2010). Teachers and administrators

need to create an appropriate policy, procedures and guidelines for their students for an

effective and efficient use of mobile device in the classroom.

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MD MOZAMMAL HOQUE
ST ID: 5234153
ASSESSMENT 3
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
Annotate 4:

Adeyemo, S., Adedoja, G. & Adelore, O. (2013). Mobile technology: implications of its

application on learning. Open Praxis, 5(3), 249-254. International Council for Open and

Distance Education.

Purpose of the Research

The aim of this study is to explore the benefits and challenges of the use of mobile device

for the learners perspective at the Distance Learning Center (DLC) of the University of

Ibadan.

Intended Audience

Students and Teachers.

Research Methodology

In order to identify the benefits and challenges of the use of mobile device of students, this

study adopted a qualitative research method. The Focused Group Discussions (FDG)

questions were designed to reveal the perceived benefits and perceived problems of using

mobile device for learning. The researchers of this study select 201 students from the

faculties of Arts and Education of the distance learning program.

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MD MOZAMMAL HOQUE
ST ID: 5234153
ASSESSMENT 3
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
Research Finding

The findings of the study show that most of the students responded positively with the use

of mobile device for their learning activity, such as: the use of mobile technology reduced

their learning stress, and the mobile device has made their learning very interesting and

attractive. The finding also shows that 90% of the students see the innovation of mobile

technology helps their learning process throughout their course. On the other hand,

students also complain of the uses of mobile device for their learning, such as: network

failure, login difficulties and lack of their skills to use the mobile device.

Limitations of This Study

The authors of the study didnt provide any evidence of informed consent, site approvals

and independent review into their research. Informed consent needs to be sought from

participants to use the information they provide through interviews (Kervin et al., 2006,

p.90). As per Kervin et al. (2006), researchers must have to get the permission from an

appropriate authority to visit any research sites.

How the Study Supports the Topic?

This study shows that the uses of mobile phone in learning have great benefits and possible

challenges of students. According to Mellow (2005) states that, the mobile device is a

dominant instrument in attracting ultramodern students who needs elasticity to join at

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ST ID: 5234153
ASSESSMENT 3
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
their availability. Although the uses of mobile device in learning have many challenges, but

the uses of mobile technologies in the classroom are increasing on day by day.

Discussion:

Mobile based learning means that it is not restricted for the students by the fixed class

time. Based on the mobile learning students can pursue their learning to their own

schedule time. As per Jones (2013), it is very easy to access mobile devices at any place and

at any time. Also, with an effective use of mobile device the learners can access the bank of

information to build-up their skills and knowledge to achieve their learning goals (Sharples

et al., 2007, p. 223). On the other hand, in a traditional method of learning information is

accessible just from the class instructors. According to Visser & West (2005), mobile phone

learning increases the access in those areas where costs could be the main obstacle to

learning (p.132). Therefore, mobile learning represents a teaching and learning which are

just in time. Although the uses of mobile technology in education offers many benefits for

the learners and instructors perspective, but many educational institutions imposes a

restriction the times and places for its use, because the use of mobile device in teaching and

learnings have many limitations as well, such as: small screen, the cost raises, restriction on

text input, network failure, login difficulties and useability as an effective teaching and

learning tool (Campbell, 2006). Instead of taking it as a harmful device education provider

should promote the benefits and advantages of mobile based learning in education (Kim et

al., 2006). According to Lobo et al. (2011) states that, for an effective use of mobile device

tools, apps and functions should be simple and easy user input. An Institution needs to

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MD MOZAMMAL HOQUE
ST ID: 5234153
ASSESSMENT 3
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
develop an appropriate policy and guidelines for the effective implementations of mobile

technology in teaching and learning (Selwyn, 2009). Wagner (2005) has proposed the four

effective guidelines for the successful implementations of mobile technology in teaching

and learning, such as:

Identify the costs related to an effective implementation of mobile based learning,

such as: ongoing technical support, network connectivity, and proper training and

coaching to staff and instructor

Identify an effective and efficient pedagogical approach to integrate mobile based

learning for the students

Identify relevant goals and objectives related to the application of mobile technology

to enhance learners learning

Educational institutions must need to develop the policies and procedures to

maintain their learners privacy and security for the access of mobile device in

learning.

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INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
References:

Adeyemo, S., Adedoja, G. & Adelore, O. (2013). Mobile technology: implications of its

application on learning. Open Praxis, 5(3), 249-254. International Council for Open and

Distance Education.

Campbell, S. (2006). Perceptions of mobile phones in college classrooms: Ringing, cheating,

and classroom policies. Communication Education, 55(3), 280-294.

Cater, S. & Garza, R. (2015). Mobile Device use in the Classroom: High School Students

Experiences and Perceptions. In D. Rutledge & D. Slykhuis (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for

Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2015 (pp. 1592-

1597). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE)

Hossain M. Enayet (2010).The Roles of Cues on Quality, Risk, Satisfaction, and Destination

Loyalty: A Structure Equation Modelling Approach of Cox's Bazar 231 Bangladesh In

Proceedings of Curtin Business School Doctoral Students Colloquium, 30 Sep & 1st Curtin

University, Perth Australia.

Jones, C. (2013). Gartner survey showing declining PCs, increasing mobile devices through

2017. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ chuckjones/2013/04/05/gartner-

surveyshowing-declining-pcs-increasing-mobiledevices-through-2017/

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UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
Kelle, U. (2006). Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Research Practice:

Purpose and Advantages. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(4), pp. 293-311.

Kervin, L., Vialle, W., Herrington, J., Okely, T. (2006). Research for educators (1st ed).

Melboure, VIC: Cengage Learning Australia.

Kim, S. H., Mims, C., & Holmes, K. P. (2006). An introduction to current trends and benefits

of mobile wireless technology use in higher education. AACE Journal, 14(1), 77-100.

Lobo, D., Kaskaloglu, K., Fox, H., & Srisangkhajorn, T. (2011). A Synergic Approach to Web

Usability for Smartphone, International Conference on Information and Electronics

Engineering, 5, 65-69.

Mellow, P. (2005). The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. Proceedings

of ASCILITE 2005.

Pastore, R, S., Martin, F., (2013). Designing and Developing Mobile Based Instruction: A

designers Perspective. Design & Technology Education, Vol. 18 Issue 3, pp. 60-72.

Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2 Media in the Lives of 8- to

18-Year Olds. Menlo Park, California: Henry J. Kaiser Foundation.

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ST ID: 5234153
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INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA
Santos, I. & Bocheco, O. (2010). Instructor Perceptions of Using Mobile Phones in Teaching

and Learning: The Case of a Group of Instructors in the UAE. In Z. Abas, I. Jung & J. Luca

(Eds.), Proceedings of Global Learn 2010 (pp. 212-217). Association for the Advancement of

Computing in Education (AACE).

Selwyn, N. (2003). Schooling the mobile generation: The future for schools in the mobile-

networked society. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 24(2), 131-144

Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2007). A theory of learning for the mobile age. In R.

Andrews & C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The Sage handbook of e-learning research (pp. 221-

247). London: Sage Publications.

Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (1998). Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and

Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Wagner, E. D. (2005). Enabling mobile learning. Educause Review, 36(3), 41-52.

Wexler, S., Brown, J., Metcalf, D., Rogers, D., & Wagner, E. (2008). ELearning guild research

360: report: Mobile learning (Rep.). Santa Rosa, CA: ELearning Guild.

Visser, L., & West, P. (2005). The promise of m-learning for distance education in South

Africa and other developing nations. In Y. L. Visser, L. Visser, M. Simonson, & R. Amirault
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(Eds.), Trends and issues in distance education: International perspectives (pp. 117-129).

Greenwich, CT.: Information Age Publishing.

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ST ID: 5234153
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INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG IN AUSTRALIA