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Sudan Journal of Science and Technology (2015) 16(1):76-81

Sudan Journal of Science and Technology


Journal homepage: http://jst.sustech.edu/

Body Measurements of Five Types of Sudanese Camel Breed in Gadarif State


Amir M. Osman1, S. M. Abu kashwa2, A.A. Elobied3*, A.S. Ali3, M. T. Ibrahim3 and
M. M. Salih4
1
College of Forestry and Range Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST)
2
University of Khartoum, College of Science
3
College of Animal Production Science and Technology, SUST,
4
Kenana Fries Land Company, Khartoum, Sudan
*
Corresponding author: E.mail: abudoaa7@tahoo.com

ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT


Two hundred and eighty head belong to five breed types of
Article history
Sudanese camel (Bishari, Arabi, Daili, Anafi and Kenani) were
Received:27.10.2014
Accepted: 04.11.2014
randomly selected from Gadarif state. The purpose of this study
Available :01.08.2015
was to determine the effect of breed types, sex and age group on
some body measurements of these animals. Body measurements
Keywords: were taken using metric tape (height at wither, heart girth, barrel
Camel ecotype, girth, neck length, face length, tail length, and body weight).
Body measurement,
Averages of height at wither, heart girth, barrel girth, neck length,
Gadarif state
face length, tail length and body weight were 1.850.02 m,
2.020.02 m, 2.520.02 m, 1.130.01 m, 58.840.28 cm,
68.600.42 cm and 512.307.84 kg respectively. The results also
revealed that body measurements were significantly affected by
type of camel and age group. The Kenani camel showed the highest
values followed by other breed types. Regarding to the age the
camels (8 to 9) years had significantly high values in all body
measurements followed by those in (10 to 12) years, while the
animals in the first group 4 years recorded the lowest values.
Furthermore, the results showed that the sex of camel significantly
affected the heart girth, face length and body weight; and the males
had significantly higher (P< 0.05) values than those of females.
2015 Sudan University of Science and Technology. All rights reserved
Eastern region, where camels are found in
INTRODUCTION
the Butana plain and the Red Sea hills, and
The last estimation of camels' population in
Western regions (Darfur and Kordofan)
the Sudan was about 4.7million head
(Agab, 1993). Phenotypic characterization to
(MARFR, 2011). Camels in Sudan are
assess the existing biodiversity and
concentrated in two main regions; the

76 Sudan Journal of Science and Technology (2015) vol. 16 No. 1


ISSN (Print): 1605 427x e-ISSN (Online): 1858-6716
differences among the Sudanese camel the majority of the camels kept by nomads
breed subtypes is necessary prerequisite to in Sudan. In this group two types can be
facilitate the conservation and utilization identified on the basis of conformation and
program in an effective and meaningful tribal ownership: The Arab and Rashaidi
way. In spite of that Sudanese camel breed camels. On the other hand, the riding camels
subtypes are not well classified or defined, are restricted to the north-east of the country
with very limited information available between the Nile and Red Sea. Two main
(Ishag et al., 2010). El-Fadil (1986) types are recognized, namely Anafi and Red
mentioned that camels in the Sudan are Sea Hills (Bishari) camels.
classified as pack (heavy) and riding (light) The purpose of this study was to determine
types according to the function they perform the effect of breed types, sex and age group
and probably as a result of selection applied on some body measurements of the five
for these traits by the various camel-owning Sudanese breed types camel.
tribes. The Sudanese heavy type constitutes

Figure 1: Sudan map showing Camel breeding area in Sudan

MATERIALS AND METHODS with an area of approximately 78,000 km2. It


Study area and animals: This study was is bounded in the north by Kassala and
conducted in Gadarif State, which is located Khartoum States, in the west by Gezira, in
in the eastern part of the Sudan between 33 the south by Blue Nile State and shared
37 E Longitudes and 12 16 N Latitudes boundary with Ethiopia from the east.

77 Sudan Journal of Science and Technology (2015) vol. 16 No. 1


ISSN (Print): 1605 427x e-ISSN (Online): 1858-6716
Two hundred and eighty head of Five types camel breed types. The results of this study
of Sudanese camel were randomly selected revealed that averages of height at wither,
from Gadarif state[Bishari (n=40), Arabi heart girth, barrel girth, neck length, face
(n=50), Daili (n=70),Anafi (n= 60) and length, tail length and body weight were
Kenani (n=60)] according to, sex 1.850.02 m, 2.020.02 m, 2.520.02 m,
(males=108, females=72) and according to 1.130.01 m, 58.840.28 cm, 68.600.42
six age group 3years (n=40), 3-5years cm and 512.307.84 kg respectively.Except
(n=40), 6-7years (n=62), 8-9 (n=61), 10-12 values of heart girth and face length
(n=47) and 12 (n=30). (P<0.05) the effect of camel breed types had
Data collection: General descriptive high significant (P<0.01) on the other
information of different breed types of studied body measurements parameters.
camel were obtained by using questionnaires Rashaidi camel showed the lowest records in
which filled by direct interviews with camel height at wither and tail length while
owners.The questionnaire was designed to Bishari, Arabi and Anafi camel breed types
obtain information on general characteristics showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in
of camel. height at wither and tail length. Kenani
Body measurements: Body measurements camel had highly significant (P<0.01) in
of different camels types were determined. height at wither, barrel girth, neck length,
The following measurements were taken by tail length and body weight, these findings
metric tape. The height at wither was agree with Ishag et al. (2011). Also Kenani
measured from the ground level to the showed the highest value in heart girth (2.14
highest point of the wither, but the heart m) this finding is inline with those of Ishag
girth was measured immediately behind the et al., (2010). Moreover Rashaidi and
breast pad, measuring of barrel girth was Bishari ranked second and third record,
taken over the highest part of the hump, while Anafi and Arabi breed types showed
while the neck length was taken from the the lowest value in heart girth 1.97 and 1.94
point of the shoulder to the base of the neck, m respectively and this result is in line with
face length was measuredfrom tip of the poll those of Elbashir et al. (2011). In barrel girth
to the muzzle and the tail length was Bishari and Anafi recorded the lowest
measured from the 1st cocceygial vertebra to measure whereas Rashaidi and Arabi
the end of tail.Body weights of animals were showed higher values.The sex of camel had
estimated according to the Boue (1949) a significant influence on heart girth
formula (P = 53 TAH, Where: P = body (P<0.01), face length and body weight
weight (kg), T = heart girth or chest (m), A (P<0.05), while height at wither, barrel
= barrel or abdominal girth (m).H = girth, neck length and tail length was
shoulder height (m)) insignificantly (P>0.05) affected by sex.The
Statistical analysis: Complete Randomized data also showed male camels had higher
Design was used to analyze the results body measurements than females, this
obtained from this study and subjected to results are similar to that mentioned by Dioli
General Linear model (GLM)followed by et al. (1992) and Mehari et al. (2007), they
Least significant difference test (LSD) using stated that the male camels is usually taller
the SPSS 20.0 (2011) computer program, as and heavier weight than the females. The
5 X 2 X 4 factorial design. higher values of the measured parameters of
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION male camels might be due to physiological,
The data in the Table (1) and Figures (1, 2 morphological and activities in the different
and3) present the means and standard errors sexes.The results also showed that the age of
of the body measurements of five Sudanese camel had high significant (P<0.01) effect

78 Sudan Journal of Science and Technology (2015) vol. 16 No. 1


ISSN (Print): 1605 427x e-ISSN (Online): 1858-6716
on each measured parameters, this finding is significantly (P<0.01) affected by
somewhat in agreement to those of Ishag et interaction between breed and age while the
al. (2010) and Elbashir et al. (2011). The interaction between sex and age ha
studied traits tend to increase from the 1st insignificant effect on studied animals.
age group ( 3 years) to the 4th age group (8 CONCLUSION
9 years) and then decreased.This means Generally this study concludes that the
that the camels reach maturity age within 8 kenani camel is the largest camel breed in
to 9 years. Then many different Gedarif state. Also it concludes that camels
measurement declined this results is inline in (8-9 years) showed highest values in body
with those of Ishag et al. (2013). The height measurements. More studies in the
at wither and body weight were significantly morphological measurements with large
(P<0.01) affected by interaction between number of animals for camels in different
breed, sex. Also height at wither, face sites of Sudan are recommended.
length, tail length and body weight were

Figure 1: Effect of five Sudanese camel breeds type on some body measurements

Figure 2: Effect of sex on some body measurements of five Sudanese camel breeds type

79 Sudan Journal of Science and Technology (2015) vol. 16 No. 1


ISSN (Print): 1605 427x e-ISSN (Online): 1858-6716
Table1: The means and standard errors of height at wither (HW), heart girth (HG),barrel girth (BG),) neck
length, (NL), face length (FL), tail length (TL) and body weight (BW) for camel in Gedarif state

Main No. HW(m) HG (m) BG (m) NL (m) FL(cm) TL (cm) BW (kg)


effect
Breed ** * ** ** * ** **
Bishari 40 1.830.04b 1.990.04b 2.370.06c 1.080.03bc 58.580.67ab 67.581.02b 459.1318.97bc
b b b c
Arabi 50 1.820.03 1.940.04 2.520.06 1.070.03 57.740.64cb 67.790.97b 492.0418.04b
Rashaidi 70 1.720.03c 2.100.03a 2.610.05ab 1.100.03bc 60.580.54a 66.260.82b 504.8515.16b
Anafi 60 1.810.03b 1.970.03b 2.410.05c 1.190.03b 58.170.57b 69.560.87b 464.8316.11c
Kenani 60 2.080.04a 2.140.04a 2.730.06a 1.240.03a 59.440.66a 71.911.01a 658.0918.70a
Sex NS ** NS NS * NS *
Male 108 1.900.03 2.080.03 2.540.04 1.160.02 59.730.47 69.540.71 541.9513.28
Female 172 1.810.02 1.970.02 2.500.03 1.110.02 58.050.32 67.750.48 485.688.91
Age ** ** ** ** ** **
**
group
3years 40 1.590.02d 1.670.03d 2.110.04d 1.010.04b 52.180.86c 60.230.96d 301.7812.74d
c c c a
3-5yrs 40 1.760.03 1.850.05 2.440.06 1.110.02 58.850.44b 67.330.72c 423.9617.39c
6-7yrs 62 1.830.03bc 2.020.02b 2.530.05bc 1.140.02a 60.080.38ab 68.840.70bc 497.4013.59b
8-9yrs 61 1.900.03ab 2.100.02ab 2.700.03a 1.150.02a 60.210.33a 71.340.64a 554.0016.02a
10 12
47 1.850.03bc 2.090.02ab 2.690.04ab 1.140.02a 60.090.45ab 70.490.73ab 552.9815.14a
yrs
bc a ab a
12 yrs 30 1.840.05 2.050.05 2.640.04 1.130.04 60.030.32b 69.670.94 bc
550.2426.58a
Breed X
** NS NS NS NS NS **
sex
Breed X ** NS NS NS ** ** **
Age
Sex X NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
Age
Over all 1.850.02 2.020.02 2.520.02 1.130.01 58.840.28 68.600.42 512.307.84
Different superscript lettersmeans within the same column are significantly different at (P<0.05)
**: Significance different P<0.01
*: Significance different P<0.05
NS: No significant

Figure 2: Effect of age group on some body measurements of some Sudanese camel breeds
type

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ISSN (Print): 1605 427x e-ISSN (Online): 1858-6716