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Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimetry in radiotherapy Joanna E.Cygler 1 and Eduardo Yukihara 2 1 The
Optically Stimulated Luminescence
(OSL) dosimetry in radiotherapy
Joanna E.Cygler 1 and Eduardo Yukihara 2
1 The Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Canada
2 Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma
The Ottawa
L’Hopital
Hospital d’Ottawa
Regional Cancer Centre
Disclosure Disclosure The authors have received research support from Landauer Inc.
Disclosure
Disclosure
The authors have received research
support from Landauer Inc.
Outline Outline • Principles of OSL dosimetry • OSL readers and stimulation methods • Optically Simulated
Outline
Outline
• Principles of OSL dosimetry
• OSL readers and stimulation methods
• Optically Simulated Luminescence Dosimeters (OSLDs)
• Dosimetric characteristics of Al 2 O 3 :C OSLDs for
radiotherapy applications
– Environmental corrections
– Linearity of dose response
– Dose-rate dependence
– Energy dependence
– Directional dependence
– Fading
• Advantages and disadvantages
• Clinical dosimetry applications
• Summary
OSL dosimetry -- Introduction OSL dosimetry Introduction • OSL known for more than 50 years •
OSL dosimetry -- Introduction
OSL dosimetry
Introduction
• OSL known for more than 50 years
• Widely used in luminescence dating
• Highly sensitive Al 2 O 3 :C introduced in 90’s
• Developed for personal dosimetry at
Oklahoma State University
OSL dosimetry -- Introduction OSL dosimetry Introduction • Used in the Luxel TM and InLight TM
OSL dosimetry -- Introduction
OSL dosimetry
Introduction
Used in the Luxel TM and
InLight TM dosimetry systems
(Landauer Inc.)
• >1.5 million users (25% of world
market)
Used in space by NASA
• Starting to be adopted in
radiotherapy and diagnostic
radiology
Luxel TM (Landauer Inc.)
Introduction toto luminescence Introduction luminescence dosimetry dosimetry EXPOSURE Radiation Radiation sensor (insulating crystal) \
Introduction toto luminescence
Introduction
luminescence
dosimetry
dosimetry
EXPOSURE
Radiation
Radiation sensor
(insulating crystal)
\
Introduction toto luminescence Introduction luminescence ddos osiime mettryry STORAGE
Introduction toto luminescence
Introduction
luminescence
ddos osiime
mettryry
STORAGE
Introduction Introduction toto luminescence luminescence ddos osiime mettryry READOUT Light emission (e.g., blue, UV) Thermal stimulation
Introduction
Introduction toto luminescence
luminescence
ddos osiime
mettryry
READOUT
Light emission
(e.g., blue, UV)
Thermal
stimulation
(heating)
Introduction Introduction toto luminescence luminescence ddos osiime mettryry READOUT Light stimulation (e.g., green) Light emission (e.g.,
Introduction
Introduction toto luminescence
luminescence
ddos osiime
mettryry
READOUT
Light
stimulation
(e.g., green)
Light emission
(e.g., blue, UV)
Introduction Introduction toto luminescence luminescence ddos osiime mettryry READOUT Light Optically Stimulated Luminescence detectors (OSLDs): stimulation
Introduction
Introduction toto luminescence
luminescence
ddos osiime
mettryry
READOUT
Light
Optically Stimulated
Luminescence detectors
(OSLDs):
stimulation
(e.g., green)
Li
g
ht
em ss on
i
i
(e.g., blue, UV)
Al 2 O 3 :C (TLD500)
Thermoluminescence detectors
(TLDs):
Thermal
stimulation
LiF:Mg,Ti, CaF 2
(heating)
OSL readout system OSL readout system Light source PMT Detection filters OSL Stimulation filters Dosimeter (OSLD)
OSL readout system
OSL readout system
Light source
PMT
Detection filters
OSL
Stimulation
filters
Dosimeter
(OSLD)
Methods of OSL stimulation Methods of OSL stimulation • CW-OSL (continuous wave OSL) • POSL (pulsed
Methods of OSL stimulation
Methods of OSL stimulation
• CW-OSL (continuous wave OSL)
• POSL (pulsed OSL)
• LM-OSL (linearly modulated OSL)
CWCW--OSL OSL readout method readout method 400 300 cons an t t 200 100 0 0
CWCW--OSL
OSL readout method
readout method
400
300
cons an
t
t
200
100
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Time (s)
C W-OSL (a rbitratry u nits)
POSL readout method POSL readout method 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
POSL readout method
POSL readout method
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
on
off
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
Time (s)
Gate S tate
Stimulati on intensity
Commercial OSL dosimetry systems Commercial OSL dosimetry systems (L(Lan anddauer auer IInc. nc.)) InLight TM •
Commercial OSL dosimetry systems
Commercial OSL dosimetry systems
(L(Lan anddauer
auer IInc.
nc.))
InLight TM
• One manufacturer
MicroStar TM
Two t
yp
es of readers
• CW- stimulation readout
• Detectors from Landauer
Inc. only
www.Landauer.com, www.osldosimetry.com
OSL dosimeters OSL dosimeters Dot nanoDot
OSL dosimeters
OSL dosimeters
Dot
nanoDot
Characteristics of Al 22 OO 33 :C:C OSLDs Characteristics of Al OSLDs for radiotherapy applications for
Characteristics of Al 22 OO 33 :C:C OSLDs
Characteristics of Al
OSLDs
for radiotherapy applications
for radiotherapy applications
Ideal detector
•Small size
•Good reproducibility
•None or well defined environmental corrections
•Dose linearity
•Dose rate independence
•Energy independence
•No directional dependence -isotropic response to
radiation
OSLD reproducibility OSLD reproducibility 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.94 0.96 0.98
OSLD reproducibility
OSLD reproducibility
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0.94
0.96
0.98
1.00
1.02
1.04
1.06
1.08
Relative sensitivity
Courtesy of C. Yahnke
% number
Environmental corrections Environmental corrections Temperature dependence • During irradiation • During readout
Environmental corrections
Environmental corrections
Temperature dependence
• During irradiation
• During readout
OSL temperature dependence OSL temperature dependence ddur uriingng iirra rradi diaati tionon Jursinic, Med. Phys. 34(12),
OSL temperature dependence
OSL temperature dependence
ddur uriingng iirra
rradi diaati tionon
Jursinic, Med. Phys. 34(12), 4594-4604, 2007
Temperature effect during OSL Temperature effect during OSL ssti timu mullaati tion on ((rea readdou out)
Temperature effect during OSL
Temperature effect during OSL
ssti timu
mullaati tion on ((rea
readdou out) t)
Andersen et al, Radiation Measurements, 43, 948 – 9532008
OSLD dose linearity, OSLD dose linearity, 66 MV MV 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
OSLD dose linearity,
OSLD dose linearity, 66 MV
MV
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
Dose / cGy
Viamonte et al Med. Phys. 35(4), 1261-6, 2008
Rd g (arbitrary units)
OSL dose supralinearity at OSL dose supralinearity at hi higghher er ddoses oses Schembri V and
OSL dose supralinearity at
OSL dose supralinearity at
hi
higghher er ddoses
oses
Schembri V and Heijmen BJM. Med. Phys. 2007; 34:2113-2118.
Dose Dose--rate rate dependence dependence 6 MV Viamonte et al Med. Phys. 35(4), 1261-6, 2008
Dose
Dose--rate
rate dependence
dependence
6 MV
Viamonte et al Med. Phys. 35(4), 1261-6, 2008
Absorbed dose energy dependence f(Q) for Al 2 O 3 :C and LiF TLD Energy Mean
Absorbed dose energy dependence
f(Q) for Al 2 O 3 :C and LiF TLD
Energy
Mean Energy
(keV)
Q
Q
F
Ratio
F
Al O
Co
LiF
Co
2
3
Al O /LiF
2
3
60 Co gamma rays
1250
1.000 1.000
1.00
50 kV X-rays
29
3.219 ± 0.3%
1.463
2.20
100
kV X-rays
60
2.861 ± 0.3%
1.376
2.08
150
kV X-rays
105
1.607 ± 0.3%
1.245
1.29
250
kV X-rays
170
1.449 ± 0.3%
1.192
1.19
6 MV X-rays
2020
0.990 ± 0.3%
0.987
 1.00
10
MV X-rays
3050
0.983 ± 0.3%
0.976
 1.00
15
MV X-rays
4180
0.980 ± 0.3%
0.976
 1.00
25
MV X-rays
6600
0.973 ± 0.3%
0.976 
1.00
Mobit et al. Radiat Prot Dosim 119, 497-499, 2006).
Absorbed Absorbed dose dose sensitivit sensitivityy relative relative toto 66 MV photons as MV photons as
Absorbed
Absorbed dose
dose sensitivit
sensitivityy relative
relative
toto 66 MV photons as
MV photons as aa function of
function of
bbeam
eam qua
qualit lityy ffor or Al
Al OO :C:C
22
33
OSLD 60 Co: Viamonte et al
2008, Reft, 2009
Jursinic, Med. Phys. 34(12), 4594-4604, 2007
Yukihara et al, Phys Med Biol 53,
R351-R379, 2008
OSL LET dependence OSL LET dependence Yukihara et al. 2006
OSL LET dependence
OSL LET dependence
Yukihara et al. 2006
OSL LET dependence inin carbon OSL LET dependence carbon bbeam eam Reft, Med. Phys. 36(5), 1690-9,
OSL LET dependence inin carbon
OSL LET dependence
carbon
bbeam
eam
Reft, Med. Phys. 36(5), 1690-9, 2009
Directional dependence Directional dependence Jursinic, Med. Phys. 34(12), 4594-4604, 2007
Directional dependence
Directional dependence
Jursinic, Med. Phys. 34(12), 4594-4604, 2007
Fading of OSL signal Fading of OSL signal 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0
Fading of OSL signal
Fading of OSL signal
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Time / min
Reft, Med. Phys. 36(5), 1690-9, 2009
Q(t )/Q(1min)
Fading of signal with time Fading of signal with time  kt S ( t )
Fading of signal with time
Fading of signal with time
 kt
S ( t )
A
B e
Jursinic, Med. Phys. 34(12), 4594-4604, 2007
OSL dosimetry OSL dosimetry Ad Advan vanttages ages vs. disasaddvan vs. di vanttages ages Advantages Disadvanta
OSL dosimetry
OSL dosimetry
Ad
Advan
vanttages
ages vs. disasaddvan
vs. di
vanttages
ages
Advantages
Disadvanta es
g
High sensitivity
Sensitivity to light
High precision
Non-tissue equivalent – energy
S ze
i
dependence
Convenience
Only 1 material currently
Readout flexibility
available (only 1 provider)
Fast, non-destructive readout
Narrow stimulating beams may
could allow dose mapping
No significant fading - dose
storage
No need for annealing
Although it can be bleached
and re-used if needed*
Clinical dosimetry applications Clinical dosimetry applications • In phantom − PDD − ROF −IMRT QA •
Clinical dosimetry applications
Clinical dosimetry applications
• In phantom
− PDD
− ROF
−IMRT QA
• In vivo
−external beam (entrance, exit dose)
−brachytherapy
6060 Co relative output factor Co relative output factor Viamonte et al Med. Phys. 35(4), 1261-6,
6060
Co relative output factor
Co
relative output factor
Viamonte et al Med. Phys. 35(4), 1261-6, 2008
In vivo dosimetr In vivo dosimetryy J Danzer* et al AAPM 2007
In vivo dosimetr
In vivo dosimetryy
J Danzer* et al AAPM 2007
The small Al The small Al OO ::CC crystals crystals 22 33 M A n r
The small Al
The small Al OO ::CC crystals
crystals
22
33
M A n r
.
z a ,
Ph s
y .
Med Bi l
.
o .
49
,
1655–69 2004
,
courtesy of C. Andersen, Risø
Riso OSL Riso OSL--optical optical fibre fibre dosimetry dosimetry sys systtemem  τt OSL  
Riso OSL
Riso OSL--optical
optical fibre
fibre dosimetry
dosimetry
sys
systtemem
 τt
OSL
c
e
dt
 t
OSL
c
e
dt
Both RL and OSL signals are seen
on the computer screen
courtesy of C. Andersen, Risø
M. Aznar, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1655–69, 2004
In In -- vivo vivo measurements measurements for for aa bbrac rachhyt ythherapy erapy patient patient
In
In -- vivo
vivo measurements
measurements for
for
aa bbrac
rachhyt ythherapy
erapy patient
patient
• Cervix recurrence just above the vaginal wall
• Treated in 15 needles – OSL crystals in 2 needles
• 30 Gy delivered in 50 pulses over 50 hours
courtesy of C. Andersen, Risø
Stability of the Risø system Stability of the Risø system • OSL measured pulse dose between
Stability of the Risø system
Stability of the Risø system
• OSL measured pulse dose between each pulse
• RL signal integrated to give pulse dose
• TPS with +/- 1 mm uncertainty
courtesy of C. Andersen, Risø
Remote dosimetry application Remote dosimetry application • Recently evaluated by Radiological Physics Center (RPC) for remote
Remote dosimetry application
Remote dosimetry application
• Recently evaluated by Radiological Physics Center
(RPC) for remote dosimetry application
• OSL dosimeters were irradiated in an acrylic mini-
phantom
• Results indicated that the precision of OSL
dosimeters is comparable to that provided by
TLDs used for remote dosimetry
Summar Summaryy • OSLD have linear dose response and good reproducibility (screened) for standard clinical doses
Summar
Summaryy
• OSLD have linear dose response and good
reproducibility (screened) for standard clinical doses
• Minimal energy dependence in megavoltage photon
beams
• Suitable for accurate dosimetric measurements
– individual calibration factors
• Can be used in variety of clinical applications
– surface dose detectors
– entrance and exit dose measurements
– brachytherapy
– dose mapping
• Are suitable for remote dosimetry
Acknowledgements Acknowledgements • Claus Andersen, Risø National Laboratory • Cliff Yahnke, Landauer Inc.
Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
• Claus Andersen, Risø National Laboratory
• Cliff Yahnke, Landauer Inc.
Thank you Thank you
Thank you
Thank you
Energy dependence Energy dependence Al 2 O 3 :C Z eff =10.2 water Z eff =7.2
Energy dependence
Energy dependence
Al 2 O 3 :C
Z eff =10.2
water
Z eff =7.2
LMLM--OSL OSL readout method readout method Time (s) LM-OSL arbitrary u nits
LMLM--OSL
OSL readout method
readout method
Time (s)
LM-OSL arbitrary u nits