QUESTION 1 (50 Marks)
Aside from solar energy, what other alternative source of energy, (wind or wave or other sources) could be use in Singapore to lessen its dependency on fossil fuel. a) Evaluate the environmental impact of this alternative source. Describe the limiting factors for this source of energy. b) Supply the financial implication (e.g. payback period, taken into account interest charges) of this source of energy. Cite examples of other schemes where financial aspects are considered (Green incentives, etc) c) You are to cite and put in your references or sources. Prepare a 2000 words write-up for this question

QUESTION 2 (50 Marks)
Prepare a 2000 words write-up that discusses the implications of new innovations of information and control technology on electric power systems (i.e. Smart Grid).

With oil prices punching the US$100 price barrier in the month of November 2007, the topic of Alternative Energy has become more a reality to the Singapore government and us. As a start, Singapore unveiled a S$350 million blue print to drive Alternative Energy in the sectors-, of research and development, enhancing environmental sustainability, maintaining economic competitiveness, relevant energy usage, and attracting multi-nationals to set base in Singapore. With the set up of SINERGY at Fusionpolis and the latest $1.2 billion investment from Neste Oil Corporation (Finland), Singapore is on track to cultivating a greener city. We should hence play our part in reading more about the topic and also start to persuade each other to use Alternative Energy.

Pump and tanks for vehicles using biodiesel. Picture courtesy of NLB


Do we, as Singaporeans, really know what ‘ALTERNATIVE ENERGY’ is all about? What are its implications to the environment, economy, politics, and our future? Alternative energy, had been technologically immature and financially expensive, it has became a serious consideration in the world following many studies by global warming groups such as Ex-Vice president of the United States Mr. Al Gore. Oil prices punching through the US$100 price barrier in the month of November 2007, made this topic more relevant to your everyday economy



Singapore unveiled a S$350million blue print designed to ensure that Singapore would be a player in ASIA for the use of alternative energy sources. This initiative acts as a follow up from an initiative signed between ASEAN and six other nations that acknowledges the need to strengthen renewable energy development. PM Lee also said during that declaration that Singapore recognizes the potential for alternative and renewable energy, and believes the region has great potential for the development of biofuel and other types of renewable energies.

Source: Straits Times Singapore 27 March 2007

Source: Business Times Singapore 16 January 2007


As such, Singapore embarked herself into this journey with the recently published National Energy Policy Framework, which focuses on the need to maintain a balance between the policy objectives of economic competitiveness, energy security and environmental sustainability. SINERGY a state of the art research facility and Gardens by the Bay’s solar modules and wind turbines setup are some of the R&D initiatives focused in the policy. The policy also includes projects such as the E2PO program. You can gather some of the other initiatives by the Singapore Government in table1


Source: Source: E2PO Energy Efficiency Programme Office


The National Environmental Agency (NEA) also compiled an updated list of the renewable energies installations in Singapore. Singapore’s unique strategic approach till date brought together a start to attracting many commercial investors to follow suit. With bank interests and the rising oil prices to the new alternative energy index, banks such as Qatar’s-Doha bank, to Citigroup and Pictet Asset Management are now banking on green investments. AES AgriVerde (a US based utilities giant), plans to invest US$100million in South East Asia targeted at projects that are based on alternative energy.

Source: renewables.shtm

Source: Business Times Singapore 7 September 2007 Source: Business Times Singapore 6 April 2007 and 28 November 2007 respectively Source: Business Times Singapore 24 September 2007


Closer to home, more diesel cars may hit the road, a joint collaboration between Germany’s VW and MTI-Singapore. Most recently, Finnish company Neste Oil Corporation is investing approximately ($1.17billion) to build a plant here to produce 800,000 tonnes of renewable diesel a year. Quoting from Singapore Business Times – 9 May 2007, PM LeeSingapore is keen to move into the fast-growing alternative energy business, he said.’ I want to see how they saw it from the industry and from the point of view of venture funds, taking a very close interest in the green technology that has suddenly expanded over the past couple of years, and (see) how we can fit into this, whether we can persuade some of them to come to Singapore.’

Source: Business Times Singapore 29 September 2007

Source: weekend TODAY Singapore 01 December 2007

Source: Business Times Singapore 9 May 2007


The government efforts in response to rising oil prices and its search for energy security must also be complimented by efforts from the general public. Understanding the topic of Alternative energy should hence be a good start for you to help in contributing to Alternative energy usages in Singapore.

1. 2. 3.

Scott Victor Valentine (2007) National University of Singapore: Reframing Global Warming: Toward a Strategic National Planning Framework. Paula Berinstein (2001): Alternative Energy Facts, Statistics, and Issues. Oryx Press (Call no. Rq333.794BER). News release – Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 30 Mar 2007, Inaugural energy workshop (2 Apr 07) attracts international experts to speak on Smart Energy Distribution and to access local R&D potential.

4. 5.

1. 2. 3.

Factiva EBSCO host ProQuest Science journals


S$1.2b investment for biodiesel – weekend TODAY 01-12-07. Crude oil at a defining moment in history – Business Times Singapore 29-11-07. Goggle unveils its green dreams – Today Singapore 29-11-07. R&D centre for clean energy launched – Business Times Singapore 27-11-07. ASEAN to promote nuclear energy, solar power – MSN news – Agence France-Presse 13-11-07. Singapore sets aside S$170million for clean energy research – Channel News Asia 06-11-2007. New body to coordinate efforts to improve energy efficiency – Straits Times Singapore 31-10-2007.


Recommended Books 1) Global Warming
A) Chang, C.C., Mendelsohn, R. and Shaw, D. (2003). Global warming & the Asian Pacific. Cheltenham, UK: Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Call Number: R 363.73874095 GLO Hillman, M. (2007). The suicidal planet: how to prevent global planet catastrophe. New York, N.Y.: St. Martin's Press. Call Number: R363.73874 HIL Brown, P. (2006). Global warming: the last chance for change. London: A &C Black Guardian Books. Call Number: R 363.73874 BRO

2) Alternative Energy
A) Berinstein, P. (2001). Alternative energy: facts, statistics, and issues Westport, CT: Oryx Press. Call Number: R q333.794 BER Lee, S. (2007). Handbook of alternative fuel technologies Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis. Call Number: R 662.6LEE Walisiewicz, M. (2002). Alternative energy London: Dorling Kindersley, 2002. Call Number: R 333.794 WAL







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