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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072


1University College of Engineering and Technology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, A.P,INDIA.

2,3,4Asst.Professor, University College of Engineering and Technology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, A.P,INDIA.


Abstract: Rotations of the Blades will be subjected to where it expands down to the exhaust pressure, producing
a shaft work output in the process. Compressed air is
vibrations. If this frequency of vibration of the blade produced by the Low pressure and High pressure
approaches the external excitation frequency, blades will be Compressor in various stages. Each stage comprises of
subjected to resonance. External Excitations are mainly due blades arranged on a rotor. These blades will be subjected
to the disturbances, upstream and downstream rotor and to Centrifugal forces because of the rotations of the Rotor
stator counts. A Gas turbine will be operating at certain wheel.
predefined speeds. Resonance if exists at this speed causes
blades to vibrate with max amplitude .These high amplitude 2. System assumption and simulation
vibrations cause the blade to fail by High Cycle Fatigue .Hence
the challenge in design of the blades is to find the frequency at
which the resonance exists .To build a 360degree Rotor blade 2.1. Turbine blade materials
model in Finite Element Analysis with required degree of
accuracy and analysis is very difficult as it involves high Advancements made in the field of materials have
configuration systems .More over the time consumption for contributed in a major way in building gas turbine engines
the analysis of a 360 degree model is high. To overcome this with higher power ratings and efficiency levels.
in the present analysis , concept called as "Cyclic symmetry Improvements in design of the gas turbine engines over the
Analysis" is utilized. The advantage of cyclic symmetry can be years have importantly been due to development of
utilized only in the case of models which possess symmetry in materials with enhanced performance levels. Gas turbines
terms of the axis. In the initial phase Cyclic Symmetry have been widely utilized in air craft engines as well as for
Analysis Validation is performed with coarse mesh on the 360 land based applications importantly for power generation
degree model. Pre-stress Modal analysis is a another .Advancements in gas turbine materials have always
conceptulised in the present analysis to find out the frequency played a prime role higher the capability of the materials
of the blade under various conditions of speeds. to with stand elevated temperature service, more the
engine efficiency materials with high elevated temperature
Key words: Gasturbine blade, materials, modeling, strength to weight ratio help in weight reduction. A wide
structural analysis, frequency spectrum of high performance materials special steels,
titanium alloys and super alloys-is used for construction of
gas turbines The material available limits the turbine entry
1. Introduction: temperature (TET). The properties required are as follows
(a) tensile strength (b) resistance to high frequency
A Gas Turbine is an internal combustion engine that uses vibration fatigue stresses (b) resistance to high frequency
air as the working fluid. The engine extracts chemical vibration fatigue stresses
energy from fuel and converts it to mechanical energy
using the gaseous energy of the working fluid (air) to drive 2.2 StainlessSteelAlloy
the engine and propeller, which in turn propels the air
plane. Gas turbine operates on the principle of Brayton or In spite of this there is a group of iron-base alloys, the iron-
Joule cycle where fresh atmospheric air flows through a chromium-nickel alloys known as stainless steels, which do
Compressor that brings it to higher pressure. Energy is not rust in sea water, are resistant to concentrated acids
then added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting it so and which do not scale at temperatures upto1100C.It is
that the combustion generates a high-temperature flow. this largely unique universal usefulness, in combination
This high-temperature high-pressure gas enters a turbine, with good mechanical properties and manufacturing

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2240
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

characteristics, which gives the stainless steels their raison the point where scores of companies in some 35 countries
determined. Makes the main dispensable tool for the are melting aluminum and thousands more are
designer. The usage of stainless steel is small compared manufacturing the many end products to which aluminum
with that of carbon steels but exhibits a steady growth, in is so well suited. Alloy A380(ANSI/AAA380.0) is by far the
contrast to the constructional steels. Stainless steels as a most widely cast of the aluminum die-casting alloys,
group is perhaps more heterogeneous than the offering the best combination of material properties and
constructional steels, and their properties are in many ease of production. It may be specified for most
cases relatively un familiar to the designer. In some ways product applications. Aluminum Alloys use in
stainless steels are an un explored world but to take Electrical Conductors, Transport, Packaging, and High
advantage of these materials will require an increased Pressure Gas Cylinders.
understanding of their basic properties.
3. Finite Element Method
2.3. Titanium Alloy
The finite element method(FEM) has now become a very
These titanium alloys are mainly used for important tool of engineering analysis. Its versality is
substituting materials for hard tissues. Fracture of the reflected in its popularity among engineers and designers
alloys is therefore one of the big problems for their belonging to nearly all the engineering disciplines Whether
reliable use in the body. The fracture characteristics of a civil engineer designing bridges, dams or mechanical
the alloys are affected by changes in micro structure. engineers designing, auto engines, rolling mills.
Therefore their fracture characteristics including tensile
and fatigue characteristics should be clearly understood
with respect to micro structures. The fracture Table1: properties of materials
characteristics in the simulated body environmental
Properties Units Titaniu Stai Aluminu
obedientified. because the alloys are used as bio medical
materials. The effect of living body environment on the m Alloy n m
mechanical properties is also very important to less Alloy
understand. Steel
Fracture characteristics of the alloys are affected
by changes in micro structure. Therefore their fracture
Density kg/m3 470 8025 2725
characteristics, including tensile and fatigue 0
characteristics should be clearly understood with respect Thermal W/m 10 33.5 180
to micro structures. The fracture characteristics in the
simulated body environment also be identified because Coefficien /0C 8.8 14.5 23.3
the alloys are used as bio medical materials. The effect of t of
living body environment on the mechanical properties is thermal
also very important to understand. Specific J/kg. 544 448 880
Alpha Structure (Alloy): with alpha stabilizer heat
elements present, these alloys possess excellent creep Modules G Pa 205 200 70
resistance. They are also used largely in cryogenic of
Alpha Beta Structure (Alloy): this group contains Poisson 0.31 0.3 0.3
both alpha and beta stabilizer elements. This is the largest ratio .
group in the aero space industry.
Melting u 0C 1649 1451 565
Beta Structure (Alloy): with beta stabilizers this group point
has high harden ability and high strength, but also a higher Ultimate M 1000 1050 1470
density. Titanium alloys use in aero engines, Automotive, Stress Pa
Air frames and road transport, Dental alloys, geo thermal
plant, Marine and Military hardware. 3.1. Finite Element Method General Procedure
2.3 Aluminum Alloy The following steps summarize finite element analysis
The production of primary aluminum is a young procedure
industry-just over 100 years old. But it has developed to

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

STEP1: The over all equilibrium relations between the

total stiffness matrix K, the total force vector R, and the
The continuum is a physical body structure or solid being node displacement vector for the entire body can be
analyzed. Discretization may be simply described as the expressed as
process by which the given body is sub divided into an
equivalent system of finite elements. The finite elements {K} {r} ={R}
May be triangles group of triangles or quadrilaterals for a
two dimensional continuum. The collection of the elements STEP5
is called finite element mesh. The elements are connected
The algebraic equations assembled in step4 are solved for
to each other at points called nodes. The choice of element
unknown displacements. In linear equilibrium problems,
type, number of elements and density of elements depend
this is a relatively straight forward application of matrix
on the geometry of the domain, the problem to be analyzed
algebraic techniques.

The selection of the displacement models represents In this the element strains and stress are
approximately the actual distribution of the computed from the nodal displacements.
displacement. The three inter related factors, which
influence the selection of a displacement models are 3.2 MESH200ElementDescription:
1.The type and degree of displacement models MESH200 is a "mesh-only" element, contributing nothing
to the solution. This element can be used for the following
2.Displacement magnitudes and types of operations:

3.The requirement to be satisfied which ensuring correct Multi step meshing operations, such as extrusion, that
solution require a lower dimensionality mesh be used for the
creation of a higher dimensionality mesh. Line-meshing
in2-D or 3-D space with or without mid side nodes, Area-
meshing or volume-meshing in3-D space with triangles,
STEP3: quadrilaterals ,Diameters i.e from0to3ND,30ND and
frequencies and mode shapes of the entire structure for a
The derivation of the stiffness matrix that user-prescribed range of nodal diameters using the model
consists of the coefficients of the equilibrium equations of a single sector. We can also perform Linear buckling
derived from the material and geometric properties of an analysis using this technique. Cyclic symmetry is
element. The stiffness relates the displacement at nodal implemented in ANSYS by defining constraint
points to the applied forces at nodal points by the relationships between the high and low edges of the basic
following equation sector. The basic sector is used twice to satisfy the
required constraint relationship. The definition of the
[K]{q} ={F} constraint equations depends on the "harmonic index"
specified. The relationship between harmonic index, k,
[K]- Stiffness matrix and nodal diameter, d, for a model consisting of n sectors

{F}-Force vector

{q}-Nodal displacement vector For example, if there are 7 sectors (n = 7) and we specify k
= 2, ANSYS will obtain the solution for nodal diameters 2,
STEP4 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, . . .
Assembly of the algebraic equation for the over all A turbine bladed disk has many natural frequencies and
discretized continuum includes the assembly of the over all associated mode shapes. In the case of a bladed disk, the
stiffness matrix for the entire body from individual element mode shapes have been described as nodal diameters. The
stiffness matrices and the overall global load vector from term nodal diameter is derived from the appearance of a
the elemental load vectors. The most commonly used circular geometry, like a disk, vibrating in a certain mode.
technique was direct stiffness method. Mode shapes contain lines of zero out-of-plane

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2242
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

displacement which cross the entire disk. These are Table 2: points of the air foil shape
commonly called nodal diameters. Hence the natural
frequency and nodal diameter are required to describe a
bladed disk mode. This implies that all the frequencies
which match doesn't lead to Resonance

In the preprocessor Module and modeling section

1. Data points are imported in to Ansys by keeping the
global coordinate system as the active coordinate system
as shown in below figure(Step1)
Preprocessor Create Key points In Active
Coordinate System
2. Created Data points are connected by using the splines
to form a closed loop of curves as shown in below
Preprocessor Create Spines Spline Thru KPs
3. Created splines are connected to form areas
Preprocessor Create Areas Arbitrary Thru Key
4. Created Blade profile(area) is extruded to a length of
117mm to create solid blade
5.Base of the Airfoil is then extruded in the other direction
to create rotor wheel so that a cyclic symmetry sector with
Fig 1:mesh200 geometry a sector angle of 9 degree.

3.3 Geometric Modeling

Airfoil profile is based on the performance of the
compressor. Data points are provided for the cross
section of the Airfoil. Data points are then connected by
using the splines and then joined to form the areas in
ansys. Following are the data points considered for the
airfoil profile.

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Fig 2: Blade Shape

Resonance can exist in a structure because of the following
reasons Fig 3: Single blade with rotor cyclic wheel
1. When the exciting frequency is equal to the natural
frequency of the vibrating structure.
2. When the excitation source and the vibrating structure
are in same phase." Phase angle " is also very important in
the vibration of the cyclic symmetry components. If the
phase angle for the external vibrating source and the
vibrating component are out of phase, resonance doesn't
occur even though natural frequency and the external
frequency of both the structures coincide.

Fig 4 : Rotor wheel with blades

Hence it is important to find the phase of vibration. In case
of Cyclic structures Nodal Diameter plays an important
role. Tetra hedra, or bricks, with or without mid side nodes.
Temporary storage of elements when the analysis physics
has not yet been specified. Mesh 200 may be used in
conjunction with any other analysis element types .after it is no
longer needed, it can be deleted (cleared),or can be left in place.

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

its presence will not affect solution results.mesh200 elements

can be changed into other element types using modify.
3.6 Frequency Margins and Campbell Diagrams
3.4 Description of Camp bell Diagram
A Campbell diagram is the most traditional way of
Table3: Frequency for Nodal Diameter 0-
finding the interference margin between the natural
frequency and the external excitation frequency. It is
usually constructed by taking the Speed along the X-axis
and Frequency (Hz) on the Y-Axis. Speed lines are plotted
as vertical lines on the Campbell. Mode shapes and
excitation lines are plotted as the Campbell for the
complete speed range. In the present analysis Campbell
diagrams are constructed for all the Nodal diameters
3.5 Mode Shapes Considered for Campbell

Fig 5: mode shapes

Fig 7: frequency for nodal diameter 0

Fig 6: mode shapes

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Table 4: frequency for nodal diameter 1

fig 8 :frequency for nodal diameter 1

fig9: frequency for nodal diameter2

Table 5: frequency for nodal diameter2

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

3.7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 7.Sarlashkar A. V. and Lam T- C. T., Blade and Root
Attachment Evaluation Low- Cycle Fatigue Estimates Based
From the above analysis results for the various on Probabilistic Approach, AS ME Internationa1 Joint
nodal diameters, it is observed that all the fundamental Power Generation Conference, 1996, v.2, pp. 5 1 1 - 5 16.
modes are having good margins. 1st Bending mode is 8.Srivastav S. and Redding M., 30 modeling of imperfect
having less margin when compared to the 1st Torsion, 2nd contact conditions between turbine blades and disk,
Bending and 2nd Torsion. Also it is observed that both of the Advances in Steam Turbine Technology for the Power
considered materials are providing good margins for all the Generation Industry: ASME International Joint Power
fundamental modes. Hence any one of the material may be Generation Conference, 1994, v.26, pp. 197 - 204.
considered from the vibration safety of the blade. 9.Durelli A. J. and Mey W. F., Experimental Stress Analysis,
Excitations with difference in the upstream and McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1979.
downstream counts may also be considered for the Camp 10.Durelli A. J., Dally J. W., and Mey W. F., Stress and
bells. 1st Bending mode margin may also be improved by strength studies on turbine blade attachments, Proceedings
changing the airfoil shape without losing its efficiency if of the Society for Experimental Stress Analysis, 1958, X.
required by the manufacturer. VI,n.l,pp. 171 - 186.
Blade may also be analyzed for any of the speeds by using
the ANSYS APDL code developed. 11.UchinoK., KarniyarnaT.,InamuraT., Sirnokohge K., Aono
LCF analysis may be performed on the blade by using the H.. andKawashirna T., Uzree-Dimensional Photoelastic
same cyclic symmetry model for the blade. Mesh Analysis of Aeroengine Rotary Parts, Photoelasticity:
convergence can be easily achieved with the sector model Proceedings of the International Symposium on
as the model size will be less when compared to the 360 Photoelasticity, Springer Verlag, New York, 1986, pp. 209 -
degree model. Also the stress concentration factor can be 214.
found by using the stress linearization principle. Various
materials may be tested on the same sector model by
developing a code which reduces the analysis time and
leads to an optimized model from.

ANSYS 11.0 Theory Reference, ANSYS Corporation, 2007
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2.William J. Palm Mechanical Vibration Wiley ISBN 0-
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3.John M. Vance Rotor dynamics of Turbo machinary
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9780471802587, 1988
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Yoshiki K., and Seigo I, Root and Groove Contact Analysis
for Steam Turbine Blades, Japan Society of Mechanical
Engineers International Journal, 1992, Series 1: Solid
Mechanics and Strength of Materials, v. 35, No. 4, pp. 508 -
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