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Jun 10, 2017

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Design and Modal Analysis of Turbine Compressor Blade

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Design and Modal Analysis of Turbine Compressor Blade

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P.ANILKUMAR1, P.NARENDRAMOHAN2, MD.TOUSEEFAHMAD3,B.PURNACHANDRASEKHAR4

1University College of Engineering and Technology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, A.P,INDIA.

2,3,4Asst.Professor, University College of Engineering and Technology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, A.P,INDIA.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract: Rotations of the Blades will be subjected to where it expands down to the exhaust pressure, producing

a shaft work output in the process. Compressed air is

vibrations. If this frequency of vibration of the blade produced by the Low pressure and High pressure

approaches the external excitation frequency, blades will be Compressor in various stages. Each stage comprises of

subjected to resonance. External Excitations are mainly due blades arranged on a rotor. These blades will be subjected

to the disturbances, upstream and downstream rotor and to Centrifugal forces because of the rotations of the Rotor

stator counts. A Gas turbine will be operating at certain wheel.

predefined speeds. Resonance if exists at this speed causes

blades to vibrate with max amplitude .These high amplitude 2. System assumption and simulation

vibrations cause the blade to fail by High Cycle Fatigue .Hence

the challenge in design of the blades is to find the frequency at

which the resonance exists .To build a 360degree Rotor blade 2.1. Turbine blade materials

model in Finite Element Analysis with required degree of

accuracy and analysis is very difficult as it involves high Advancements made in the field of materials have

configuration systems .More over the time consumption for contributed in a major way in building gas turbine engines

the analysis of a 360 degree model is high. To overcome this with higher power ratings and efficiency levels.

in the present analysis , concept called as "Cyclic symmetry Improvements in design of the gas turbine engines over the

Analysis" is utilized. The advantage of cyclic symmetry can be years have importantly been due to development of

utilized only in the case of models which possess symmetry in materials with enhanced performance levels. Gas turbines

terms of the axis. In the initial phase Cyclic Symmetry have been widely utilized in air craft engines as well as for

Analysis Validation is performed with coarse mesh on the 360 land based applications importantly for power generation

degree model. Pre-stress Modal analysis is a another .Advancements in gas turbine materials have always

conceptulised in the present analysis to find out the frequency played a prime role higher the capability of the materials

of the blade under various conditions of speeds. to with stand elevated temperature service, more the

engine efficiency materials with high elevated temperature

Key words: Gasturbine blade, materials, modeling, strength to weight ratio help in weight reduction. A wide

structural analysis, frequency spectrum of high performance materials special steels,

titanium alloys and super alloys-is used for construction of

gas turbines The material available limits the turbine entry

1. Introduction: temperature (TET). The properties required are as follows

(a) tensile strength (b) resistance to high frequency

A Gas Turbine is an internal combustion engine that uses vibration fatigue stresses (b) resistance to high frequency

air as the working fluid. The engine extracts chemical vibration fatigue stresses

energy from fuel and converts it to mechanical energy

using the gaseous energy of the working fluid (air) to drive 2.2 StainlessSteelAlloy

the engine and propeller, which in turn propels the air

plane. Gas turbine operates on the principle of Brayton or In spite of this there is a group of iron-base alloys, the iron-

Joule cycle where fresh atmospheric air flows through a chromium-nickel alloys known as stainless steels, which do

Compressor that brings it to higher pressure. Energy is not rust in sea water, are resistant to concentrated acids

then added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting it so and which do not scale at temperatures upto1100C.It is

that the combustion generates a high-temperature flow. this largely unique universal usefulness, in combination

This high-temperature high-pressure gas enters a turbine, with good mechanical properties and manufacturing

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2240

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

characteristics, which gives the stainless steels their raison the point where scores of companies in some 35 countries

determined. Makes the main dispensable tool for the are melting aluminum and thousands more are

designer. The usage of stainless steel is small compared manufacturing the many end products to which aluminum

with that of carbon steels but exhibits a steady growth, in is so well suited. Alloy A380(ANSI/AAA380.0) is by far the

contrast to the constructional steels. Stainless steels as a most widely cast of the aluminum die-casting alloys,

group is perhaps more heterogeneous than the offering the best combination of material properties and

constructional steels, and their properties are in many ease of production. It may be specified for most

cases relatively un familiar to the designer. In some ways product applications. Aluminum Alloys use in

stainless steels are an un explored world but to take Electrical Conductors, Transport, Packaging, and High

advantage of these materials will require an increased Pressure Gas Cylinders.

understanding of their basic properties.

3. Finite Element Method

2.3. Titanium Alloy

The finite element method(FEM) has now become a very

These titanium alloys are mainly used for important tool of engineering analysis. Its versality is

substituting materials for hard tissues. Fracture of the reflected in its popularity among engineers and designers

alloys is therefore one of the big problems for their belonging to nearly all the engineering disciplines Whether

reliable use in the body. The fracture characteristics of a civil engineer designing bridges, dams or mechanical

the alloys are affected by changes in micro structure. engineers designing, auto engines, rolling mills.

Therefore their fracture characteristics including tensile

and fatigue characteristics should be clearly understood

with respect to micro structures. The fracture Table1: properties of materials

characteristics in the simulated body environmental

Properties Units Titaniu Stai Aluminu

obedientified. because the alloys are used as bio medical

materials. The effect of living body environment on the m Alloy n m

mechanical properties is also very important to less Alloy

understand. Steel

Fracture characteristics of the alloys are affected

by changes in micro structure. Therefore their fracture

Density kg/m3 470 8025 2725

characteristics, including tensile and fatigue 0

characteristics should be clearly understood with respect Thermal W/m 10 33.5 180

to micro structures. The fracture characteristics in the

simulated body environment also be identified because Coefficien /0C 8.8 14.5 23.3

the alloys are used as bio medical materials. The effect of t of

living body environment on the mechanical properties is thermal

also very important to understand. Specific J/kg. 544 448 880

Alpha Structure (Alloy): with alpha stabilizer heat

elements present, these alloys possess excellent creep Modules G Pa 205 200 70

resistance. They are also used largely in cryogenic of

applications.

elasticity

Alpha Beta Structure (Alloy): this group contains Poisson 0.31 0.3 0.3

both alpha and beta stabilizer elements. This is the largest ratio .

group in the aero space industry.

Melting u 0C 1649 1451 565

Beta Structure (Alloy): with beta stabilizers this group point

has high harden ability and high strength, but also a higher Ultimate M 1000 1050 1470

density. Titanium alloys use in aero engines, Automotive, Stress Pa

Air frames and road transport, Dental alloys, geo thermal

plant, Marine and Military hardware. 3.1. Finite Element Method General Procedure

2.3 Aluminum Alloy The following steps summarize finite element analysis

The production of primary aluminum is a young procedure

industry-just over 100 years old. But it has developed to

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2241

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

total stiffness matrix K, the total force vector R, and the

The continuum is a physical body structure or solid being node displacement vector for the entire body can be

analyzed. Discretization may be simply described as the expressed as

process by which the given body is sub divided into an

equivalent system of finite elements. The finite elements {K} {r} ={R}

May be triangles group of triangles or quadrilaterals for a

two dimensional continuum. The collection of the elements STEP5

is called finite element mesh. The elements are connected

The algebraic equations assembled in step4 are solved for

to each other at points called nodes. The choice of element

unknown displacements. In linear equilibrium problems,

type, number of elements and density of elements depend

this is a relatively straight forward application of matrix

on the geometry of the domain, the problem to be analyzed

algebraic techniques.

STEP2:

STEP6

The selection of the displacement models represents In this the element strains and stress are

approximately the actual distribution of the computed from the nodal displacements.

displacement. The three inter related factors, which

influence the selection of a displacement models are 3.2 MESH200ElementDescription:

1.The type and degree of displacement models MESH200 is a "mesh-only" element, contributing nothing

to the solution. This element can be used for the following

2.Displacement magnitudes and types of operations:

3.The requirement to be satisfied which ensuring correct Multi step meshing operations, such as extrusion, that

solution require a lower dimensionality mesh be used for the

creation of a higher dimensionality mesh. Line-meshing

in2-D or 3-D space with or without mid side nodes, Area-

meshing or volume-meshing in3-D space with triangles,

STEP3: quadrilaterals ,Diameters i.e from0to3ND,30ND and

frequencies and mode shapes of the entire structure for a

The derivation of the stiffness matrix that user-prescribed range of nodal diameters using the model

consists of the coefficients of the equilibrium equations of a single sector. We can also perform Linear buckling

derived from the material and geometric properties of an analysis using this technique. Cyclic symmetry is

element. The stiffness relates the displacement at nodal implemented in ANSYS by defining constraint

points to the applied forces at nodal points by the relationships between the high and low edges of the basic

following equation sector. The basic sector is used twice to satisfy the

required constraint relationship. The definition of the

[K]{q} ={F} constraint equations depends on the "harmonic index"

specified. The relationship between harmonic index, k,

[K]- Stiffness matrix and nodal diameter, d, for a model consisting of n sectors

{F}-Force vector

{q}-Nodal displacement vector For example, if there are 7 sectors (n = 7) and we specify k

= 2, ANSYS will obtain the solution for nodal diameters 2,

STEP4 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, . . .

Assembly of the algebraic equation for the over all A turbine bladed disk has many natural frequencies and

discretized continuum includes the assembly of the over all associated mode shapes. In the case of a bladed disk, the

stiffness matrix for the entire body from individual element mode shapes have been described as nodal diameters. The

stiffness matrices and the overall global load vector from term nodal diameter is derived from the appearance of a

the elemental load vectors. The most commonly used circular geometry, like a disk, vibrating in a certain mode.

technique was direct stiffness method. Mode shapes contain lines of zero out-of-plane

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2242

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

displacement which cross the entire disk. These are Table 2: points of the air foil shape

commonly called nodal diameters. Hence the natural

frequency and nodal diameter are required to describe a

bladed disk mode. This implies that all the frequencies

which match doesn't lead to Resonance

1. Data points are imported in to Ansys by keeping the

global coordinate system as the active coordinate system

as shown in below figure(Step1)

Preprocessor Create Key points In Active

Coordinate System

2. Created Data points are connected by using the splines

to form a closed loop of curves as shown in below

figure(Step2)

Preprocessor Create Spines Spline Thru KPs

3. Created splines are connected to form areas

Preprocessor Create Areas Arbitrary Thru Key

points.

4. Created Blade profile(area) is extruded to a length of

117mm to create solid blade

5.Base of the Airfoil is then extruded in the other direction

to create rotor wheel so that a cyclic symmetry sector with

Fig 1:mesh200 geometry a sector angle of 9 degree.

Airfoil profile is based on the performance of the

compressor. Data points are provided for the cross

section of the Airfoil. Data points are then connected by

using the splines and then joined to form the areas in

ansys. Following are the data points considered for the

airfoil profile.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2243

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Resonance can exist in a structure because of the following

reasons Fig 3: Single blade with rotor cyclic wheel

1. When the exciting frequency is equal to the natural

frequency of the vibrating structure.

2. When the excitation source and the vibrating structure

are in same phase." Phase angle " is also very important in

the vibration of the cyclic symmetry components. If the

phase angle for the external vibrating source and the

vibrating component are out of phase, resonance doesn't

occur even though natural frequency and the external

frequency of both the structures coincide.

Hence it is important to find the phase of vibration. In case

of Cyclic structures Nodal Diameter plays an important

role. Tetra hedra, or bricks, with or without mid side nodes.

Temporary storage of elements when the analysis physics

has not yet been specified. Mesh 200 may be used in

conjunction with any other analysis element types .after it is no

longer needed, it can be deleted (cleared),or can be left in place.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2244

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

can be changed into other element types using modify.

3.6 Frequency Margins and Campbell Diagrams

3.4 Description of Camp bell Diagram

A Campbell diagram is the most traditional way of

Table3: Frequency for Nodal Diameter 0-

finding the interference margin between the natural

frequency and the external excitation frequency. It is

INCONEL720

usually constructed by taking the Speed along the X-axis

and Frequency (Hz) on the Y-Axis. Speed lines are plotted

as vertical lines on the Campbell. Mode shapes and

excitation lines are plotted as the Campbell for the

complete speed range. In the present analysis Campbell

diagrams are constructed for all the Nodal diameters

0,1,2.

3.5 Mode Shapes Considered for Campbell

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2245

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

fig9: frequency for nodal diameter2

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2246

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

3.7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 7.Sarlashkar A. V. and Lam T- C. T., Blade and Root

Attachment Evaluation Low- Cycle Fatigue Estimates Based

From the above analysis results for the various on Probabilistic Approach, AS ME Internationa1 Joint

nodal diameters, it is observed that all the fundamental Power Generation Conference, 1996, v.2, pp. 5 1 1 - 5 16.

modes are having good margins. 1st Bending mode is 8.Srivastav S. and Redding M., 30 modeling of imperfect

having less margin when compared to the 1st Torsion, 2nd contact conditions between turbine blades and disk,

Bending and 2nd Torsion. Also it is observed that both of the Advances in Steam Turbine Technology for the Power

considered materials are providing good margins for all the Generation Industry: ASME International Joint Power

fundamental modes. Hence any one of the material may be Generation Conference, 1994, v.26, pp. 197 - 204.

considered from the vibration safety of the blade. 9.Durelli A. J. and Mey W. F., Experimental Stress Analysis,

Excitations with difference in the upstream and McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1979.

downstream counts may also be considered for the Camp 10.Durelli A. J., Dally J. W., and Mey W. F., Stress and

bells. 1st Bending mode margin may also be improved by strength studies on turbine blade attachments, Proceedings

changing the airfoil shape without losing its efficiency if of the Society for Experimental Stress Analysis, 1958, X.

required by the manufacturer. VI,n.l,pp. 171 - 186.

Blade may also be analyzed for any of the speeds by using

the ANSYS APDL code developed. 11.UchinoK., KarniyarnaT.,InamuraT., Sirnokohge K., Aono

LCF analysis may be performed on the blade by using the H.. andKawashirna T., Uzree-Dimensional Photoelastic

same cyclic symmetry model for the blade. Mesh Analysis of Aeroengine Rotary Parts, Photoelasticity:

convergence can be easily achieved with the sector model Proceedings of the International Symposium on

as the model size will be less when compared to the 360 Photoelasticity, Springer Verlag, New York, 1986, pp. 209 -

degree model. Also the stress concentration factor can be 214.

found by using the stress linearization principle. Various

materials may be tested on the same sector model by

developing a code which reduces the analysis time and

leads to an optimized model from.

REFERENCES:

ANSYS 11.0 Theory Reference, ANSYS Corporation, 2007

1.Chan S. K. and Tuba 1. S., A Finite Element method for

Contact Problems of Solid Bodies - Part II: Applications to

Turbine Blade Fastenings, International Journal of

Mechanical Science, 1971, v. 13, pp. 627-639.

2.William J. Palm Mechanical Vibration Wiley ISBN 0-

471-34555-5, 2004

3.John M. Vance Rotor dynamics of Turbo machinary

Wiley ISBN-13:

9780471802587, 1988

4.Zboinski G., Finite element computer program for

incremental analysis of large three dimensional frictional

contact problems of linear elasticity, Computers and

Structures, 1993, v.46, n.4, pp. 679 - 687.

5.Masataka M.,Yasutomo K., Thom K.,Katsuhisa F.,

Yoshiki K., and Seigo I, Root and Groove Contact Analysis

for Steam Turbine Blades, Japan Society of Mechanical

Engineers International Journal, 1992, Series 1: Solid

Mechanics and Strength of Materials, v. 35, No. 4, pp. 508 -

5 14.

6.Zboinski G., Physical and geometrical non-linearities in

contact problems of elastic turbine blade attachments,

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers:

Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 1995,

v.209, N. C4, pp. 273 - 286.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2247

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