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Physics 2

Physics 2

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You are on page 1of 55

Room 413

E-mail : dxhoi@hcmiu.edu.vn

PHYSICS 2

(FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS)

02 credits (30 periods)

Chapter 1 Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 2 Heat, Temperature and the Zeroth

Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 3 Heat, Work and the First Law of

Thermodynamics

Chapter 4 The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Chapter 5 Entropy and the Second Law of

Thermodynamics

References :

Halliday D., Resnick R. and Walker, J. (2005),

Fundamentals of Physics, Extended seventh edition.

John Willey and Sons, Inc.

Alonso M. and Finn E.J. (1992). Physics, Addison-Wesley

Publishing Company

Hecht, E. (2000). Physics. Calculus, Second Edition.

Brooks/Cole.

Faughn/Serway (2006), Serways College Physics,

Brooks/Cole.

Roger Muncaster (1994), A-Level Physics, Stanley

Thornes.

http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/index.htm

http://www.opensourcephysics.org/index.html

http://hyperphysics.phy-

astr.gsu.edu/hbase/HFrame.html

http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Default.ht

ml

http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/

http://www.iop.org/index.html

.

.

.

Chapter 1 Fluid Mechanics

2. Fluid Dynamics

3. Bernoullis Equation

Question

What is a fluid?

1. A liquid

2. A gas

3. Anything that flows

4. Anything that can be made to

change shape.

States of matter: Phase Transitions

Add Add

heat heat

These are three states of matter

(plasma is another one)

States of Matter

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Plasma

States of Matter

Solid

Has definite volume

Has definite shape

Molecules are held in specific

location by electrical forces and

vibrate about equilibrium positions

Can be modeled as springs

connecting molecules

Liquid

Gas

Plasma

States of Matter

Solid

Crystalline solid

Atoms have an ordered structure

Example is salt (red spheres are

Na+ ions, blue spheres represent Cl-

ions)

Amorphous Solid

Atoms are arranged randomly

Examples include glass

Liquid

Gas

Plasma

States of Matter

Solid

Liquid

Has a definite volume

No definite shape Random motion

Exist at a higher temperature than solids

The molecules wander through the liquid in a

random fashion

The intermolecular forces are not strong

enough to keep the molecules in a fixed

position

Gas

Plasma

States of Matter

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Has no definite volume

Has no definite shape

Molecules are in constant random motion

The molecules exert only weak forces on each

other

Average distance between molecules is large

compared to the size of the molecules

Plasma

States of Matter

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Plasma

Matter heated to a very high temperature

Many of the electrons are freed from the nucleus

Result is a collection of free, electrically charged ions

Plasmas exist inside stars or experimental reactors or

fluorescent light bulbs!

For more information:

http://fusedweb.pppl.gov/CPEP/Chart_Pages/4.CreatingConditions.html

Is there a concept that helps to distinguish between

those states of matter?

Density

The density of a substance of uniform composition is defined as its

mass per unit volume:

4

V sphere R 3

m some examples: 3

Vcylinder R 2h

V

Vcube a 3

Object is denser Density is greater

The densities of most liquids and solids vary slightly with changes

in temperature and pressure

Densities of gases vary greatly with changes in temperature and

pressure (and generally 1000 smaller)

Units

SI kg/m3

CGS g/cm3 (1 g/cm3=1000

kg/m3 )

Pressure

Pressure of fluid is the

ratio of the force exerted

by a fluid on a submerged

object to area

F

P

A

Units

SI Pascal (Pa=N/m2)

1. Variation of Pressure with Depth

1.1 Pressure and Depth

If a fluid is at rest in a container,

all portions of the fluid must be in

static equilibrium

All points at the same depth must

be at the same pressure

(otherwise, the fluid would not be

in equilibrium)

Three external forces act on the

region of a cross-sectional area A

F 0 PA Mg P0 A 0,

P P0 gh

but: M V Ah , so: PA P0 A Agh

Test 1

You are measuring the pressure at the depth of 10 cm

in three different containers. Rank the values of

pressure from the greatest to the smallest:

1. 1-2-3

2. 2-1-3

3. 3-2-1

4. Its the same in all three

10 cm

1 2 3

Pressure and Depth equation

P Po gh

Po is normal atmospheric

pressure

1.013 x 105 Pa = 14.7

lb/in2

The pressure does not

depend upon the shape of

the container

76.0 cm of mercury

One atmosphere 1 atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa

14.7 lb/in2

Example 1: Find pressure at 100 m below

ocean surface.

P P0 H O gh

2

1.2 Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure

The excess pressure above atmospheric pressure is

usually called gauge pressure (gh), and the total

pressure is called absolute pressure.

PROBLEM 1

the tank is open to the air. What is the absolute pressure at

the bottom of the tank? The gauge pressure?

SOLUTION

The gauge pressure :

P Po gh 1.18 105 Pa 1.16 atm

PROBLEM 2

equilibrium: Water of density pw = 998 kg/m3 is in the right

arm, and oil of unknown density px is in the left.

Measurement gives l = 135 mm and d = 12.3 mm.

What is the density of the oil?

SOLUTION

In the left arm: P Po x g (l d )

l

x w 915 kg / m 3

l d

1.3 Pascals Principle

A change in pressure applied to

an enclosed fluid is transmitted

undiminished to every point of

the fluid and to the walls of the

container.

The hydraulic press is an

important application of

Pascals Principle

F1 F 2

P

A1 A2

Also used in hydraulic brakes,

Since A2 > A1, then F2 > F1 !!!

forklifts, car lifts, etc.

1.4 Measuring Pressure

The spring is calibrated by a is open to the atmosphere filled with mercury and

known force inverted in a dish of

The other end is connected to

The force the fluid exerts on the pressure to be measured mercury

the piston is then measured Measures atmospheric

Pressure at B is Po+gh

pressure as gh

Question

object in the water. How does the

pressure at the top of this object

relate to the pressure at the

bottom?

2. The pressure is greater at the top.

3. The pressure is greater at the

bottom.

4. Whatever

1.5 Buoyant Force

This force is called the buoyant force.

What is the magnitude of that force?

F B P2 P1 A , but:

P2 P1 gh , so :

B P1 gh P1 A

P1A

P2A = mg

Buoyant Force

The magnitude of the buoyant force always equals

the weight of the displaced fluid

B fluidVg w fluid

submerged object of any size, shape, or density

The buoyant force is exerted by the fluid

Whether an object sinks or floats depends on the

relationship between the buoyant force and the

weight

Archimedes' Principle

fluid is buoyed up by a force whose magnitude is

equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by

the object.

Physical cause: pressure difference between the top and

the bottom of the object

Archimedes Principle:

Totally Submerged Object

The upward buoyant force is B = fluid gVobj

The downward gravitational force is w = mg = obj g Vobj

The net force is B w = (fluid - obj) g Vobj

of the net force, the object

will either float up or sink!

The net force is B - w=(fluid - obj) g Vobj

than the fluid fluid < obj than the fluid fluid > obj

The object experiences a The net force is downward,

net upward force so the object accelerates

downward

Test 2

Two identical glasses are filled to the same level

with water. One of the two glasses has ice cubes

floating in it.Which weighs more?

2. The glass with ice cubes.

3. The two weigh the same.

weight in water.

PROBLEM 3

dangerous because much of the ice is below the surface. This

hidden ice can damage a ship that is still a considerable distance

from the visible ice. What fraction of the iceberg lies below the

water level ? The densities of seawater and of iceberg are

W = 1030 kg/m3 and I = 917 kg/m3

SOLUTION

Weight of the whole iceberg : mI g IV I g

Buoyant force : B mW g WVW g

(VW : volume of the displaced water = volume of the ice beneath the water)

mI g B ; IVI g WVW g

The fraction of ice beneath the waters surface:

VW I 917 kg / m 3

f 0.89 89%

VI W 1030 kg / m 3

Chapter 8 Fluid Mechanics

2. Fluid Dynamics

2.1 Fluids in Motion: Streamline Flow

laminar flow)

every particle that passes a

particular point moves exactly

along the smooth path

Laminar flow around an

followed by particles that

automobile in a test

passed the point earlier wind tunnel.

Streamline is the path

different streamlines cannot

cross each other

the streamline at any point

coincides with the direction of

fluid velocity at that point

2.1 Fluids in Motion: Turbulent Flow

The flow becomes irregular

exceeds a certain velocity

any condition that causes abrupt changes in

velocity

Eddy currents are a characteristic of turbulent flow

cigarette made visible by smoke

particles. The smoke first moves in

laminar flow at the bottom and

then in turbulent flow above

Fluid Flow: Viscosity

Viscosity is the degree of internal friction in the

fluid

The internal friction is associated with the

resistance between two adjacent layers of the fluid

moving relative to each other

2.2 Characteristics of an Ideal Fluid

The fluid is nonviscous

There is no internal friction between adjacent layers

The fluid is incompressible

Its density is constant

The fluid is steady

Its velocity, density and pressure do not change in time

The fluid moves without turbulence

No eddy currents are present

2.3 Equation of Continuity

Equation of Continuity :

Av

1 1 A2v 2

sectional area of a pipe

and the fluid speed is a

m2 A2 x 2 A2v 2t constant

Speed is high where

m1 A1x 1 Av

1 1t the pipe is narrow and

speed is low where

The mass is conserved :

the pipe has a large

Av

1 1t A2v 2t

diameter

Av is called the volume

flow rate

PROBLEM 4

As part of a lubricating system for heavy machinery, oil of density

850 kg/m3 is pumped through a cylindrical pipe of diameter 8.0 cm

at a rate of 9.5 liters per second. The oil is incompressible.

(a) What is the speed of the oil? What is the mass flow rate?

(b) If the pipe diameter is reduced to 4.0 cm, what are the new

values of the speed and volume flow rate?

SOLUTION

(9.5 L / s )(10 3 m 3 / L )

(a) The speed of the oil: v 1 1.9 m / s

(4.0 10 m )

2 2

(b) v A1 v (4.0 10 m ) 1.9m / s 7.6 m / s

2 2

2

A2 1 (2.0 10 2 m )2

Oil incompressible: volume flow rate has the same value:

9.5 L / s

3. Bernoullis Equation

Magnitude of the force

exerted by the fluid in

section 1: P1A1

The work done by this

force

W1 = F1x1 = P1A1x1 = P1V

( V: volume of section 1)

The work done by by the fluid in section 2:

W2 = - F2x2 = - P2A2x1 = - P2V

(W2 < 0 : the fluid force opposes the displacement)

The net work done by two forces: W = (P1 - P2)V

Theorem of the variation of kinetic energy :

1 1

mv 2 mv 12 work of external forces

2

2 2

1 1

mv 2 mv 12

2

2 2

(P1 P2 )V mgy 1 mgy 2

1 1

Vv 2 Vv 12

2

2 2

(P1 P2 )V Vgy 1 Vgy 2

1 1

P1 v 1 gy 1 P2 v 22 gy 2

2

2 2

Bernoullis equation applied to an ideal fluid :

1

P v 2 gy const

2

Bernoullis Equation

Relates pressure to fluid speed and elevation

Bernoullis equation is a consequence of Conservation

of Energy applied to an ideal fluid

Assumes the fluid is incompressible and nonviscous,

and flows in a nonturbulent, steady-state manner

States that the sum of the pressure, kinetic energy

per unit volume, and the potential energy per unit

volume has the same value at all points along a

streamline

1 2

P v gy const

2

EXAMPLE

Application of Bernoullis Equation

Measure the speed of the fluid flow: Venturi Meter

horizontal constricted pipe

Speed changes as diameter

changes

Swiftly moving fluids exert less

pressure than do slowly moving

fluids

How to measure the speed v2 ?

Application of Bernoullis Equation

Measure the speed of the fluid flow: Venturi Meter

1 1

P1 v 1 gy P2 v 22 gy

2

2 2

Equation of Continuity :

Av

1 1 A2v 2

1 A2 2 1

P1 v

2 P2 v 2

2

2 A1 2

2(P1 P2 )

v 2 A1

( A12 A22 )

4. Poiseuilles law

Rate of flow : the volume of fluid which passes

through a given surface per unit time (m3/s)

Poiseuille's equation :

L

V R 4 (P1 P2 )

Rate of flow R

t 8L P2

P1 v

: viscosity of the fluid

PROBLEM 5

A horizontal pipe of 25-cm2 cross-section carries water

at a velocity of 3.0 m/s. The pipe feeds into a smaller

pipe with cross section of only 15 cm2. W=103kg/m3

(a) What is the velocity of water in the smaller pipe ?

(b) Determine the pressure change that occurs from

the larger-diameter pipe to the smaller pipe.

A1 A2

SOLUTION (a) Av

1 1 A2v 2

v 1 A1 3.0 m / s 25 cm 2 v1 v2

v2

A2 15 cm 2

3.0 m / s

(b) P P P 1 v 2 gy 1 v 2 gy

2 2 1 1

2 1

2 2

2 A2 A1

2 2

1

v 2 8 10 3

Pa

2 2A12

PROBLEM 6

A large pipe with a cross-sectional area of 1.00 m2

descends 5.00 m and narrows to 0.500 m2, where it

terminates in a valve. If the pressure at point 2 is

atmospheric pressure, and the valve is opened wide

and water allowed to flow freely, find the speed of the

water leaving the pipe.

SOLUTION 2

P2=P0

v2

h

Av v1

1 1 A2v 2

1 1 P1=P0

P1 v 1 gy 1 P2 v 22 gy 2

2

2 2

SOLUTION 2

P2=P0

v2

h

Av

1 1 A2v 2

v1

1 1

P1 v 1 gy 1 P2 v 22 gy 2

2

P1=P0

2 2

2

1 1 A1

P0 v 1 P0 v 1 g (y 2 y 1 )

2

2 2 A2

2

1 1 A1

v 1 v 1 gh

2

2 2 A2

2gh

2 11.4 m / s

v1

1 ( A1 / A2 )

PROBLEM 7

There is a leak in a water tank. The hole is very small

compared to the tanks cross-sectional area.

(a) If the top of the tank is open to the atmosphere,

determine the speed at which the water leaves the

hole when the water level is 0.500 above the hole.

A2 P2 =P0

SOLUTION (a)

1 h P0 v1

P0 v 12 gy 1 P0 gy 2

2 y2 A1

v 1 2g (y 2 y 1 ) 2gh y1

2 9.8 m / s 2 0.500 m / s

3.13 m / s

PROBLEM 7

There is a leak in a water tank. The hole is very small

compared to the tanks cross-sectional area.

(b) Where does the stream hit the ground if the hole is

3.00 m above the ground ?

y

SOLUTION (b) A2 P2 =P0

1 2

y 1 gt v 0Y t h P0 v1

2

3.00 m (4.90 m / s 2 )t 2 y2 A1

t 0.782 s y1

x v 0X t

(3.13 m / s ) (0.782 s ) 2.45 m x

PROBLEM 8

An airplane has wing, each wing area 4.00 m2,

designed so that air flows over the top of the wing at

245 m/s and under the wing at 222 m/s. Find the

mass of the airplane such that the lift on the plane will

support its weight, assuming the force from the

pressure difference across the wings is directed

straight upwards.

SOLUTION

1 1

P1 v 1 gy 1 P2 v 22 gy 2

2

2 2

1 1

y 2 y1 ; 1P v 2

1 P 2 v 2

2

2 2

1 1

P P1 P2 v 2 v 12

2

2 2

1 1

P P1 P2 v 2 v 12

2

2 2

1

(1.29 kg / m 3 )(2452 m 2 / s 2 2222 m 2 / s 2 )

2

6.93 103 Pa

The lift on the plane supports the planes weight :

2A P mg 0

m 5.66 103 kg

PROBLEM 9

Human blood has a density of approximately

1.05 x 103 kg/m3.

(a) Use this information to estimate the difference in

blood pressure between the brain and the feet in a

person who is approximately 1.6 m tall.

SOLUTION

P2 P1 gh

1.05 103 kg / m 3 9.80 m / s 2 1.60 m

16.5 kPa

PROBLEM 9

Human blood has a density of approximately

1.05 x 103 kg/m3.

(b) Estimate the volume flow rate of blood from the

head to the feet of this person. Assume an effective

radius of 24 cm.

The viscosity of blood is 0.0027 N.s/m2.

V R 4 (P1 P2 )

Rate of flow

t 8L

(16.5 103 m 3 / s ) (0.23m )4

8 0.0027 N .s / m 2 1.6 m

4.98 103 m 3 / s

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