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PROGRAM OF PHYSICS

Lecturer: Dr. DO Xuan Hoi


Room 413
E-mail : dxhoi@hcmiu.edu.vn
PHYSICS 2
(FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS)
02 credits (30 periods)
Chapter 1 Fluid Mechanics
Chapter 2 Heat, Temperature and the Zeroth
Law of Thermodynamics
Chapter 3 Heat, Work and the First Law of
Thermodynamics
Chapter 4 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
Chapter 5 Entropy and the Second Law of
Thermodynamics
References :
Halliday D., Resnick R. and Walker, J. (2005),
Fundamentals of Physics, Extended seventh edition.
John Willey and Sons, Inc.
Alonso M. and Finn E.J. (1992). Physics, Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company
Hecht, E. (2000). Physics. Calculus, Second Edition.
Brooks/Cole.
Faughn/Serway (2006), Serways College Physics,
Brooks/Cole.
Roger Muncaster (1994), A-Level Physics, Stanley
Thornes.
http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/index.htm
http://www.opensourcephysics.org/index.html
http://hyperphysics.phy-
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/HFrame.html
http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Default.ht
ml
http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/
http://www.iop.org/index.html
.
.
.
Chapter 1 Fluid Mechanics

1. Variation of Pressure with Depth


2. Fluid Dynamics
3. Bernoullis Equation
Question
What is a fluid?

1. A liquid
2. A gas
3. Anything that flows
4. Anything that can be made to
change shape.
States of matter: Phase Transitions

ICE WATER STEAM

Add Add
heat heat
These are three states of matter
(plasma is another one)
States of Matter
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma
States of Matter
Solid
Has definite volume
Has definite shape
Molecules are held in specific
location by electrical forces and
vibrate about equilibrium positions
Can be modeled as springs
connecting molecules

Liquid
Gas
Plasma
States of Matter
Solid
Crystalline solid
Atoms have an ordered structure
Example is salt (red spheres are
Na+ ions, blue spheres represent Cl-
ions)
Amorphous Solid
Atoms are arranged randomly
Examples include glass

Liquid
Gas
Plasma
States of Matter
Solid
Liquid
Has a definite volume
No definite shape Random motion
Exist at a higher temperature than solids
The molecules wander through the liquid in a
random fashion
The intermolecular forces are not strong
enough to keep the molecules in a fixed
position
Gas
Plasma
States of Matter
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Has no definite volume
Has no definite shape
Molecules are in constant random motion
The molecules exert only weak forces on each
other
Average distance between molecules is large
compared to the size of the molecules
Plasma
States of Matter
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma
Matter heated to a very high temperature
Many of the electrons are freed from the nucleus
Result is a collection of free, electrically charged ions
Plasmas exist inside stars or experimental reactors or
fluorescent light bulbs!
For more information:
http://fusedweb.pppl.gov/CPEP/Chart_Pages/4.CreatingConditions.html
Is there a concept that helps to distinguish between
those states of matter?
Density
The density of a substance of uniform composition is defined as its
mass per unit volume:
4
V sphere R 3
m some examples: 3
Vcylinder R 2h
V
Vcube a 3
Object is denser Density is greater
The densities of most liquids and solids vary slightly with changes
in temperature and pressure
Densities of gases vary greatly with changes in temperature and
pressure (and generally 1000 smaller)

Units
SI kg/m3
CGS g/cm3 (1 g/cm3=1000
kg/m3 )
Pressure
Pressure of fluid is the
ratio of the force exerted
by a fluid on a submerged
object to area

F
P
A

Units
SI Pascal (Pa=N/m2)

Example: 100 N over 1 m2 is P=(100 N)/(1 m2)=100 N/m2=100 Pa.


1. Variation of Pressure with Depth
1.1 Pressure and Depth
If a fluid is at rest in a container,
all portions of the fluid must be in
static equilibrium
All points at the same depth must
be at the same pressure
(otherwise, the fluid would not be
in equilibrium)
Three external forces act on the
region of a cross-sectional area A

External forces: atmospheric, weight, normal

F 0 PA Mg P0 A 0,
P P0 gh
but: M V Ah , so: PA P0 A Agh
Test 1
You are measuring the pressure at the depth of 10 cm
in three different containers. Rank the values of
pressure from the greatest to the smallest:

1. 1-2-3
2. 2-1-3
3. 3-2-1
4. Its the same in all three

10 cm

1 2 3
Pressure and Depth equation
P Po gh
Po is normal atmospheric
pressure
1.013 x 105 Pa = 14.7
lb/in2
The pressure does not
depend upon the shape of
the container

Other units of pressure:


76.0 cm of mercury
One atmosphere 1 atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa
14.7 lb/in2
Example 1: Find pressure at 100 m below
ocean surface.
P P0 H O gh
2

P 1.013 105 Pa 103 kg m 3 9.8 m s 2 100 m

106 Pa 10 atmospheric pressure


1.2 Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure
The excess pressure above atmospheric pressure is
usually called gauge pressure (gh), and the total
pressure is called absolute pressure.
PROBLEM 1

A storage tank 12.0 m deep is filled with water. The top of


the tank is open to the air. What is the absolute pressure at
the bottom of the tank? The gauge pressure?

SOLUTION

The absolute pressure : P Po gh 2.19 105 Pa 2.16 atm


The gauge pressure :
P Po gh 1.18 105 Pa 1.16 atm
PROBLEM 2

The U-tube in Fig. 1 contains two liquids in static


equilibrium: Water of density pw = 998 kg/m3 is in the right
arm, and oil of unknown density px is in the left.
Measurement gives l = 135 mm and d = 12.3 mm.
What is the density of the oil?
SOLUTION

In the right arm: P Po w gl


In the left arm: P Po x g (l d )
l
x w 915 kg / m 3
l d
1.3 Pascals Principle
A change in pressure applied to
an enclosed fluid is transmitted
undiminished to every point of
the fluid and to the walls of the
container.
The hydraulic press is an
important application of
Pascals Principle
F1 F 2
P
A1 A2
Also used in hydraulic brakes,
Since A2 > A1, then F2 > F1 !!!
forklifts, car lifts, etc.
1.4 Measuring Pressure

One end of the U-shaped tube A long closed tube is


The spring is calibrated by a is open to the atmosphere filled with mercury and
known force inverted in a dish of
The other end is connected to
The force the fluid exerts on the pressure to be measured mercury
the piston is then measured Measures atmospheric
Pressure at B is Po+gh
pressure as gh
Question

Suppose that you placed an extended


object in the water. How does the
pressure at the top of this object
relate to the pressure at the
bottom?

1. Its the same.


2. The pressure is greater at the top.
3. The pressure is greater at the
bottom.
4. Whatever
1.5 Buoyant Force
This force is called the buoyant force.
What is the magnitude of that force?

F B P2 P1 A , but:
P2 P1 gh , so :
B P1 gh P1 A
P1A

fluid ghA fluid gV

P2A = mg
Buoyant Force
The magnitude of the buoyant force always equals
the weight of the displaced fluid

B fluidVg w fluid

The buoyant force is the same for a totally


submerged object of any size, shape, or density
The buoyant force is exerted by the fluid
Whether an object sinks or floats depends on the
relationship between the buoyant force and the
weight
Archimedes' Principle

Any object completely or partially submerged in a


fluid is buoyed up by a force whose magnitude is
equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by
the object.

This force is buoyant force.


Physical cause: pressure difference between the top and
the bottom of the object
Archimedes Principle:
Totally Submerged Object
The upward buoyant force is B = fluid gVobj
The downward gravitational force is w = mg = obj g Vobj
The net force is B w = (fluid - obj) g Vobj

Depending on the direction


of the net force, the object
will either float up or sink!
The net force is B - w=(fluid - obj) g Vobj

The object is less dense The object is more dense


than the fluid fluid < obj than the fluid fluid > obj
The object experiences a The net force is downward,
net upward force so the object accelerates
downward
Test 2
Two identical glasses are filled to the same level
with water. One of the two glasses has ice cubes
floating in it.Which weighs more?

1. The glass without ice cubes.


2. The glass with ice cubes.
3. The two weigh the same.

NOTE : Ice cubes displace exactly their own


weight in water.
PROBLEM 3

An iceberg floating in seawater, as shown in figure, is extremely


dangerous because much of the ice is below the surface. This
hidden ice can damage a ship that is still a considerable distance
from the visible ice. What fraction of the iceberg lies below the
water level ? The densities of seawater and of iceberg are
W = 1030 kg/m3 and I = 917 kg/m3

SOLUTION
Weight of the whole iceberg : mI g IV I g
Buoyant force : B mW g WVW g
(VW : volume of the displaced water = volume of the ice beneath the water)
mI g B ; IVI g WVW g
The fraction of ice beneath the waters surface:
VW I 917 kg / m 3
f 0.89 89%
VI W 1030 kg / m 3
Chapter 8 Fluid Mechanics

1. Variation of Pressure with Depth


2. Fluid Dynamics
2.1 Fluids in Motion: Streamline Flow

Streamline flow (also called


laminar flow)
every particle that passes a
particular point moves exactly
along the smooth path
Laminar flow around an
followed by particles that
automobile in a test
passed the point earlier wind tunnel.
Streamline is the path
different streamlines cannot
cross each other
the streamline at any point
coincides with the direction of
fluid velocity at that point
2.1 Fluids in Motion: Turbulent Flow
The flow becomes irregular
exceeds a certain velocity
any condition that causes abrupt changes in
velocity
Eddy currents are a characteristic of turbulent flow

Hot gases from a


cigarette made visible by smoke
particles. The smoke first moves in
laminar flow at the bottom and
then in turbulent flow above
Fluid Flow: Viscosity
Viscosity is the degree of internal friction in the
fluid
The internal friction is associated with the
resistance between two adjacent layers of the fluid
moving relative to each other
2.2 Characteristics of an Ideal Fluid
The fluid is nonviscous
There is no internal friction between adjacent layers
The fluid is incompressible
Its density is constant
The fluid is steady
Its velocity, density and pressure do not change in time
The fluid moves without turbulence
No eddy currents are present
2.3 Equation of Continuity
Equation of Continuity :

Av
1 1 A2v 2

The product of the cross-


sectional area of a pipe
and the fluid speed is a
m2 A2 x 2 A2v 2t constant
Speed is high where
m1 A1x 1 Av
1 1t the pipe is narrow and
speed is low where
The mass is conserved :
the pipe has a large
Av
1 1t A2v 2t
diameter
Av is called the volume
flow rate
PROBLEM 4
As part of a lubricating system for heavy machinery, oil of density
850 kg/m3 is pumped through a cylindrical pipe of diameter 8.0 cm
at a rate of 9.5 liters per second. The oil is incompressible.
(a) What is the speed of the oil? What is the mass flow rate?
(b) If the pipe diameter is reduced to 4.0 cm, what are the new
values of the speed and volume flow rate?

SOLUTION
(9.5 L / s )(10 3 m 3 / L )
(a) The speed of the oil: v 1 1.9 m / s
(4.0 10 m )
2 2

The mass flow rate: (850 kg / m 3 )(9.5 103 m 3 / s ) 8.1 kg / s


(b) v A1 v (4.0 10 m ) 1.9m / s 7.6 m / s
2 2

2
A2 1 (2.0 10 2 m )2
Oil incompressible: volume flow rate has the same value:
9.5 L / s
3. Bernoullis Equation
Magnitude of the force
exerted by the fluid in
section 1: P1A1
The work done by this
force
W1 = F1x1 = P1A1x1 = P1V
( V: volume of section 1)
The work done by by the fluid in section 2:
W2 = - F2x2 = - P2A2x1 = - P2V
(W2 < 0 : the fluid force opposes the displacement)
The net work done by two forces: W = (P1 - P2)V
Theorem of the variation of kinetic energy :
1 1
mv 2 mv 12 work of external forces
2

2 2
1 1
mv 2 mv 12
2

2 2
(P1 P2 )V mgy 1 mgy 2
1 1
Vv 2 Vv 12
2

2 2
(P1 P2 )V Vgy 1 Vgy 2
1 1
P1 v 1 gy 1 P2 v 22 gy 2
2

2 2
Bernoullis equation applied to an ideal fluid :
1
P v 2 gy const
2
Bernoullis Equation
Relates pressure to fluid speed and elevation
Bernoullis equation is a consequence of Conservation
of Energy applied to an ideal fluid
Assumes the fluid is incompressible and nonviscous,
and flows in a nonturbulent, steady-state manner
States that the sum of the pressure, kinetic energy
per unit volume, and the potential energy per unit
volume has the same value at all points along a
streamline
1 2
P v gy const
2
EXAMPLE
Application of Bernoullis Equation
Measure the speed of the fluid flow: Venturi Meter

Shows fluid flowing through a


horizontal constricted pipe
Speed changes as diameter
changes
Swiftly moving fluids exert less
pressure than do slowly moving
fluids
How to measure the speed v2 ?
Application of Bernoullis Equation
Measure the speed of the fluid flow: Venturi Meter
1 1
P1 v 1 gy P2 v 22 gy
2

2 2
Equation of Continuity :
Av
1 1 A2v 2

1 A2 2 1
P1 v
2 P2 v 2
2
2 A1 2

2(P1 P2 )
v 2 A1
( A12 A22 )
4. Poiseuilles law
Rate of flow : the volume of fluid which passes
through a given surface per unit time (m3/s)
Poiseuille's equation :
L
V R 4 (P1 P2 )
Rate of flow R
t 8L P2
P1 v
: viscosity of the fluid
PROBLEM 5
A horizontal pipe of 25-cm2 cross-section carries water
at a velocity of 3.0 m/s. The pipe feeds into a smaller
pipe with cross section of only 15 cm2. W=103kg/m3
(a) What is the velocity of water in the smaller pipe ?
(b) Determine the pressure change that occurs from
the larger-diameter pipe to the smaller pipe.
A1 A2
SOLUTION (a) Av
1 1 A2v 2

v 1 A1 3.0 m / s 25 cm 2 v1 v2
v2
A2 15 cm 2
3.0 m / s
(b) P P P 1 v 2 gy 1 v 2 gy
2 2 1 1
2 1
2 2
2 A2 A1
2 2
1
v 2 8 10 3
Pa
2 2A12
PROBLEM 6
A large pipe with a cross-sectional area of 1.00 m2
descends 5.00 m and narrows to 0.500 m2, where it
terminates in a valve. If the pressure at point 2 is
atmospheric pressure, and the valve is opened wide
and water allowed to flow freely, find the speed of the
water leaving the pipe.
SOLUTION 2
P2=P0
v2

h
Av v1
1 1 A2v 2

1 1 P1=P0
P1 v 1 gy 1 P2 v 22 gy 2
2

2 2
SOLUTION 2
P2=P0
v2

h
Av
1 1 A2v 2
v1
1 1
P1 v 1 gy 1 P2 v 22 gy 2
2
P1=P0
2 2
2
1 1 A1
P0 v 1 P0 v 1 g (y 2 y 1 )
2

2 2 A2
2
1 1 A1
v 1 v 1 gh
2

2 2 A2
2gh
2 11.4 m / s
v1
1 ( A1 / A2 )
PROBLEM 7
There is a leak in a water tank. The hole is very small
compared to the tanks cross-sectional area.
(a) If the top of the tank is open to the atmosphere,
determine the speed at which the water leaves the
hole when the water level is 0.500 above the hole.
A2 P2 =P0
SOLUTION (a)
1 h P0 v1
P0 v 12 gy 1 P0 gy 2
2 y2 A1
v 1 2g (y 2 y 1 ) 2gh y1

2 9.8 m / s 2 0.500 m / s
3.13 m / s
PROBLEM 7
There is a leak in a water tank. The hole is very small
compared to the tanks cross-sectional area.
(b) Where does the stream hit the ground if the hole is
3.00 m above the ground ?

y
SOLUTION (b) A2 P2 =P0
1 2
y 1 gt v 0Y t h P0 v1
2
3.00 m (4.90 m / s 2 )t 2 y2 A1
t 0.782 s y1

x v 0X t
(3.13 m / s ) (0.782 s ) 2.45 m x
PROBLEM 8
An airplane has wing, each wing area 4.00 m2,
designed so that air flows over the top of the wing at
245 m/s and under the wing at 222 m/s. Find the
mass of the airplane such that the lift on the plane will
support its weight, assuming the force from the
pressure difference across the wings is directed
straight upwards.

SOLUTION
1 1
P1 v 1 gy 1 P2 v 22 gy 2
2

2 2
1 1
y 2 y1 ; 1P v 2
1 P 2 v 2
2
2 2
1 1
P P1 P2 v 2 v 12
2

2 2
1 1
P P1 P2 v 2 v 12
2

2 2
1
(1.29 kg / m 3 )(2452 m 2 / s 2 2222 m 2 / s 2 )
2
6.93 103 Pa
The lift on the plane supports the planes weight :

2A P mg 0
m 5.66 103 kg
PROBLEM 9

BLOOD PRESSURE WITH DEPTH:


Human blood has a density of approximately
1.05 x 103 kg/m3.
(a) Use this information to estimate the difference in
blood pressure between the brain and the feet in a
person who is approximately 1.6 m tall.

SOLUTION

(a) The difference in pressure is given by:


P2 P1 gh
1.05 103 kg / m 3 9.80 m / s 2 1.60 m
16.5 kPa
PROBLEM 9

BLOOD PRESSURE WITH DEPTH:


Human blood has a density of approximately
1.05 x 103 kg/m3.
(b) Estimate the volume flow rate of blood from the
head to the feet of this person. Assume an effective
radius of 24 cm.
The viscosity of blood is 0.0027 N.s/m2.

SOLUTION (b) Poiseuille's equation :

V R 4 (P1 P2 )
Rate of flow
t 8L
(16.5 103 m 3 / s ) (0.23m )4

8 0.0027 N .s / m 2 1.6 m
4.98 103 m 3 / s