19 views

Uploaded by Rait

Stationary-Frame Generalized Integrators for Current
Control of Active Power Filters With Zero
Steady-State Error for Current Harmonics
of Concern Under Unbalanced and
Distorted Operating Conditions

- 2013 IEEE Power Electronics Project Titles, NCCT - IEEE 2013 Power Electronics IEEE Project List
- Design and Simulation of Harmonic Filter
- Simulation and Design of SRF based Control Algorithm for Three Phase Shunt Active Power Filter
- IRIS1NV Manual .pdf
- IJournals Sriram
- Synch Gen
- Chapter 7 Harmonics Part 2
- Zaragoza Factory Railways Application En
- IJETTCS-2013-03-17-025
- 1. Electrical - Ijeeer - Wavelet Modulated Z-source
- Characteristics Features, Economical Aspects and Environmental Impacts of Gen-4 Nuclear Power for Developing Countries
- Clean Energy Council Installers Checklist
- Power Log Um Eng 0100
- 25kW 50kHz generator for induction heating.pdf
- Frenic4600fm5ecatalog24d1 e 0035d
- Del Xray Apatc
- 03-04_104-2
- 97cd9dbb3ed1841152b242388894de7063d7
- IJETR021662
- rvol15no2p10.pdf

You are on page 1of 10

Control of Active Power Filters With Zero

Steady-State Error for Current Harmonics

of Concern Under Unbalanced and

Distorted Operating Conditions

Xiaoming Yuan, Senior Member, IEEE, Willi Merk, Herbert Stemmler, and Jost Allmeling

AbstractThe paper proposes the concepts of integrators for deemed a viable solution [6]. While the hysteresis controller is

sinusoidal signals. A proportional-integral (PI) current controller simple and robust, it has major drawbacks in variable switching

using stationary-frame generalized integrators is applied for cur- rate, current error of twice the hysteresis band, and high-fre-

rent control of active power filters. Zero steady-state error for the

concerned current harmonics is realized, with reduced computa- quency limit-cycle operation [1]. Performance of the predictive

tion, under unbalanced utility or load conditions. Designing of the controller, on the other hand, is subject to accuracy of the plant

PI constants, digital realization of the generalized integrators, as model as well as accuracy of the reference current prediction

well as compensation of the computation delay are studied. Exten- [7], [8].

sive test results from a 10-kW prototype are demonstrated.

Recent contributions have been applying the synchronous-

Index TermsActive power filter, current control, generalized frame PI controller for current control of active power filters [9],

integrator, resonator.

[10]. The limitation consists of significant computation arising

from the need for multiple reference frames. To deal with unbal-

I. INTRODUCTION anced conditions, the number of reference frames and therefore

the computation must be doubled.

R ESEARCH on current control for power converters has

been one of the most intensive activities recently [1].

When the reference current is a direct signal, as in the dc

Revisiting the adaptive filter technique [11], which was re-

cently introduced to converter control [12], [13], the core of the

motor drive, zero steady-state error can be secured by using filter is really an indirectly implemented integrator for a single

a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller. When the sinusoidal signal. Direct realization of the integrator allowing

reference current is a sinusoidal signal, as in the ac motor for reduction of computation was already detailed in [14]. The

drive, however, straightforward use of the conventional PI direct realization was also used in [15] for reference current

controller would lead to steady-state error due to finite gain at prediction in a synchronous frame dead-beat controlled active

the operating frequency. A synchronous-frame PI controller power filter.

was then proposed which guarantees zero steady-state error in From the stationary-frame equivalent transfer matrix given in

a balanced system [2], [3]. For an unbalanced system, a second [2], a synchronous-frame PI controller, without regard to the PI,

reference frame rotating in the opposite direction would also be can be deemed an indirectly implemented integrator, however,

needed [4], [5] in order that the negative sequence component only for a positive sequence sinusoidal signal. Directly imple-

is tracked with zero steady-state error. menting the transfer matrix shall reduce the computation. The

When the reference current is a nonsinusoidal signal, as in present paper will further prove that, without the cross-coupling

active power filters, a hysteresis or predictive controller is often terms [16][18], the new transfer matrix will represent an inte-

grator for either balanced or unbalanced sinusoidal signals.

The paper proposes the concept of integrators for sinusoidal

Paper IPCSD01-081, presented at the 2000 Industry Applications Society An-

nual Meeting, Rome, Italy, October 812, and approved for publication in the signals. The concepts of ideal integrator for a single sinusoidal

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS by the Industrial Power Con- signal and a stationary-frame ideal integrator for positive or neg-

verter Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society. Manuscript sub- ative sequence sinusoidal signals are explored. The concepts

mitted for review April 1, 2000 and released for publication November 13, 2001.

X. Yuan is with General Electric Corporate R&D-Shanghai, 200233 of generalized integrator for a single sinusoidal signal and sta-

Shanghai, China (e-mail: xiaoming.yuan@geahk.ge.com). tionary-frame generalized integrator for balanced or unbalanced

W. Merk is with the Electrical Engineering Department, Burgdorf School of sinusoidal signal are also clarified.

Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Bern, 3400 Burgdorf, Switzerland

(e-mail: willi.merk@isburg.ch). The paper will further report a PI current controller using

H. Stemmler and J. Allmeling are with the Power Electronics and the stationary-frame generalized integrators for current control

Electrometrology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of active power filters. Designing the PI constants, digital re-

Zurich, ETH-Zentrum/ETL, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland (e-mail:

stemmler@lem.ee.ethz.ch). alization of the generalized integrators, as well as compensa-

Publisher Item Identifier S 0093-9994(02)02666-X. tion of the computation delay will be studied. The instanta-

0096-9994/02$17.00 2002 IEEE

524 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2002

ence current generation. The problem in IRP related to nonideal

point-of-common-coupling (PCC) voltage will be resolved by

using a sequence filter.

STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATOR

A. Ideal Integrator for a Single Sinusoidal Signal and the

Stationary-Frame Ideal Integrator

Similar to the direct signal case, for a sinusoidal signal

, the amplitude integration of this signal can be

written as . Defining further an auxiliary

signal , the Laplace transforms of the three

signals are

(1)

(2)

(3)

configured as shown in Fig. 1(a), where is the resonant fre-

quency of the integrator corresponding to the signal frequency.

Fig. 1. (a) An ideal integrator for a single sinusoidal signal. (b) Sinusoidal

Notice that, for an input signal with frequency deviation of

the corresponding output is given in Fig. 1(b). As long as

,

1

signal with frequency deviation of ! passing through the ideal integrator for

a single sinusoidal. (c) The corresponding stationary-frame ideal integrator.

is sufficiently small and can be approximated by

, the integration function holds. Using the ideal integrator

on the -axis signal and the -axis signal, respectively, a sta- which works without regard to the sequence between the -axis

tionary-frame ideal integrator is then built as shown in Fig. 1(c), signal and the -axis signal.

which works without regard to the sequence between the -axis Observing that the stationary-frame generalized integrator in

and the -axis signals. Fig. 4(b) is the superposition of the positive sequence ideal in-

For a system where the -axis signal leads the -axis signal tegrator in Fig. 2(a) and the negative sequence ideal integrator

by 90 degrees, as in a positive sequence system [2], [3], a in Fig. 2(b), the cross-coupling terms in one are canceled by

positive sequence ideal integrator can be established as shown the corresponding terms in the other. Observe further that the

in Fig. 2(a). However, for a system where the -axis signal output of an ideal integrator of a given sequence resulting from

always lags the -axis signal by 90 degrees, as in a negative the signal of the opposite sequence is negligible. Then a typ-

sequence system, the signs for the cross-coupling terms must ical converter current control system using the stationary-frame

be exchanged to build a negative sequence ideal integrator, as generalized integrator [17], as shown in Fig. 5(a), can be de-

shown in Fig. 2(b). Fig. 2(c) corresponds to positive sequence composed into a positive sequence signal system and a negative

signal passing through the negative sequence ideal integrator, sequence signal system, as shown in Fig. 5(b)/(d) and (c)/(e), re-

while Fig. 2(d) corresponds to a negative sequence signal spectively. Similarly, looking from a counter-clockwise or a

passing through the positive sequence ideal integrator, each clockwise rotating reference frame, the positive sequence

producing negligible output. system or the negative sequence system is equivalent to a di-

rect signal system as shown in Fig. 5(f) [2], [3] and (g), respec-

tively.In a counter-clockwise rotating reference frame, the

B. Generalized Integrator for a Single Sinusoidal Signal and

equivalents of Fig. 2(a) and (c) can be represented by Fig. 3(a)

the Stationary-Frame Generalized Integrator

and (c), respectively [18]. Meanwhile, in a clockwise rotating

Consider then the generalized integrator for a single sinu- reference frame, the equivalents of Fig. 2(b) and (d) can

soidal signal [15], [17], [18], as shown in Fig. 4(a). The in- be represented by Fig. 3(b) and (d), respectively. Notice that in

tegrator output contains not only the integration of the input, Fig. 5 and are the proportional and integral constants,

but also an additional negligible component. The corresponding respectively. is the converter voltage gain, and and are

stationary-frame generalized integrator is shown in Fig. 4(b), load parameters [17].

YUAN et al.: STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATORS FOR CURRENT CONTROL OF ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 525

Fig. 3. (a) Positive sequence ideal integrator equivalent and (c) negative

sequence ideal integrator equivalent in the counter-clockwise (!) rotating

reference frame. (b) Negative sequence ideal integrator equivalent and (d)

0

positive sequence ideal integrator equivalent in the clockwise ( ! ) rotating

reference frame.

Fig. 2. (a) Positive sequence signal passing through a positive sequence ideal

integrator. (b) Negative sequence signal passing through a negative sequence

ideal integrator. (c) Positive sequence signal passing through a negative

sequence ideal integrator. (d) Negative sequence signal passing through a

positive sequence ideal integrator.

III. CURRENT CONTROL OF ACTIVE POWER FILTERS USING Fig. 4. (a) The generalized integrator for a single sinusoidal signal

STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATORS [17]. (b) The corresponding stationary-frame generalized integrator. The

stationary-frame generalized integrator works without regard to the sequence

A. PI Current Controller for Active Power Filters Using the between the -axis signal and the -axis signal.

Stationary-Frame Generalized Integrators

In the case of current control for active power filters, the current harmonics. For each current harmonic of concern, a

current error signal is nonsinusoidal which contains multiple corresponding stationary-frame generalized integrator must be

526 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2002

Fig. 5. (a) Typical converter current control system using the stationary frame generalized integrator. (b) Stationary-frame positive sequence signal system

decomposition with the original input. (c) Stationary-frame negative sequence signal system decomposition with the original input. (d) Stationary-frame positive

sequence signal system decomposition with the positive sequence input. (e) Stationary-frame negative sequence signal system decomposition with the negative

sequence input. (f) Stationary-frame positive sequence signal system equivalent in the counter-clockwise rotating reference frame. (g) Stationary-frame negative

sequence signal system equivalent in the clockwise rotating reference frame.

YUAN et al.: STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATORS FOR CURRENT CONTROL OF ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 527

Fig. 7. (a) Typical shunt active filter system with a ripple filter. (b) Current

control system using the proposed PI current controller.

Fig. 6. PI current controller for active power filters using the stationary-frame

generalized integrators.

corresponding multiple integrators can be installed as shown in

Fig. 6. Resonant frequencies of the stationary-frame generalized

integrators correspond to the frequencies of the concerned current

harmonics.

Proposed PI Current Controller Fig. 8. Sequence filter for extracting the sinusoidal positive sequence voltage

component from the unbalanced or distorted PCC voltage.

Fig. 7(a) shows a typical shunt active power filter

system. A voltage source inverter is connected to the

C. Sequence Filter for Utility Reference Current Generation

point-of-common-coupling (PCC) through an interfacing

Under Unbalanced and/or Distorted PCC Voltage Conditions

inductor . The PCC is typically loaded with a nonlinear

diode or thyristor rectifier . represents the utility It is known that the IRP is not able to work correctly under

short-circuit impedance. A ripple filter is installed consisting unbalanced or distorted PCC voltage [20], [21]. The solution

of , , and . Several other ripple filter options are found proposed is a sequence filter as shown in Fig. 8. The filter is

in [22]. connected in the control system as shown in Fig. 7(b).

Fig. 7(b) shows the corresponding current control system Notice that the shaded part in Fig. 8 is a positive sequence

using the proposed PI current controller. The Instantaneous-Re- ideal integrator as previously given in Fig. 2(a). The filter al-

active-Power (IRP) theory [19] is applied for generation of ways delivers the sinusoidal positive sequence component from

the utility current reference. Inverter dc-link voltage control is the PCC voltage. With this component fed to the IRP, the utility

realized by regulating the active power component in the utility current reference generated by the IRP will contain only a sinu-

current through the IRP. LP is a low-pass filter for measuring soidal positive sequence component. The constant in Fig. 8

the dc-link voltage and for decoupling the dc-link voltage controls the bandwidth and the response speed of the filter and

control. will not be detailed.

Notice that, instead of direct inverter current control that re-

quires load current and inverter current measurements, the pro- D. Identifying the Control Loops in the Control System

posal uses a direct utility current control. Only the utility current The current control system given in Fig. 7(b) contains the

measurement is needed as a result. following control loops:

528 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2002

loop has an input of the utility voltage , and an output

of the utility current . Different from the first loop, this

loop involves also the second loop. Details of this loop

will be left for a future report.

Considering now the first loop, similar to the conventional di-

rect signal control system, PI constants can be formulated based

on the open-loop transfer function. When the global load model

in Fig. 7 is simplified to , this open-loop transfer

function can be written as

(4)

the 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th harmonics of concern are shown in

Fig. 9(a)(c).

The following observations are recognized.

1) Comparing to the simple proportional system, as shown

in Fig. 9(a), adding the generalized integrators radically

changes both the magnitude and phase characteristics at

the concerned harmonic frequencies and the vicinities, as

shown in Fig. 9(b). At other frequencies, however, the

characteristics are not changed.

2) Infinite gains as well as phase leads or lags of up to 90

degrees are created at the concerned harmonic frequen-

cies and the vicinities, adding to the characteristics of the

simple proportional system, as shown in Fig. 9(b). When

Fig. 9. Magnitude and phase characteristics of the open-loop transfer function the net phase delays are less then 180 degrees, the system

of the fast utility current control loop when the 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th

harmonics are concerned. Proportional constant K = 0:06. Inverter voltage is stable at these frequencies and zero steady-state error

gain G = 400. Global load model R = 10

, L = 5 mH. Integral constant: is secured for the current harmonics at these frequencies.

(a) K = 0, (b) K = 1:2, and (c) K = 4:8. 3) Size of the integral constant determines the bandwidths

centered at the concerned harmonic frequencies during

which the characteristics are changed, as shown in

1) Fast Utility Current Control Loop: This loop has an input

Fig. 9(c). For applications potentially with certain funda-

of the utility current reference , an output of the

mental frequency variation, the integral constant may be

utility current , with a perturbation from the utility oversized accordingly.

voltage . As this is the fastest loop in the system, the 4) Size of the proportional constant decides: 1) stability

utility current reference is assumed independent of the of the simple proportional system; 2) order of current

remaining system. harmonics that can be regulated without violating the

2) Slow DC-Link Voltage Control Loop: This loop has an stability limits; 3) cross-over frequency and dynamic

input of the dc-link voltage reference , and an response; and 4) reduction of the current harmonics at

output of the inverter dc-link voltage. The loop is always other frequencies. Size of the proportional constant must

made decoupled from first loop, by setting properly the also observe the PWM constraint in term of the reference

cut-off frequencies of the low-pass filters in the dc-link signal spectrum in relation to the switching frequency

voltage measurement, as well as well as in the IRP [19]. [17].

YUAN et al.: STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATORS FOR CURRENT CONTROL OF ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 529

Fig. 11. Experimental waveforms (phase B) of the PCC voltage, load current, inverter current, and utility current as well as the utility current spectrum in the

cases of: (a), (b) no integrators is used; (c), (d) 1st, 5th, and 7th integrators are used; (e), (f) 1st, 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th integrators are used; and (g), (h) 1st, 5th,

7th, 11th, 13th, 17th, and 19th integrators are used.

Compensation of the Computation Delay

Various delays in the current control loop (mainly the com-

For digital implementation, the following discrete forms of putation delay) have been found to deeply affect the filtering

the relevant algorithms are used (sampling time ) [15]: performance and system stability [15], [23]. The problem will

be resolved when the reference current can be predicted [15].

Different approaches for prediction are being pursued also in

(5)

predictive current control [7], [8].

530 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2002

compromising scheme predicting only the harmonic compo-

nents of the concerned frequencies in the modulating signal. As

the output of each generalized integrator is always sinusoidal,

it is thus easy to predict this output by moving the zero of the

transfer function in the -plane with the following formula for

one- or two-step prediction:

- -

(7)

Fig. 12. Experimental waveforms (phase B) of the PCC voltage, load current,

inverter current, and utility current when R = 39

. The sequence filter is not

- - used.

(8)

the proportional path does not contribute to the harmonic com-

ponents of the concerned frequencies in the modulating signal,

phase lags at the concerned frequencies resulting from the com-

putation delay are thus compensated. For the dynamic state,

however, as the error signal contains also the harmonic compo-

nents of the concerned frequencies, the effectiveness of the com-

pensation will be reduced. Notice that phase lags at other fre-

quencies during either steady state or dynamic state are not com- Fig. 13. Experimental waveforms (phase B) of the PCC voltage, load current,

inverter current, and utility current when the wire of phase A of the load is open.

pensated. Stability conditions at these other frequencies must be

met by appropriately choosing the proportional constant.

It is also noticed that an additional controller for the neutral

potential of the NPC inverter used as an active power filter is

IV. TEST OF THE ACTIVE POWER FILTER USING THE PROPOSED also implemented, which will not be detailed.

PI CURRENT CONTROLLER

B. Experimental Results

A. Prototype Description

Fig. 10 shows the spectrum of the load current, and Fig. 11

A 10-kW active power filter prototype was built in the labora- shows the experimental waveforms of the PCC voltage, load

tory using a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter with a dc-link current, inverter current, and utility current as well as the utility

voltage of V. A brake-chopper is connected to each current spectrum in cases when different current harmonics are

of the two dc-link capacitor banks. Each capacitor bank con- concerned. When only proportion is used, as shown in Fig. 11(a)

sists of four 680- F/500-V electrolytic capacitors in parallel. and (b), very limited reduction of the load current harmonics is

The Siemens 1200 V/50 A IGBTs are used, switching at 6 kHz obtained. On the other hand, when a specific current harmonic

driven by the CONCEPT IHD280AN gate drivers. The inverter is the focus and the corresponding integrator is installed, this

interfacing inductor mH. Utility inductor specific current harmonic will disappear from the utility current

mH. A diode rectifier with an inductor mH in series spectrum, as demonstrated in Fig. 11(c)(h). Effectiveness of

with a resistor at the dcside is used to simulate a the proposed PI current controller in ensuring zero steady-state

current source type load [24]. No ripple filter is installed at the error for the concerned current harmonics is verified. The re-

moment. sults also show a very desirable feature in selective harmonic

The PI current controller proposed in Fig. 6 is used with the elimination [25] for reducing the inverter rating while fulfilling

PI constants and . A conventional PI con- the relevant harmonics standard.

troller for direct signal with a proportional constant of 4 and an Fig. 12 shows the PCC voltage, load current, inverter cur-

integral constant of 4 is used for dc voltage control. Before the rent, and utility current when the sequence filter is not used

dc voltage controller is a first-order low-pass filter with a cut-off and . In comparison to Fig. 11(g), the utility cur-

frequency of 125 rad/s. A fifth-order Butterworth low-pass filter rent becomes clearly degraded. This result proves the function

with a cut-off frequency of 125 rad/s is used in the IRP. Con- of the sequence filter in solving the problems of the IRP oper-

stant in the sequence filter is set to 10. The control system is ating under distorted PCC voltage.

implemented in a TMS320C40 DSP using a dSPACE real-time Fig. 13 shows the experimental waveforms of the PCC

system. The rate of sampling is 167 S. voltage, load current, inverter current, and utility current under

YUAN et al.: STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATORS FOR CURRENT CONTROL OF ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 531

REFERENCES

induction motors, Proc. IEEE, vol. 82, pp. 11151135, Aug. 1994.

[2] C. D. Schauder and R. Caddy, Current control of voltage-source in-

verters for fast four-quadrant drive performance, IEEE Trans. Ind. Ap-

plicat., vol. IA-18, pp. 163171, Mar./Apr. 1982.

[3] T. M. Rowan and R. J. Kerkman, A new synchronous current regulator

and an analysis of current-regulated PWM inverters, IEEE Trans. Ind.

Applicat., vol. IA-22, pp. 678690, Mar./Apr. 1986.

[4] P. Hsu and M. Behnke, A three phase synchronous frame controller for

unbalanced load, in Proc. IEEE PESC, 1998, pp. 13691374.

[5] C. B. Jacobina, M. B. R. Correa, T. M. Oliverira, A. M. N. Lima, and

E. R. C. da Silva, Vector modeling and control of unbalanced electrical

systems, in Proc. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, 1999, pp. 10111017.

[6] S. Buso, L. Malesani, and P. Mattavelli, Comparison of current control

techniques for active power filters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 45,

1998.

[7] F. Kamran and T. G. Habetler, An improved deadbeat rectifier regulator

using a neural net predictor, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 10, pp.

504510, July 1995.

[8] D. G. Holmes and D. A. Martin, Implementation of a direct digital

predictive current controller for single and three phase voltage source

inverters, in Proc. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, 1996, pp. 906913.

[9] C. D. Schauder and S. A. Moran, Multiple reference frame controller

for active power filters and power line conditioners, U.S. Patent

5 309 353, May 1994.

[10] M. Bojyup, P. Karlsson, M. Alakula, and L. Gertmar. A multiple rotating

integrator controller for active filters. presented at Proc. EPE Conf.. [CD-

ROM]CD-Rom

[11] J. R. Glover, Jr., Adaptive noise canceling applied to sinusoidal interfer-

ences, IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, vol. ASSP-25,

pp. 484491, Dec. 1977.

Fig. 14. Experimental waveforms (phase B) of the PCC voltage, load current, [12] V. Blasko, Adaptive filtering for selective elimination of higher har-

inverter current, and utility current during: (a) no-load to full-load and (b) monics from line currents of a voltage source converter, in Proc. IEEE

full-load to no-load step change conditions. In either case, the transient lasts IAS Annu. Meeting, 1998, pp. 12221228.

for about 10 mS. [13] S. Fukuda and S. Sugawa, Adaptive signal processing based control

of active power filters, in Proc. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, 1996, pp.

886890.

load unbalance conditions. The wire of phase A of the load [14] M. Padmanabhan, K. Martin, and G. Peceli, Feedback-Based

is open, representing an extreme unbalance of the load. It is Orthogonal Digital Filters: Theory, Applications, and Implementa-

observed that the utility current is still sinusoidal. The operation tion. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 1996.

[15] O. Simon, H. Spaeth, K. P. Juengst, and P. Komarek, Experimental

of the stationary-frame generalized integrator under unbalanced setup of a shunt active filter using a super-conducting magnetic energy

conditions is verified. storage device, in Proc. EPE Conf., 1997, pp. 1. 4471. 452.

Fig. 14 shows the PCC voltage, load current, inverter current, [16] Y. Sato, T. Ishizuka, K. Nezu, and T. Kataoka, A new control strategy

for voltage-type PWM rectifiers to realize zero steady-state control

and utility current under load transient conditions. The transient error in input current, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 34, pp. 480486,

in either case lasts for about 10 mS. May/June 1998.

[17] D. N. Zmood and D. G. Holmes, Stationary frame current regulation of

PWM inverters with zero steady state error, in Proc. IEEE PESC, 1999,

V. CONCLUSION pp. 11851190.

[18] D. N. Zmood, D. G. Holmes, and G. Bode, Frequency domain analysis

1) The concepts of integrators for sinusoidal signals offer of three phase linear current regulators, in Proc. IEEE IAS Conf., 1999,

novel means for designing a converter control system in- pp. 818825.

[19] H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, and A. Nabae, Instantaneous reactive power

volving nondirect signals. compensating comprising switching devices without energy storage

2) The PI current controller using the stationary-frame gen- components, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. IA-20, pp. 625630,

eralized integrators ensures zero steady-state error for the May/June 1984.

[20] S. Bhattacharya, D. M. Divan, and B. Banerjee, Synchronous frame

current harmonics of concern with reduced computation. harmonic isolator using active series filter, in Proc. EPE Conf., 1991,

3) The sequence filter based on the positive sequence ideal pp. 3.303.35.

[21] J. Sebastian, J. W. Dixon, G. Venegas, and L. Moran, A simple fre-

integrator resolves the problems of the IRP under dis- quency-independent method for calculating the reactive and harmonic

torted or unbalanced PCC voltage conditions. current in a nonlinear load, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 43, pp.

4) The PI current controller using the stationary-frame gen- 647653, Dec. 1996.

[22] S. Bhattacharya, T. M. Frank, D. M. Divan, and B. Banerjee, Parallel

eralized integrators can work under either balanced or un- active filter system implementation and design issues for utility interface

balanced operation conditions. of adjustable speed drive systems, in Proc. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting,

1996, pp. 10321039.

[23] W. Le Roux and J. D. Van Wyk, Effectivity reduction of PWM converter

ACKNOWLEDGMENT based dynamic filter by signal processing delay, in Proc. IEEE APEC

Conf., 1999, pp. 12221227.

The authors would like to acknowledge advice from [24] F. Z. Peng, Application issues of active power filters, IEEE Ind. Ap-

P. Daehler, G. Linhofer, Dr. P. Steimer of ABB Industrie AG, plicat. Mag., pp. 2130, Sep./Oct. 1998.

[25] J. Svensson and R. Ottersten, Shunt active filtering of vector-current

M. Rahmani, Dr. D. Westermann of ABB High Voltage Tech- controlled VSC at a moderate switching frequency, in Proc. IEEE IAS

nologies, Ltd., and Dr. T. Aschwanden of BKW, Switzerland. Annu. Meeting, 1998, pp. 14621467.

532 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2002

Xiaoming Yuan (S97M99SM01) received the Herbert Stemmler received the Dipl.-Ing. degree

B.Eng. degree from Shandong University, China, in automation from the Techniche Hochschule

the M.Eng. degree from Zhejiang University, China, in Darmsdadt, Germany, in 1961 and the Ph.D.

and the Ph.D. degree from Federal University of degree in power electronics from the Technische

Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 1986, 1993, and 1998 Hochschule in Aachen, Germany, in 1971.

respectively, all in electrical engineering. He worked with Brown Bovery and ASEA-Brown

He was with Qilu Petrochemical Corporation, Bovery in Baden, Switzerland, from 1961 to 1991,

China, from 1986 to 1990, where he was involved in the field of power electronics. From 1971 to 1991,

in the commissioning and testing of relaying and au- he was head of the department for development, engi-

tomation devices in power systems, adjustable speed neering, test, and commissioning of large power elec-

drives, and high-power UPS systems. From 1998 to tronics systems. In 1987 he was appointed Vice-Pres-

2001, he was a Project Engineer at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ident of this department. During these years, he worked with converter and in-

Zurich, Switzerland, where he worked on flexible-ac-transmission-systems verter locomotives, 5016 2/3 Hz interties, all kinds of large ac drives, reactive

(FACTS) and power quality. Since February 2001, he has been with GE Cor- power compensators, HVDC transmissions, low-power electronics, and stan-

porate R&D and is Manager of the Low Power Electronics Laboratory based dardized and tailor-made electronic control units. Since 1991, he has been Pro-

in Shanghai, China. His research interests are power electronics converters, fessor of Power Electronics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich,

controls, and the applications. Switzerland, and Head of the Power Electronics and Electrometrology Labo-

Dr. Yuan received the first prize paper award from the Industrial Power Con- ratory. At the time of this writing, 15 doctoral projects have been completed

verter Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society in 1999. and 7 projects ongoing in traction, motor drives, flexible-ac-transmission-sys-

tems (FACTS), solar energy systems, uninterruptable power supplies, matrix

converters, and fuel cell vehicles.

1972. He received the Dipl.-Ing. degree in electrical

engineering from the University of Technology

(RWTH) Aachen, Germany, in 1996 and the

Willi Merk was born near Schaffhausen, Switzer- Ph.D. degree from the Swiss Federal Institute of

land, in 1945. He completed his studies in electrical Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland, in 2001.

engineering at the University of Applied Sciences in Since 1996, he has been employed as a Research

Winterthur in 1969. Assistant at the Power Electronics Laboratory and the

He joined with Brown Boveri & Cie, Baden, a Power Systems Laboratory of ETH Zurich. His main

former Asea Brown Boveri Company. From 1972 research interests are active filters for the medium

until 1981, he was a leading engineer in HVDC valve voltage grid and the simulation of power electronics

design. Since 1982, he has been a Lecturer at the systems.

University of Applied Sciences Berne, Switzerland, Dr. Allmeling was awarded a second prize in 1992 in the nationwide youth

for control systems, digital signal processing, and research competition Jugend-forscht having investigated the security of smart-

industrial electronics. cards.

- 2013 IEEE Power Electronics Project Titles, NCCT - IEEE 2013 Power Electronics IEEE Project ListUploaded byncctprojects3231
- Design and Simulation of Harmonic FilterUploaded bymanos
- Simulation and Design of SRF based Control Algorithm for Three Phase Shunt Active Power FilterUploaded byidescitation
- IRIS1NV Manual .pdfUploaded byVilla Robert Ramoa
- IJournals SriramUploaded byecessec
- Synch GenUploaded bymakroum
- Chapter 7 Harmonics Part 2Uploaded byGvg Krishna
- Zaragoza Factory Railways Application EnUploaded bynecmettinsengun
- IJETTCS-2013-03-17-025Uploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- 1. Electrical - Ijeeer - Wavelet Modulated Z-sourceUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Characteristics Features, Economical Aspects and Environmental Impacts of Gen-4 Nuclear Power for Developing CountriesUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Clean Energy Council Installers ChecklistUploaded byMohamed Adel
- Power Log Um Eng 0100Uploaded byHasnat Bugvi
- 25kW 50kHz generator for induction heating.pdfUploaded byVictorGonzalez
- Frenic4600fm5ecatalog24d1 e 0035dUploaded byhoang van tuyen
- Del Xray ApatcUploaded bySohail Ahmed
- 03-04_104-2Uploaded bysenthilkumar03
- 97cd9dbb3ed1841152b242388894de7063d7Uploaded byDerrick Ramos
- IJETR021662Uploaded byerpublication
- rvol15no2p10.pdfUploaded byccprado1
- 06 Multiphase Rectifier.pdfUploaded byHuma Sanaullah
- EET424_Exp2(new_ver3)Uploaded byBen Azri
- 1492_3_-Annexure-III-Technical-Specification-Solar-System-10-KW (1).docxUploaded byamarish
- CET Power - MEDIA 2i Datasheet - V1.0Uploaded bySam Montaño Mendoza
- Energy MeterUploaded byKamalesh Saraswat
- DRIVES MV 3Uploaded bySihamaSiham
- mypaper-022-ICPES2012-PS3010Uploaded byHar Sha Chavali
- A REVIEW ON EVALUATION OF PV MODELS BASED ON AN INTEGRATION USING A NEW CONFIGURATION OF A THREE-LEVEL INVERTERUploaded byIJIERT-International Journal of Innovations in Engineering Research and Technology
- 2013-2014 Power Electronics Project TitlesUploaded bybluechip_projects
- Z Source InverterUploaded byVara Lakshmi

- test csUploaded byPayal Aggarwal
- MATLAB Course - Part 2Uploaded byPrathak Jienkulsawad
- A New Vertical Half Disc-Loaded Ultra-WidebandUploaded byaya21rhythm
- 141_1_MidtermUploaded bySanjay Rai
- DSP Lab ReportUploaded byvaamarnath
- Block Diagrams eNotesUploaded bypatel_vicky87
- I'm from the street man I feel like sesame, uhUploaded by;(
- Measurements SystemUploaded byM Rizal Dwi F
- ME779-L1Uploaded bysatyam
- 14330522 Unit Step Function in MatlabUploaded byRavikiran Ravi
- Matlab2014a Data AnalysisUploaded byLeke Ogunranti
- am06-xferfcns_16Sep06.pdfUploaded byWaqas Qamar
- 180345567Uploaded byhord72
- gate mock paper ece.pdfUploaded byShivam Singh
- Control SystemsUploaded byKrista Jackson
- Lecture 6 Sensors Ch 2Uploaded byapi-27535945
- VTL2 ManualUploaded byBryant Bedregal
- ANSWER FOR TUTORIAL 5.docUploaded byPedro Degrandi
- Chapter 5 Time Domain Response First Order SystemUploaded byZiad Obeid
- lec7_cybUploaded byneethurj9
- 1. Labsheet Translation Mechanical SystemUploaded byMuhammad Ehsan Abdul Halim
- S4 SYLLABUSUploaded byRishabh Bahal
- CONTROL_SYS__LAB_MANUAL_[1][1][1].....Uploaded byKiruthiga Balasubramaniam
- Applications of the Laplace TransformUploaded byMochamad Nandradi Toyib
- dpUploaded byhmthant
- A MATLAB Simulink Library for Transient Flow Simulation of Gas NetworksUploaded byAhmadi Ahmad
- Process Control Chapter 4Uploaded byRaza Rizvi
- Automation of Mine Ventilation and Development of Main Fan Control SystemsUploaded byx3350
- Lab Manual - EEE 402 - Exp01 July2014Uploaded byAhammadSifat
- Matlab State space representationUploaded byKomal Noone