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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO.

2, MARCH/APRIL 2002 523

Stationary-Frame Generalized Integrators for Current


Control of Active Power Filters With Zero
Steady-State Error for Current Harmonics
of Concern Under Unbalanced and
Distorted Operating Conditions
Xiaoming Yuan, Senior Member, IEEE, Willi Merk, Herbert Stemmler, and Jost Allmeling

AbstractThe paper proposes the concepts of integrators for deemed a viable solution [6]. While the hysteresis controller is
sinusoidal signals. A proportional-integral (PI) current controller simple and robust, it has major drawbacks in variable switching
using stationary-frame generalized integrators is applied for cur- rate, current error of twice the hysteresis band, and high-fre-
rent control of active power filters. Zero steady-state error for the
concerned current harmonics is realized, with reduced computa- quency limit-cycle operation [1]. Performance of the predictive
tion, under unbalanced utility or load conditions. Designing of the controller, on the other hand, is subject to accuracy of the plant
PI constants, digital realization of the generalized integrators, as model as well as accuracy of the reference current prediction
well as compensation of the computation delay are studied. Exten- [7], [8].
sive test results from a 10-kW prototype are demonstrated.
Recent contributions have been applying the synchronous-
Index TermsActive power filter, current control, generalized frame PI controller for current control of active power filters [9],
integrator, resonator.
[10]. The limitation consists of significant computation arising
from the need for multiple reference frames. To deal with unbal-
I. INTRODUCTION anced conditions, the number of reference frames and therefore
the computation must be doubled.
R ESEARCH on current control for power converters has
been one of the most intensive activities recently [1].
When the reference current is a direct signal, as in the dc
Revisiting the adaptive filter technique [11], which was re-
cently introduced to converter control [12], [13], the core of the
motor drive, zero steady-state error can be secured by using filter is really an indirectly implemented integrator for a single
a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller. When the sinusoidal signal. Direct realization of the integrator allowing
reference current is a sinusoidal signal, as in the ac motor for reduction of computation was already detailed in [14]. The
drive, however, straightforward use of the conventional PI direct realization was also used in [15] for reference current
controller would lead to steady-state error due to finite gain at prediction in a synchronous frame dead-beat controlled active
the operating frequency. A synchronous-frame PI controller power filter.
was then proposed which guarantees zero steady-state error in From the stationary-frame equivalent transfer matrix given in
a balanced system [2], [3]. For an unbalanced system, a second [2], a synchronous-frame PI controller, without regard to the PI,
reference frame rotating in the opposite direction would also be can be deemed an indirectly implemented integrator, however,
needed [4], [5] in order that the negative sequence component only for a positive sequence sinusoidal signal. Directly imple-
is tracked with zero steady-state error. menting the transfer matrix shall reduce the computation. The
When the reference current is a nonsinusoidal signal, as in present paper will further prove that, without the cross-coupling
active power filters, a hysteresis or predictive controller is often terms [16][18], the new transfer matrix will represent an inte-
grator for either balanced or unbalanced sinusoidal signals.
The paper proposes the concept of integrators for sinusoidal
Paper IPCSD01-081, presented at the 2000 Industry Applications Society An-
nual Meeting, Rome, Italy, October 812, and approved for publication in the signals. The concepts of ideal integrator for a single sinusoidal
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS by the Industrial Power Con- signal and a stationary-frame ideal integrator for positive or neg-
verter Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society. Manuscript sub- ative sequence sinusoidal signals are explored. The concepts
mitted for review April 1, 2000 and released for publication November 13, 2001.
X. Yuan is with General Electric Corporate R&D-Shanghai, 200233 of generalized integrator for a single sinusoidal signal and sta-
Shanghai, China (e-mail: xiaoming.yuan@geahk.ge.com). tionary-frame generalized integrator for balanced or unbalanced
W. Merk is with the Electrical Engineering Department, Burgdorf School of sinusoidal signal are also clarified.
Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Bern, 3400 Burgdorf, Switzerland
(e-mail: willi.merk@isburg.ch). The paper will further report a PI current controller using
H. Stemmler and J. Allmeling are with the Power Electronics and the stationary-frame generalized integrators for current control
Electrometrology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of active power filters. Designing the PI constants, digital re-
Zurich, ETH-Zentrum/ETL, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland (e-mail:
stemmler@lem.ee.ethz.ch). alization of the generalized integrators, as well as compensa-
Publisher Item Identifier S 0093-9994(02)02666-X. tion of the computation delay will be studied. The instanta-
0096-9994/02$17.00 2002 IEEE
524 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2002

neous-reactive-power (IRP) theory [19] will be used for refer-


ence current generation. The problem in IRP related to nonideal
point-of-common-coupling (PCC) voltage will be resolved by
using a sequence filter.

II. STATIONARY-FRAME IDEAL INTEGRATOR AND THE


STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATOR
A. Ideal Integrator for a Single Sinusoidal Signal and the
Stationary-Frame Ideal Integrator
Similar to the direct signal case, for a sinusoidal signal
, the amplitude integration of this signal can be
written as . Defining further an auxiliary
signal , the Laplace transforms of the three
signals are

(1)

(2)

(3)

Then an ideal integrator for a single sinusoidal signal can be


configured as shown in Fig. 1(a), where is the resonant fre-
quency of the integrator corresponding to the signal frequency.
Fig. 1. (a) An ideal integrator for a single sinusoidal signal. (b) Sinusoidal
Notice that, for an input signal with frequency deviation of
the corresponding output is given in Fig. 1(b). As long as
,
1
signal with frequency deviation of ! passing through the ideal integrator for
a single sinusoidal. (c) The corresponding stationary-frame ideal integrator.
is sufficiently small and can be approximated by
, the integration function holds. Using the ideal integrator
on the -axis signal and the -axis signal, respectively, a sta- which works without regard to the sequence between the -axis
tionary-frame ideal integrator is then built as shown in Fig. 1(c), signal and the -axis signal.
which works without regard to the sequence between the -axis Observing that the stationary-frame generalized integrator in
and the -axis signals. Fig. 4(b) is the superposition of the positive sequence ideal in-
For a system where the -axis signal leads the -axis signal tegrator in Fig. 2(a) and the negative sequence ideal integrator
by 90 degrees, as in a positive sequence system [2], [3], a in Fig. 2(b), the cross-coupling terms in one are canceled by
positive sequence ideal integrator can be established as shown the corresponding terms in the other. Observe further that the
in Fig. 2(a). However, for a system where the -axis signal output of an ideal integrator of a given sequence resulting from
always lags the -axis signal by 90 degrees, as in a negative the signal of the opposite sequence is negligible. Then a typ-
sequence system, the signs for the cross-coupling terms must ical converter current control system using the stationary-frame
be exchanged to build a negative sequence ideal integrator, as generalized integrator [17], as shown in Fig. 5(a), can be de-
shown in Fig. 2(b). Fig. 2(c) corresponds to positive sequence composed into a positive sequence signal system and a negative
signal passing through the negative sequence ideal integrator, sequence signal system, as shown in Fig. 5(b)/(d) and (c)/(e), re-
while Fig. 2(d) corresponds to a negative sequence signal spectively. Similarly, looking from a counter-clockwise or a
passing through the positive sequence ideal integrator, each clockwise rotating reference frame, the positive sequence
producing negligible output. system or the negative sequence system is equivalent to a di-
rect signal system as shown in Fig. 5(f) [2], [3] and (g), respec-
tively.In a counter-clockwise rotating reference frame, the
B. Generalized Integrator for a Single Sinusoidal Signal and
equivalents of Fig. 2(a) and (c) can be represented by Fig. 3(a)
the Stationary-Frame Generalized Integrator
and (c), respectively [18]. Meanwhile, in a clockwise rotating
Consider then the generalized integrator for a single sinu- reference frame, the equivalents of Fig. 2(b) and (d) can
soidal signal [15], [17], [18], as shown in Fig. 4(a). The in- be represented by Fig. 3(b) and (d), respectively. Notice that in
tegrator output contains not only the integration of the input, Fig. 5 and are the proportional and integral constants,
but also an additional negligible component. The corresponding respectively. is the converter voltage gain, and and are
stationary-frame generalized integrator is shown in Fig. 4(b), load parameters [17].
YUAN et al.: STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATORS FOR CURRENT CONTROL OF ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 525

Fig. 3. (a) Positive sequence ideal integrator equivalent and (c) negative
sequence ideal integrator equivalent in the counter-clockwise (!) rotating
reference frame. (b) Negative sequence ideal integrator equivalent and (d)
0
positive sequence ideal integrator equivalent in the clockwise ( ! ) rotating
reference frame.

Fig. 2. (a) Positive sequence signal passing through a positive sequence ideal
integrator. (b) Negative sequence signal passing through a negative sequence
ideal integrator. (c) Positive sequence signal passing through a negative
sequence ideal integrator. (d) Negative sequence signal passing through a
positive sequence ideal integrator.

III. CURRENT CONTROL OF ACTIVE POWER FILTERS USING Fig. 4. (a) The generalized integrator for a single sinusoidal signal
STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATORS [17]. (b) The corresponding stationary-frame generalized integrator. The
stationary-frame generalized integrator works without regard to the sequence
A. PI Current Controller for Active Power Filters Using the between the -axis signal and the -axis signal.
Stationary-Frame Generalized Integrators
In the case of current control for active power filters, the current harmonics. For each current harmonic of concern, a
current error signal is nonsinusoidal which contains multiple corresponding stationary-frame generalized integrator must be
526 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2002

Fig. 5. (a) Typical converter current control system using the stationary frame generalized integrator. (b) Stationary-frame positive sequence signal system
decomposition with the original input. (c) Stationary-frame negative sequence signal system decomposition with the original input. (d) Stationary-frame positive
sequence signal system decomposition with the positive sequence input. (e) Stationary-frame negative sequence signal system decomposition with the negative
sequence input. (f) Stationary-frame positive sequence signal system equivalent in the counter-clockwise rotating reference frame. (g) Stationary-frame negative
sequence signal system equivalent in the clockwise rotating reference frame.
YUAN et al.: STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATORS FOR CURRENT CONTROL OF ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 527

Fig. 7. (a) Typical shunt active filter system with a ripple filter. (b) Current
control system using the proposed PI current controller.

Fig. 6. PI current controller for active power filters using the stationary-frame
generalized integrators.

installed. When multiple current harmonics are of concern, the


corresponding multiple integrators can be installed as shown in
Fig. 6. Resonant frequencies of the stationary-frame generalized
integrators correspond to the frequencies of the concerned current
harmonics.

B. Current Control System for Active Power Filters Using the


Proposed PI Current Controller Fig. 8. Sequence filter for extracting the sinusoidal positive sequence voltage
component from the unbalanced or distorted PCC voltage.
Fig. 7(a) shows a typical shunt active power filter
system. A voltage source inverter is connected to the
C. Sequence Filter for Utility Reference Current Generation
point-of-common-coupling (PCC) through an interfacing
Under Unbalanced and/or Distorted PCC Voltage Conditions
inductor . The PCC is typically loaded with a nonlinear
diode or thyristor rectifier . represents the utility It is known that the IRP is not able to work correctly under
short-circuit impedance. A ripple filter is installed consisting unbalanced or distorted PCC voltage [20], [21]. The solution
of , , and . Several other ripple filter options are found proposed is a sequence filter as shown in Fig. 8. The filter is
in [22]. connected in the control system as shown in Fig. 7(b).
Fig. 7(b) shows the corresponding current control system Notice that the shaded part in Fig. 8 is a positive sequence
using the proposed PI current controller. The Instantaneous-Re- ideal integrator as previously given in Fig. 2(a). The filter al-
active-Power (IRP) theory [19] is applied for generation of ways delivers the sinusoidal positive sequence component from
the utility current reference. Inverter dc-link voltage control is the PCC voltage. With this component fed to the IRP, the utility
realized by regulating the active power component in the utility current reference generated by the IRP will contain only a sinu-
current through the IRP. LP is a low-pass filter for measuring soidal positive sequence component. The constant in Fig. 8
the dc-link voltage and for decoupling the dc-link voltage controls the bandwidth and the response speed of the filter and
control. will not be detailed.
Notice that, instead of direct inverter current control that re-
quires load current and inverter current measurements, the pro- D. Identifying the Control Loops in the Control System
posal uses a direct utility current control. Only the utility current The current control system given in Fig. 7(b) contains the
measurement is needed as a result. following control loops:
528 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2002

Fig. 10. Spectrum of the load current (phase B).

3) Slow Utility Current Control Loop (Spontaneous): This


loop has an input of the utility voltage , and an output
of the utility current . Different from the first loop, this
loop involves also the second loop. Details of this loop
will be left for a future report.

E. Designing the PI Constants


Considering now the first loop, similar to the conventional di-
rect signal control system, PI constants can be formulated based
on the open-loop transfer function. When the global load model
in Fig. 7 is simplified to , this open-loop transfer
function can be written as

(4)

The magnitude and phase characteristics of the function when


the 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th harmonics of concern are shown in
Fig. 9(a)(c).
The following observations are recognized.
1) Comparing to the simple proportional system, as shown
in Fig. 9(a), adding the generalized integrators radically
changes both the magnitude and phase characteristics at
the concerned harmonic frequencies and the vicinities, as
shown in Fig. 9(b). At other frequencies, however, the
characteristics are not changed.
2) Infinite gains as well as phase leads or lags of up to 90
degrees are created at the concerned harmonic frequen-
cies and the vicinities, adding to the characteristics of the
simple proportional system, as shown in Fig. 9(b). When
Fig. 9. Magnitude and phase characteristics of the open-loop transfer function the net phase delays are less then 180 degrees, the system
of the fast utility current control loop when the 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th
harmonics are concerned. Proportional constant K = 0:06. Inverter voltage is stable at these frequencies and zero steady-state error
gain G = 400. Global load model R = 10
, L = 5 mH. Integral constant: is secured for the current harmonics at these frequencies.
(a) K = 0, (b) K = 1:2, and (c) K = 4:8. 3) Size of the integral constant determines the bandwidths
centered at the concerned harmonic frequencies during
which the characteristics are changed, as shown in
1) Fast Utility Current Control Loop: This loop has an input
Fig. 9(c). For applications potentially with certain funda-
of the utility current reference , an output of the
mental frequency variation, the integral constant may be
utility current , with a perturbation from the utility oversized accordingly.
voltage . As this is the fastest loop in the system, the 4) Size of the proportional constant decides: 1) stability
utility current reference is assumed independent of the of the simple proportional system; 2) order of current
remaining system. harmonics that can be regulated without violating the
2) Slow DC-Link Voltage Control Loop: This loop has an stability limits; 3) cross-over frequency and dynamic
input of the dc-link voltage reference , and an response; and 4) reduction of the current harmonics at
output of the inverter dc-link voltage. The loop is always other frequencies. Size of the proportional constant must
made decoupled from first loop, by setting properly the also observe the PWM constraint in term of the reference
cut-off frequencies of the low-pass filters in the dc-link signal spectrum in relation to the switching frequency
voltage measurement, as well as well as in the IRP [19]. [17].
YUAN et al.: STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATORS FOR CURRENT CONTROL OF ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 529

Fig. 11. Experimental waveforms (phase B) of the PCC voltage, load current, inverter current, and utility current as well as the utility current spectrum in the
cases of: (a), (b) no integrators is used; (c), (d) 1st, 5th, and 7th integrators are used; (e), (f) 1st, 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th integrators are used; and (g), (h) 1st, 5th,
7th, 11th, 13th, 17th, and 19th integrators are used.

F. Digital Implementation of the Generalized Integrators and (6)


Compensation of the Computation Delay
Various delays in the current control loop (mainly the com-
For digital implementation, the following discrete forms of putation delay) have been found to deeply affect the filtering
the relevant algorithms are used (sampling time ) [15]: performance and system stability [15], [23]. The problem will
be resolved when the reference current can be predicted [15].
Different approaches for prediction are being pursued also in
(5)
predictive current control [7], [8].
530 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2002

Rather than reference current prediction, this paper uses a


compromising scheme predicting only the harmonic compo-
nents of the concerned frequencies in the modulating signal. As
the output of each generalized integrator is always sinusoidal,
it is thus easy to predict this output by moving the zero of the
transfer function in the -plane with the following formula for
one- or two-step prediction:

- -
(7)
Fig. 12. Experimental waveforms (phase B) of the PCC voltage, load current,
inverter current, and utility current when R = 39
. The sequence filter is not
- - used.

(8)

Usually two-step prediction is needed. For steady state, as


the proportional path does not contribute to the harmonic com-
ponents of the concerned frequencies in the modulating signal,
phase lags at the concerned frequencies resulting from the com-
putation delay are thus compensated. For the dynamic state,
however, as the error signal contains also the harmonic compo-
nents of the concerned frequencies, the effectiveness of the com-
pensation will be reduced. Notice that phase lags at other fre-
quencies during either steady state or dynamic state are not com- Fig. 13. Experimental waveforms (phase B) of the PCC voltage, load current,
inverter current, and utility current when the wire of phase A of the load is open.
pensated. Stability conditions at these other frequencies must be
met by appropriately choosing the proportional constant.
It is also noticed that an additional controller for the neutral
potential of the NPC inverter used as an active power filter is
IV. TEST OF THE ACTIVE POWER FILTER USING THE PROPOSED also implemented, which will not be detailed.
PI CURRENT CONTROLLER
B. Experimental Results
A. Prototype Description
Fig. 10 shows the spectrum of the load current, and Fig. 11
A 10-kW active power filter prototype was built in the labora- shows the experimental waveforms of the PCC voltage, load
tory using a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter with a dc-link current, inverter current, and utility current as well as the utility
voltage of V. A brake-chopper is connected to each current spectrum in cases when different current harmonics are
of the two dc-link capacitor banks. Each capacitor bank con- concerned. When only proportion is used, as shown in Fig. 11(a)
sists of four 680- F/500-V electrolytic capacitors in parallel. and (b), very limited reduction of the load current harmonics is
The Siemens 1200 V/50 A IGBTs are used, switching at 6 kHz obtained. On the other hand, when a specific current harmonic
driven by the CONCEPT IHD280AN gate drivers. The inverter is the focus and the corresponding integrator is installed, this
interfacing inductor mH. Utility inductor specific current harmonic will disappear from the utility current
mH. A diode rectifier with an inductor mH in series spectrum, as demonstrated in Fig. 11(c)(h). Effectiveness of
with a resistor at the dcside is used to simulate a the proposed PI current controller in ensuring zero steady-state
current source type load [24]. No ripple filter is installed at the error for the concerned current harmonics is verified. The re-
moment. sults also show a very desirable feature in selective harmonic
The PI current controller proposed in Fig. 6 is used with the elimination [25] for reducing the inverter rating while fulfilling
PI constants and . A conventional PI con- the relevant harmonics standard.
troller for direct signal with a proportional constant of 4 and an Fig. 12 shows the PCC voltage, load current, inverter cur-
integral constant of 4 is used for dc voltage control. Before the rent, and utility current when the sequence filter is not used
dc voltage controller is a first-order low-pass filter with a cut-off and . In comparison to Fig. 11(g), the utility cur-
frequency of 125 rad/s. A fifth-order Butterworth low-pass filter rent becomes clearly degraded. This result proves the function
with a cut-off frequency of 125 rad/s is used in the IRP. Con- of the sequence filter in solving the problems of the IRP oper-
stant in the sequence filter is set to 10. The control system is ating under distorted PCC voltage.
implemented in a TMS320C40 DSP using a dSPACE real-time Fig. 13 shows the experimental waveforms of the PCC
system. The rate of sampling is 167 S. voltage, load current, inverter current, and utility current under
YUAN et al.: STATIONARY-FRAME GENERALIZED INTEGRATORS FOR CURRENT CONTROL OF ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 531

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532 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 38, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2002

Xiaoming Yuan (S97M99SM01) received the Herbert Stemmler received the Dipl.-Ing. degree
B.Eng. degree from Shandong University, China, in automation from the Techniche Hochschule
the M.Eng. degree from Zhejiang University, China, in Darmsdadt, Germany, in 1961 and the Ph.D.
and the Ph.D. degree from Federal University of degree in power electronics from the Technische
Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 1986, 1993, and 1998 Hochschule in Aachen, Germany, in 1971.
respectively, all in electrical engineering. He worked with Brown Bovery and ASEA-Brown
He was with Qilu Petrochemical Corporation, Bovery in Baden, Switzerland, from 1961 to 1991,
China, from 1986 to 1990, where he was involved in the field of power electronics. From 1971 to 1991,
in the commissioning and testing of relaying and au- he was head of the department for development, engi-
tomation devices in power systems, adjustable speed neering, test, and commissioning of large power elec-
drives, and high-power UPS systems. From 1998 to tronics systems. In 1987 he was appointed Vice-Pres-
2001, he was a Project Engineer at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ident of this department. During these years, he worked with converter and in-
Zurich, Switzerland, where he worked on flexible-ac-transmission-systems verter locomotives, 5016 2/3 Hz interties, all kinds of large ac drives, reactive
(FACTS) and power quality. Since February 2001, he has been with GE Cor- power compensators, HVDC transmissions, low-power electronics, and stan-
porate R&D and is Manager of the Low Power Electronics Laboratory based dardized and tailor-made electronic control units. Since 1991, he has been Pro-
in Shanghai, China. His research interests are power electronics converters, fessor of Power Electronics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich,
controls, and the applications. Switzerland, and Head of the Power Electronics and Electrometrology Labo-
Dr. Yuan received the first prize paper award from the Industrial Power Con- ratory. At the time of this writing, 15 doctoral projects have been completed
verter Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society in 1999. and 7 projects ongoing in traction, motor drives, flexible-ac-transmission-sys-
tems (FACTS), solar energy systems, uninterruptable power supplies, matrix
converters, and fuel cell vehicles.

Jost Allmeling was born in Hamburg, Germany, in


1972. He received the Dipl.-Ing. degree in electrical
engineering from the University of Technology
(RWTH) Aachen, Germany, in 1996 and the
Willi Merk was born near Schaffhausen, Switzer- Ph.D. degree from the Swiss Federal Institute of
land, in 1945. He completed his studies in electrical Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland, in 2001.
engineering at the University of Applied Sciences in Since 1996, he has been employed as a Research
Winterthur in 1969. Assistant at the Power Electronics Laboratory and the
He joined with Brown Boveri & Cie, Baden, a Power Systems Laboratory of ETH Zurich. His main
former Asea Brown Boveri Company. From 1972 research interests are active filters for the medium
until 1981, he was a leading engineer in HVDC valve voltage grid and the simulation of power electronics
design. Since 1982, he has been a Lecturer at the systems.
University of Applied Sciences Berne, Switzerland, Dr. Allmeling was awarded a second prize in 1992 in the nationwide youth
for control systems, digital signal processing, and research competition Jugend-forscht having investigated the security of smart-
industrial electronics. cards.