REPUBLIQUE DU CAMEROUN

REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON **************************
*************************
Paix –Travail –Patrie
Peace–Work –Fatherland *****************
***********************
MINISTERE DE L’ENSEIGNEMENT
MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION SUPERIEUR
******************************
*******************
UNIVERSITY OF BAMENDA UNIVERSITE DE BAMENDA
HIGHER TECHNICAL TEACHERS ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE
TRAINING COLLEGE (H.T.T.T.C.) L’ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE
BAMBILI-BAMENDA DE BAMBILI-BAMENDA
*********************
**********************
P.O. BOX. 39 BAMENDA Tel: 33 36 36 94 FAX : 33 05 10 69

DEPARTMENT: ELECTRICAL AND POWER ENGINEERING

OPTION: AIR CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION

COURSE TITLE: ENERGY SAVINGS AND TECHNOLOGY
MANAGEMENT OF BUILDING

LEVEL: 500

GROUP: 1

ACTIVE SOLAR WATER
HEATING SYSTEM
NAMES OF STUDENTS MATRICULE RATE OF PARTICIPATION (%)

BAMOU STEPHANE 11T1231 100
FOKAM FOKOUO JULES EMMANUEL 14T0884 100
TAGU TAKAM Yannick Printice 14T0894 100
TOHOKO TAGHO Bernard 14T0898 100

WRITTEN BY:

COURSE INTRUCTOR

Dr. ALOYEM

ACADEMIC YEAR 2015-2016

........10 REFERENCE................................8 3......................... Building Codes.....................................................4 1................... Pump.........................1....................... A solar collector...... Installing and Maintaining Your Solar Heating System.....................................................1....................1....1.................................................................8 3............................... Benefits of Solar Water Heaters................................................................................................................4 Figure 3: Drainback Solar Water Heating System.................................2.............................................................................................................................................................................. Controls for Solar Heating Systems......... Economic Benefits.................................................... and Regulations for Solar Heating Systems............................6 1 ....................................................................................................3 1........................................................... Disadvantages of a Closed Loop...............................................5 Figure 4 : Solar Collector......................2..................... Heat exchanger fluid in indirect systems....3 Figure 2 : An active....7 2.................................................................. MAIN COMPONENTS OF ACTIVE SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEM.................................................9 Conclusion..........2 1...11 LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1 : An open-loop system heats household water directly in the collectors.........................................................................9 6............................. Open-loop active........2.....................................................8 4.......2 1.............2.............................. A Storage tank. Long-Term Benefits.......................... Drainback systems.........................................................................................................................6 2............ Classification of active solar water heater................................................................ Table of content ........................................................ Advantages of Open Loop.........................................................................................................................................3..............................................................................8 5......................................7 3..........1 Table of content........................................ Disadvantages Open Loop......................................5 2...................................................................2 1......................................................................... Covenants................................ Advantages of a Closed Loop.................................3......................................1 LIST OF FIGURE.........................5 2..........................................................................1... Environmental Benefits.........2......................................1 INTRODUCTION.....................................2...................7 3..2...........................................................................................1....................................................5 2...........................................................................................3 1......................................................................... Closed-loop active systems...........3 1...............................................................1................ closed-loop system..................4 1.............................3...........................4..............................................................................................

....1............ sizes.. ranging from small passive heaters to three.......... their classifications 1.. valves. black painted water tanks were used as simple solar heaters in number of countries......... light and heat... We would focus in this work on the active solar water heater.. and the quality of the site in terms of solar access........... For many years.... The sun is an energy source available to everyone..... and inexpensively to reduce developing and undeveloped countries dependence on imported fuels.................. Solar water heaters come in a variety of shapes. Today we use special equipment and specially designed homes to capture energy for lighting and heating... and controllers to circulate water or other heat- transfer fluids through the collectors.....Figure 5: Storage Tank.. These systems are appropriate in areas that do not freeze for long periods and do not have hard or acidic water.. The sun gives us energy in two forms...7 INTRODUCTION Solar hot water heaters can provide households with a large proportion of their hot water needs while cutting back on home energy costs..... A back-up heating system for water will be necessary during times when solar radiation is insufficient to meet hot water demands.... the climate.. Classification of active solar water heater Active systems use electric pumps....... There are three types of active systems: 1.... Harnessing the sun as a clean and renewable source of energy has proven to be a challenge over the centuries and in modern times has fallen off in favor of other technologies which are easier to commercialize and capitalize on..or four-panel active using the sun’s energy to heat water is not a new idea.. 2 ......... More than one hundred years ago.... people have been using the sun’s energy to make their homes brighter and warmer... an energy source that can be used simply....... The amount of hot water that solar energy will provide depends on the type and size of the system. Open-loop active Systems use pumps to circulate water through the collectors. and capabilities’..

The primary freeze protection needs electricity or battery back-up. however recirculate from the colder bottom of the tank and supply pipes. Advantages of Open Loop It is the simplest and typically the least expensive active system to install. 1. Closed-loop active systems Pump heat-transfer fluids such as a mixture of glycol and water antifreeze through collectors.2. 3 .2.1. Figure 1 : An open-loop system heats household water directly in the collectors 1. It does. The system integrates easily with existing systems. It is simple to add capacity to the system if demand changes. and there are minimal losses in the loop and none through the collector. There is no heat exchanger.1. 1.1. Heat exchangers transfer the heat from the fluid to the water stored in the tanks. The system operates at standard line pressure. Disadvantages Open Loop Some stored heat can be lost when the system re-irculates. which allows efficient heat transfer directly to the water.

The top coil can also be connected to the house boiler as a DHW backup. Twin coil tanks are also available that allow surplus solar energy to be directed to spa. closed-loop system 1. because either a tank with a heat exchange coil or an external heat exchanger is required. (8 -12 psi) The antifreeze may need to be recharged on a 3 to 5 year basis. as well as excellent freeze protection. pool.2. Advantages of a Closed Loop Closed Loop system allows simple switching between heat exchangers for multiple applications.1. No freeze sensors or drain down valves are necessary. with or without electric backup. The collector loop needs to be pressurized.2. As a heat exchanger is required the collector loop will run at slightly higher temperatures than an open loop system. 1. Special solar domestic hot water tanks are available with internal heat exchangers (coils). 4 .2. Figure 2 : An active. floor etc. Disadvantages of a Closed Loop It is generally more complicated than an open loop system.

They are the key component of active solar systems. MAIN COMPONENTS OF ACTIVE SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEM It generally consists of following components:  A solar collector. Because the water in the collector loop drains into a reservoir tank when the pumps stop.3.1.  Heat exchanger fluid in indirect systems.  A storage tank. 1. Pressure relief valve Collector Brainback tank Sight glass Control Cold water in Hot water out Pump Brain Hot water tank Figure 3: Drainback Solar Water Heating System 2. A solar collector Solar collectors are at the heart of most active solar energy systems.  Pump 2. this is a good system for colder climates. Drainback systems It use pumps to circulate water through the collectors. The collector absorbs the 5 . and are designed to meet the specific temperature requirements and climate conditions for the different end-uses.

to provide space heating or cooling. A Storage tank A solar water tank is an insulated water storage tank. Figure 4 : Solar Collector 2.2.sun's light energy and changes it into heat energy. whereas those requiring temperatures greater than 200°F use evacuated-tube or concentrating collectors. or for many other applications where fossil fuels might otherwise be used. Cold water that is used to go directly to conventional water heater enters the solar tank and solar-heated water exits. There are several types of solar collectors:  Flat-plate collectors  Evacuated-tube collectors  Concentrating collectors  Transpired air collectors Residential and commercial building applications that require temperatures below 200°F typically use flat-plate or transpired air collectors. 6 . This thermal energy can then be used to provide heated water for residential or commercial use.

2. Heat exchanger fluid in indirect systems Heat exchangers are used in regions that experience temperatures less than freezing. Figure 5: Storage Tank 2.3. Pump Pumps are used in active systems. while the economics aren’t quite so attractive when compared with those of gas water heaters.4. and as one option to supplement another source of water heating. They enable the transfer of heat from one fluid to another without the two mixing. and environmental benefits. The main advantage of using heat exchanger is to protect the system against freezing. 7 . They circulate water or antifreeze between the solar collector and the storage tank. 3. Heat exchangers themselves are built into a closed loop system and transfer the heat gathered in the collector to the house’s hot water supply. and number one is economics. but are not required in batch or thermo-siphon systems. Benefits of Solar Water Heaters There are many benefits to owning a solar water heater. such as being cushioned from future fuel shortages and price increases. Solar water heater economics compare quite favorably with those of electric water heaters. Heating water with the sun also means long-term benefits.

However. Carbon dioxide traps heat in the upper atmosphere. and/or motors to operate the system. Environmental Benefits Solar water heaters do not pollute. you and your family will be cushioned from future fuel shortages and price increases. 3. The National Remodelers Association reports that adding a solar water heater to an existing home raises the resale value of the home by the entire cost of the system. switches. 3. the thermostat turns on a pump or fan to circulate water or air through the collector to heat the storage medium or the house. Long-Term Benefits Solar water heaters offer long-term benefits that go beyond simple economics. 3.1. The heart of the control system is a differential thermostat. thus contributing to the “greenhouse effect. By investing in one. When the collectors are 10° to 20°F (5.3. nitrogen oxides. which measures the difference in temperature between the collectors and storage unit. because they have to analyze more signals and control more devices (including the conventional back-up heating system). 8 . When a solar water heater replaces an electric water heater. You may be able to recoup your entire investment when you sell your home. Economic Benefits Many home builders choose electric water heaters because they are easy to install and relatively inexpensive to purchase. the electricity displaced over 20 years represents more than 50 tons of avoided carbon dioxide emissions alone. and the other air pollution and wastes created when your utility generates power or you burn fuel to heat your household water. You will also be doing your part to reduce this country’s dependence on foreign oil. The system uses other controls to prevent freezing or extremely high temperatures in the collectors. you will be avoiding carbon dioxide.” 4. sulfur dioxide. Controls for Solar Heating Systems Controls for solar heating systems are usually more complex than those of a conventional heating system. In addition to having free hot water after the system has paid for itself in reduced utility bills.6° to 11°C) warmer than the storage unit.2. research shows that an average household with an electric water heater spends about 25% of its home energy costs on heating water. Solar controls use sensors.

and installation as well as the quality and durability of the components. you should investigate local building codes. Building Codes.The operation. When used with a room air collector. and during high solar gain. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system on an existing building. it runs faster. as well as any special regulations pertaining (added) to the site. The output of the solar panels matches available solar heat gain to the solar collector. Some control systems monitor the temperature in different parts of the system to help determine how it is operating. 5. Installing and Maintaining Your Solar Heating System How well an active solar energy system performs depends on effective siting. Today’s collectors and controls are high quality. zoning ordinances. This also ensures that the system will operate in the event of utility power outage. and subdivision covenants. and cost of these controls vary. direct current (DC) blowers (for air collectors) or pumps (for liquid collectors). you must comply with existing building and permit procedures to install your system. 6. The most sophisticated systems use microprocessors to control and optimize heat transfer and delivery to storage and zones of the house. and Regulations for Solar Heating Systems Before installing a solar energy system. Covenants. but it can still be a challenge finding an experienced contractor who can properly design and install the system. A solar power system with battery storage can also provide power to operate a central heating system. 9 . though this is expensive for large systems. Although this is often due to ignorance or the comparative novelty of renewable energy systems. It is possible to use a solar panel to power low voltage. Not every community or municipality initially welcomes residential renewable energy installations. system design. performance. During low sun conditions the blower or pump speed is slow. separate controls may not be necessary. the blower or pump speed is optimized for efficient solar gain to the working fluid. With careful sizing.

Most solar water heaters are automatically covered under your homeowner's insurance policy. Conclusion Properly installed domestic solar hot water systems are efficient and reliable. System configurations can from simple systems that rely on gravity to more complex systems that require pumps. Even if your provider will cover your system. Although they have a higher initial cost than a conventional water heater. 10 . Contact your insurance provider to find out what its policy is. they will dramatically reduce fuel consumption and can have a payback of 5-10 years. damage from freezing is generally not. Again. it is recommended that you hire a professional to install your solar hot water system. and you should set up a calendar listing the maintenance tasks that the component manufacturers and installer recommends for your installation.Once a system is in place. If additional technical assistance is needed. Different systems require different types of maintenance. it has to be properly maintained to optimize its performance and avoid breakdowns. controllers. it is best to inform them in writing that you own a new system. contact the North Carolina Solar Center. However. and heat exchangers.

Inc. IL 60611. 1991.REFERENCE [1] Consumer Guide to Solar Energy. Boulder. CO. both mature and emerging. Bonus Books. Sheinkopf. Unit G-1. 11 . [2] Solar Today.. (303) 443-3130. Sklar and K. Chicago. 160 East Illinois Street. Solar Todaycovers all the solar technologies.S. in a generalinterest format. 80301. 2400 Central Avenue.