IGCSE BIOLOGY 2.

1 Cellular organization
State that living organisms are made of cells

All animals, plants, fungi, protists, & bacteria are made of one or more cells.

Cells are the smallest unit of life.

Most human cells, like most other animal cells, have the following parts:

 nucleus
 cytoplasm
 cell membrane
 mitochondria
 ribosomes

Plant cells also have:

 cell wall
 chloroplasts
 permanent vacuole

Identify and describe the structure of a plant cell (palisade cell) and an animal cell (liver cell), as
seen under a light microscope.

1

palisade cell liver cell Photos produced when looking through microscopes are called micrographs. 2 . Scanning electron micrographs ( SEM ) are produced with a scanning electron microscope. Light micrographs are produced with a light microscope.

xylem (red) and phloem (blue) cells. vascular bundles. These contain large numbers of chloroplasts and are the principal sites of photosynthesis. are two layers of column-like cells known as palisade cells. 3 . Ilex sp. and lower epidermal layer. Within the midrib is a vascular bundle. composed of The protrusion at center is just over 50 microns tall. mesophyll layer with palisade cells and photosynthesis. The upper and lower epidermis on the surfaces of the leaf are blue. its upper cells (brown). . Scanning electron microscope image of a leaf from a Black Walnut tree. which contain chloroplasts. Magnification: x240 at 35mm size. Light micrographs Light micrograph of a transverse section through a holly leaf. which transport water and carbohydrates around the plant respectively. Light micrograph of a section through the midrib of a tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf. Below the epidermis (top layer of cells). Under the upper epidermis are palisade Image shows a cross-section of a cut leaf. Light micrograph Scanning electron micrograph Tea leaf. the site of epidermal layer.

palisade left. Beneath (Lupinus). Scanning Electron Micrographs 4 . which contain Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of leaf of Lupinchloroplasts. plant the site of photosynthesis. At bottom bundle. Transverse section of upper part of leaf of a Magnification x540 gases and water to enter and leave the Helleborus sp. Under the upper epidermis Color enhanced freeze-fracture are palisade cells (brown). Tea leaf. Magnification: x230 when printed 10 cells. a stoma (pore) is seen. Light micrograph of a cross-section through a tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf. epidermis. The upper and lower epidermis on the surfaces of the leaf are blue. showing vascular this a spongy mesophyll layer with large spaces between the cells. centimeters wide. Stomata allow cells and spongy mesophyll. showing epidermis and palisade plant.

the sites of photosynthesis. Colored scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a section through a fractured leaf. (orange/green). At right is a single layer of cells that forms the epidermis of the leaf. The top layer (seen here at left) of the leaf interior is made up of palisade mesophyll tissue. showing the upper epidermis and palisade cells within which are stored the chloroplast (photosynthesis). One of the tightly packed palisade cells (light green) has been fractured open to reveal its Describe the differences in structure between typical animal and plant chloroplasts cells. Scanning electron micrograph of cross fracture of the leaf Zinnia elegans. Leaf section. Generalized animal and plant cell 5 . X 2100.

*Make sure you can label diagrams of animal and plant cells. Describe the differences in structure between typical animal and plant cells. PLANT CELLS ANIMAL CELLS 6 .

Animal cells may have several small vacuoles. or none at all. external or internal support from some kind of skeleton. Have a shape related to their function. 7 . Usually have a large central vacuole. photosynthesize.Have a rigid cell wall that helps them keep Do not have a cell wall and therefore require either their shape. Plants manufacture their own food and use Animals must eat their food because they cannot chloroplasts to do that. Relate the structures seen under the light microscope in the plant cell and in the animal cell to their functions.

controlled by enzymes cell membrane controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell mitochondria most energy is released by respiration here ribosomes protein synthesis happens here Plant cells also have a cell wall.Animal cells and plant cells have some organelles in common. organelle function cell wall strengthens the cell chloroplasts contain chlorophyll. and often have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole. organelle function nucleus contains genetic material. which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis permanent vacuole filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid Relate the structure of the following to their functions • red blood cells – transport • root hair cells – absorption Specialized cells: 8 . which controls the activities of the cell cytoplasm most chemical processes take place here.

photosynthesis closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight. 9 . ions from the soil which gives a large surface area. Leaf cell Absorbs water and mineral Long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall. The tail moves the Sperm cell sperm to the egg. Root hair cell Fertilizes an egg cell . Regular shaped. Their structure allows them to carry out this function .Cells may be specialized for a particular function. Examples of specialized cells Cell Function Adaption Absorbs light energy for Packed with chloroplasts. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The head contains genetic information and an female gamete enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane.

Shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently. and Large (egg cell) then to provide food for the new cell that's been Contains lots of cytoplasm formed Calculate magnification and size of biological specimens using millimeters as units. so the whole cell is Red blood cells full of hemoglobin. Nerve cells To carry nerve impulses to Long different parts of the body Connections at each end Can carry electrical signals Female reproductive cell To join with male cell. through easily. No nucleus.Cell Function Adaption Contain hemoglobin to carry Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse oxygen to the cells. 10 .

If they have a scale bar.Practice: 1. calculate the actual size size of some of the structures seen. 11 . Search the internet for light and electron microscope images of various cells. 2. print them and calculate the real size of the sample. Know that cells are arranged in groups to form tissues. using the images of the cells on pages 4 and 5 of these notes.

tissue – a structure made from large numbers of one type of cell Examples of tissues found in the human body Examples of tissues found in a leaf 12 .

13 .