Satellite Geodesy


Wolfgang Keller

Institute of Geodesy
University of Stuttgart

c 2004 by Wolfgang Keller
Copyright °


Chapter 1. Time Systems 5
1.1. Atomic Time 5
1.2. Dynamical Time 6
1.3. Sidereal and Universal Time 6
Chapter 2. Conventional Reference Systems 9
2.1. International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) 9
2.2. Celestial Reference System 9
2.3. Terrestrial Reference Systems 9
2.4. WGS84 10
2.5. Ellipsoidal Reference Systems 12
Chapter 3. Earth Rotation 15
3.1. Motion in Celestial System 15
3.2. Precession transformation 15
3.3. Nutation transformation 16
Chapter 4. Signal Propagation 19
4.1. Structure of the atmosphere 21
Chapter 5. Theory of Satellite Motion 25
5.1. Equation of Motion 25
5.2. Integration of Keplerian equation of motion 26
5.3. Disturbed Keplerian Motion 33
5.4. Variation of integration constants for disturbed orbit computation 35
5.5. Integration of the disturbing equations 38
Bibliography 47


1) J2000. 4713 BC. Since the origin of Julian Date is much to far in the past.1. operated by various national agencies and kept by the In- ternational Earth Rotation Service . which is strongly coupled to the rotation of the Earth. The SI day is defined as 86400 SI seconds and the Julian century is defined as 36525 SI days.TAI is based on atomic clocks.1.0. The fundamental interval unit of TAI is one SI second.GAST).2. Therefore a precise definition of time is fundamental to geodetic observations. Atomic Time The fundamental atomic time scale Temps Atomique International .1. Definition 1. Presently. Definition 1.IERS and the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures -BIPM). The Julian Date is the number of SI days and the fraction of a SI day elapsed since 12.1. It is defined as the Julian Date at 1 January 2000 12:00 GMT. In order to give an example: Atomic time (UTC or GPS-time) is used for the time tagging of the GPS-signal. Universal or sidereal time can be seen as an approximation of atomic time scale.0.1. TAI is a uniform time scale coinciding with Universal Time (UT) at midnight January 1.0 All time variables. Due to the movement of the Earth around the galactic mass center the atomic time differs periodically from the dynamic time. The Julian Date of the standard epoch of UT is called J2000. • dynamical time Atomic time is the time scale which is derived from a set of terrestrial fundamental atomic clocks. 1.0 = JD2451545. Hence. denoted by T are measured in Julian centuries relative to the epoch J2000. (1. 5 .3. two time systems are in use • atomic time.1. UT has another fundamental epoch to refer time differences to: Definition 1. Dynamical time is the independent variable in the theory of General Relativity. CHAPTER 1 Time Systems Many geodetic observation techniques use travel times of electromagnetic waves. Before atomic time was available civilian time systems were based on the Earth’s rotation and were called universal (UT1) or sidereal (GMST. The equations of motion of a GPS satellite are formulated in dynamical time (DT). 1958. h UT on January 1.

Sidereal and Universal Time Prior to the operationality of atomic clocks. Definition 1.001658 sin(g + 0.050T ) 180 T is the time in Julian centuries TDT. Dynamical Time Definition 1. Since the best approximation of an inertial system is centered at the barycenter of the solar system. 1. the dynamical time measured in this system is called Barycentric Dynamical Time (Temps Dynamique Barycentrique . The GPS time (GPST) runs at the rate of the atomic clock of the GPS Master Control station in Colorado Springs.6 1.2. A third atomic time is the GPS time.TDB).2.2) g = (357◦ . The introduction of leap seconds makes sure that the difference between UTC and UT (more precisely: be- tween UTC and UT1) is not larger than 0.2) GP ST = 19s + T AI 1. The difference DUT1 := UT1-UTC is broadcasted by the IERS. An Earth based clock will show periodic variations of about 1. TIME SYSTEMS TAI is a continuous time scale. the Earth’s diurnal rotation was used to measure time. it does not maintain synchronization with the solar day (UT) . Definition 1. GPST and UTC coincided at oh January 6 1980.Since the rotation rate of the Earth is slowing down the TAI will get more and more ahead UT.3.9 s.1.2.0167 sin g) where π (1. .2. UTC runs at the same rate as TAI but is incremented pe- riodically by leap seconds.2.6 milliseconds with respect to TDB due to the motion of the Earth in the gravitational field of the sun.1.1.1. Two different time systems were connected to the rotation Earth: • sidereal time • universal time These two times are still used as an angle measure for the transformation between celestial and terrestrial systems.2. Leap seconds are introduced by the IERS if necessary.4. Terrestrial Dynamical Time TDT (Temps Dynamique Ter- restre) is the independent variable in the equation of motion of a body in the Earth’s gravitational field. The relations between TDT and TDB are given by (1. Definition 1. Dynamical Time is the independent variable in the equa- tions of motion of bodies under gravitational forces according to the theory of General Relativity.1) T DB = T DT + 0s .5.528 + 35999◦ . This problem is solved by the definition of the Universal Coordinated Time UTC. Since GPST is not incremented there is a 19 seconds offset between TAI and GPST (1.

For this reason a fictitious sun was invented which moves with constant velocity.3.1) Eq.3) Tu = 36525 .3.093104Tu2 − 600 .812866Tu (1.E := GAST − GM ST = AST − M ST = ∆ψ cos(ε + ∆ε) where the nutations in longitude and obliquity ∆ψ. SIDEREAL AND UNIVERSAL TIME 7 Definition 1. ∆ε are given by (3. which refer to the mean vernal equinox.3.2 · 10−6 Tu3 With Tu being the Julian date since J2000.3.4).0 in Julian centuries JulianU T 1date − 2451545.2) +000 .3. The angle between the observers local meridian and the true vernal equinox corrected for precession and nutation is called apparent sidereal time (AST).548481 + 864018400. The difference between GAST and GMST is called the equa- tion of Equinox EqE (1.2. which refer to the true vernal equinox there are corresponding times MST and GMST.3) and (3. it is called Greenwich apparent sidereal time (GAST) Besides the times AST and GAST. 1. According to Kepler’s second law the Earth doesn’t revolve the sun at a constant angular velocity. If this angle is referred to the Greenwich mean astronomical meridian.1. The Time UT1 is the Universal Time corrected for polar motion.3. The relationship between sidereal and universal time is given in terms of the IAU(1967) system of constants by GM ST = U T 1 + 6h 41m 5000 .3.3.3. Definition 1. The hour angle of the fictitious sun is called Universal Time UT.3.(corrected only for precession) Definition 1.0 (1.


Celestial Reference System Definition 2. which is concerned with the maintenance of the IERS Reference System. • the IERS Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and • the IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) The ICRF is realized by a catalogue of compact extragalactical radio sources.0. The axes of the ICRS are defined as • the CEP.2. The small motions of the Earth’s rotation axis can be de- scribed as the sum of two components (1) astronomical nutation (2) polar motion The direction of the axis which is computed from the theory of nutation and precession is called Celestial Ephemeris Pole (CEP) The origin of the ICRS is the barycenter of the solar system. 9 . CHAPTER 2 Conventional Reference Systems 2.1. The conventionally defined coordinate system differs in the orientation of its axis by about 0. In the Central Bureau these information are combined and in regular updates the IERS Reference System is released. 2. 2. International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) Recent reference systems are maintained by international cooperation. In different IERS Analysis Centers for geodetic space techniques as VLBI. By adopting coordinates of quasars. a set of models and parameters. implicitly a coordinate system is conventionally defined. The ITRF is realized by a set of terrestrial station coordinates and velocities. In order to have a coor- dinate system . GPS the parameters for the Earth rotation are computed. which is fixed with respect to the Earth the ITRS is adopted.0 The ICRF is a realization of the IERS consisting of catalogue of astronomical co- ordinates of about 200 extragalactical radio sources at the epoch J2000. SLR LLR.0001 arc-seconds from the ICRS. Terrestrial Reference Systems The CEP moves with respect to the Earth’s surface. the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). • the equinox • and a third axes completing the former two axis to a Cartesian coordinate system at the epoch J2000. which are used by the Analysis Centers. The transformation from the ICRF to a system with its third axis to CEP is given by the theory of nutation and precession.2. The International Association of Geodesy (IAG) has set up a service.3. The IERS Reference System is composed of • IERS Standards.1.

0 to 1906. The adopted coordinates of these stations implicitly define a new coordinate system. The axes of the ITRS are oriented in the following way: • the Z axis is oriented to the CIO.0 Definition 2. a catalogue of Cartesian coordinates and velocities of globally distributed tracking stations.3.3.10 2. 2.0 is defined as the Conventional Inertial Pole (CIO) at the epoch 1903.1. The ITRS is realized by the ITRF. It is an implicitly defined system.1. The transformation between the ITRF and the ICRF is given by the pole coordi- nates xP . yP and the nutation and precession parameters dψ.4. The ITRS is defined with its origin at the Earth’s geocenter.0 meridian of Greenwich • and the Y axis completes the former two axes to a Cartesian coordinate system. which differs from the ITRS by about 10mm in position and several mm/year in velocity. It is defined by adopting Cartesian coordinates of the ten DoD GPS Monitoring Stations derived from Doppler observations on these sites. The mean direction of the Earth rotation axis determined by the five International Latitude Service stations in the period 1900. the most important is the WGS84. WGS84 Besides the ITRF several other terrestrial reference systems are in use. d. In order to align the WGS84 with the more accurate ITRF the DoD has recomputed the coordinates of the ten monitoring stations using GPS observations at these sites . Equinox Definition 2. • the X-axis is oriented towards the 1903. This results in an accuracy of the WGS84 System of about 1-2 m. CONVENTIONAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS Figure 2. Prob- ably.2. The WGS84 is maintained by the US Department of Defense (DoD) and is the reference system of the GPS system.2.

. ITRF97 Network and at a subset of IGS tracking stations whose ITRF coordinates were held fixed. This refined WGS84 System is called WGS84 (G730). In order to compute the orbits of these satellites some additional constants have to be adopted. WGS84 11 Figure 2.4. Relation between ICRS and ITRS Figure 2. 2.3.3. The WGS84 system is realized by the ephemerides of the GPS satellites.1.2.

which approximates the Earth’s surface in a certain region. 2. CONVENTIONAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS An ellipsoidal coordinate system is attached to the WGS84 by locating an ellipsoid at the origin of the WGS84 system and letting the rotation axis coincide with the Z-axis of the WGS84. This ellipsoid has the dimensions (2. The additional datum parameters of the GRS80 Reference System are Table 2. Besides global ellipsoidal systems a number of local ellipsoidal systems are in use.5. It approximates the Earth as a whole.16685 · 10−6 2.1. 2.257222100827 angular velocity ω 7. The Rauenberg Datum. Datum parameters of WGS84 Parameter Symbol numerical value semi-major axis a 6378137 m reciprocal flattening 1/f 298.155 m.257223563 angular velocity ω 7.0 −4884.2. This means the datum parameters of the WGS84 are Table 1. Datum parameters of GRS80 Parameter Symbol numerical value semi-major axis a 6378137 m reciprocal flattening 1/f 298. 2. Ellipsoidal systems can be distinguished between global systems which approximate the Earth as a whole and a local ellipsoidal system. Ellipsoidal Reference Systems For many purposes ellipsoidal coordinate systems are more convenient than Cartesian systems.15281285 The position and orientation datum parameters are not given as the position of the origin and the orientation of the axes but in an equivalent way. They approximate the Earth’s surface only in their region of validity.12 2. It is defined as an ellipsoid centered at the origin of the ITRS and having its axes coinciding with the axes of the ITRS. The GRS80 Reference System. Local Ellipsoidal Systems.5. First an initial point in the center of the region of validity of the reference system has to be fixed.5 km3 s−2 second zonal harmonic C̄2.5 km3 s−2 dynamical form factor J2 108263 · 10−8 The GRS80 Reference system is a global ellipsoidal system. For this initial point the following quantities are assigned .1) a = 6377397.5. The Rauenberg datum is the official reference system for the western part of Germany.1. The most important global ellip- soidal System is the GRS System. 1/f = 299.292115 · 10−5 s−1 geocentric gravitational constant GM 398600.5.5. It is an ellipsoidal System which is based on the Bessel 1841 ellipsoid.292115 · 10−5 s−1 geocentric gravitational constant GM 398600.2.

5.2. For the Rauenberg datum the Helmert Tower of the GeoForschungsZentrum in Postsdam was used as initial point. The reference frame of the Rauenberg datum are the points of the German Haupt- dreiecksnetz (DHDN) whose Gauß .5.Krüger coordinates based on a 3◦ zone-width are given. The system 42/83 used to be the official reference system in the eastern part of Germany. 2. L = 11◦ 340 2600 .3) a = 6378245 m.483 E The coordinate system was oriented by setting the geodetic azimuth of the line Rauenberg . ELLIPSOIDAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS 13 • the ellipsoidal coordinates L.9540 N. Deutsches Hauptdreiecksnetz 2.5.2) B = 52◦ 220 5300 . ϕ. 1/f = Its ellipsoidal coordinates were set to (2.3 . Figure 2. It is based on the Krassovsky 1940 ellipsoid with the following dimensions (2. The 42/83 Datum.5. B are set identical to the astronomic coor- dinates λ. • the geodetic azimuth A to a specific target is set identical to the astro- nomical azimuth a • a specific value N is adopted for the separation between the geoid and the ellipsoid in the initial point.Marienkirche Berlin to its astronomical azimuth.

14 2. .Krüger coordinates based on a 6◦ zone-width are given. Pe- tersburg) and its reference frame are the points of • the Einheitliches Astronomisch-Geodätisches Netz (EAGN) and • the Staatliches Trigonometrisches Netz 1st Order (STN1. CONVENTIONAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS Its initial point is the Central Astronomical Observatory Pulkovo (close to St.O) whose Gauß .

These changes are called precession and nutation and can be predicted with a very high accuracy.3.2. The gravitative forces of the Sun and Moon acting on the equatorial bulge of the Earth are changing the orientation of the rotation axis in inertial space. The combined effect of luni-solar and planetary precession is called general precession or simply precession Definition 3. The precession causes a westerly movement of the equinox of about 5000 . Additionally. The polar motion represents the forced and the free response of the Earth to external forces in almost equal parts.1. Motion in Celestial System Moon and Sun and the planets exert gravitational forces on the equatorial bulge. Planetary precession consist of a 0◦ .5 per year rotation of the ecliptic resulting in a easterly motion of the equinox by about 1200 . This movement consist of two constituents • precession and • nutation Theorem 3. it reacts to this forces by a clockwise movement of its rotation axis. 800 years and an amplitude equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic of 23◦ .1. Both nutation and polar motion are the superposition of Earth’s response to external forces and free nutation of the Earth’s Nutation is primarily the forced response of the Earth and can be predicted by geophysical and orbital models. Definition 3. CHAPTER 3 Earth Rotation The rotation axis of the Earth is not fixed in inertial space neither it is with respect to the Earth’s body.6 years (the main period) and a maximum amplitude of 900 . 3. 3.5. there is a small movement of the Earth’s rotation axis with respect to its crust.5 per century and an decrease of the obliquity of the ecliptic by about 4700 per century.1.2.1. Since the rotating Earth behaves like a gyro. which is called polar motion.1) P = R3 (−zA )R2 (θA )R3 (−ζA ) 15 . The short periodic motion of the pole superimposed on the precession with oscillations of 1 day to 18. Precession transformation The transformation of stellar coordinates from the mean equator and equinox at epoch ti to the mean equator and equinox at another epoch tj is performed by the means of the following rotation matrix (3.1. Again the forced part can be predicted but the free part can only be determined by Space Geodesy methods.2 is called nutation. Luni-solar precession is the circular motion of the celestial pole with a period of 25.2.3 per year.

are given by ζA = (230600 .3.39656Tu − 000 . Precession cone Figure 3.2181 + 100 .1.2.3) +(100 .1) N = R1 (−ε − ∆ε)R3 (−∆ψ)R1 (ε) .017998t3 zA = (230600 . defined by the 1976 IAU conventions.4) −(000 .30188 − 000 .3.1.000344Tu )t2 + 000 .16 3.39656Tu − 000 . Nutation transformation The transformation of stellar coordinates from the mean to the true equator and equinox at an epoch is given by (3.2.000066Tu )t2 + 000 .2.1.000217Tu2 )t (3.5) Tu := (JD − 2451545.041833t3 where (3.09468 − 000 .018203t3 θA = (200400 . 3. EARTH ROTATION Figure 3. Nutation The precession angles .2.3109 − 000 .2) +(000 .000139Tu2 )t (3.000217Tu )t2 − 000 .2181 + 100 .85330Tu − 000 .42665 − 000 .2.000139Tu2 )t (3.0)/36525 and t is the interval between tj and ti in Julian centuries.

804 + (99r + 129258100 .019T 3 (5) mean longitude of the ascending lunar node (3. Polar motion consists of a free and a forced oscillation. Definition 3.3. Motion in the Terrestrial System.224)T − 000 . Bij .5) α1 = 48586600 .5 milliarcseconds which is equivalent to 6 . The coefficients Aij .280 − (5r + 48289000 .877 + (1342r + 299526300 . Polar motion is the rotation of the true celestial pole as defined by the precession and nutation models with respect do the z-axis of a conventionally chosen terrestrial reference system. The free oscillation is counterclockwise with a period of 430 days (Chandler period ) and an amplitude of 3-6 m. accounting for 0. Polar motion cannot be predicted by models. with an amplitude of one order of magnitude smaller then the free oscillation. i.3.1.00181t3 The nutation parameters ∆ψ and ∆ε can be represented by series expansions N " 5 !# X X (3.8150Tu + 000 .733 + (1325r + 71592200 .064T 3 (2) mean anomaly of the Sun (3. 1r = 360◦ = 129600000 .00177Tu + 000 .9) α5 = 45016000 .3) ∆ψ = (A0j + A1j T ) sin kji αi (T ) ) j=1 i=1 N " 5 !# X X (3.1. The second part has an annual period since it is excited by the annual changes in the atmosphere.8) α4 = 1007226100 .577T 2 − 000 .891T 2 + 000 .3.3.448 − 4600 .e.001813Tu3 ) (3.3.7) α3 = 33577800 . 3. Its amplitude is about as large as the free oscillation. . The accuracy of those observation has achieved a very high level.539)T + 700 .257T 2 + 000 . 00.005439Tu2 )t +(−000 .633)T + 31.00059Tu2 + 000 .3.4) ∆ε = (B0j + B1j T ) sin kji αi (T ) ) j=1 i=1 The α coefficients are arguments of the motion of Sun and Moon: (1) mean anomaly of the Moon (3.307 + (1236r + 110560100 . Besides the movement of the Earth’s rotation axis in space there is an additional variation of the rotation axis relative to the Earth’s crust. Polar motion values can be downloaded from the International Earth Rotation Ser- vice (IERS) as tables of daily values of pole coordinates.008T 3 Here 1r means one revolution .3. it has to be observed by space tech- niques.2 . The forced component again consists of two parts. the oceans and the atmosphere. This motion is primarily due to the elastic properties of the Earth and due to the exchange of angular momentums between the solid Earth. 3.3.005439Tu )t2 + 000 .2) +(−4600 .15 mm at the Earth’s surface. NUTATION TRANSFORMATION 17 The nutation time series according to the 1980 IAU conventions are ε = (8438100 . kij are given by the standard 1980 IAU series and can be found in [4].3.8150 − 000 .00059 + 000 .3.310T 2 + 000 .137)T − 1300 .455T 2 + 000 .011T 3 (4) mean elongation of the Moon from the Sun (3.6) α2 = 128700900 .3.328)T − 600 . One part is excited by the tidal forces and therefore has a diurnal period.012T 3 (3) mean argument of latitude of the Moon (3.0.

3. Since both angles are small the rotation can be approximated by   1 0 xp (3.10) S = R2 (−xp )R1 (−yp )R3 (GAST ) The Earth rotation is the rotation around the instantaneous rotation axis with the rotation angle being the difference between the true vernal equinox of the date to the meridian of the 1903.12) GAST = GM ST0 + (U T C) − (U T C − U T 1) + Eq.13) R2 (−xp )R1 (−yp ) =  0 1 −yp  −xp yp 1 where the angles are interpolated from the IERS tables. Here the difference U T C − U T 1 has to be interpolated from IERS tables.1. The polar motion rotation is the transformation between the instantaneous pole to the pole given by nutation and precession theories. The first angle is the angle between the mean direction of the pole during the period 1900.0 . It is defined positive in the direction of the x-axis of the terrestrial system.1.1906. The transformation from the ce- lestial to the terrestrial system includes the Earth’s rotation and the polar motion.3. EARTH ROTATION 3. The second angle is positive in the direction of the 270◦ meridian.E dt with Eq.0 (the IERS Reference Pole (IRF)) and the true rotation axis. Consequently it can by represented as the product of three rotation matrices: (3.3.3. Earth Orientation Transformation.3.11) R3 (θ) =  − sin θ cos θ 0  . yp ) . Polar motion rotation is defined by the left-handed pair of angles (xp .0 Greenwich zero longitude. Figure 3.18 3. θ = GAST 0 0 1 where GAST is given by d(GM ST ) (3. Polar motion .2.3. Definition 3.1.E being again the equation of equinox.3.   cos θ sin θ 0 (3.

4. Detailed correction formulas for particular observation techniques will be discussed in connection with the description of the corresponding observation technique. This means at a specific epoch t0 the delta pulse reaches all points with the distance c × t0 from the origin.0. [1]. The solution (4.2.15) ∆ − ∂t2 U (t. CHAPTER 4 Signal Propagation Signals emitted from the satellite travel through ionosphere and troposphere.f. In a reasonable degree of accuracy the scalar wave equation   1 2 (4. If the delta source is replaced by a periodic source at the origin the corresponding wave equation is   1 2 (4.17) G0 (t.14) ∆− ∂ U (t. Fundamentals of Wave Propagation. As the first approximation we solve (4. In( U stands for each component of the electric and magnetic field in free space and c(x) is the position dependent wave speed.0. x) = 0 c Equation (4. x) = −δ(t)δ(x) c Equation (4. 4. x) = 4π|x| c.0.16) is a spherical wave with the travel velocity c.0.0. If a delta function point source at the origin and at the time zero is considered as the cause for the electromagnetic field G0 . Due to the interaction of the electromagnetic signal with ionosphere and tropo- sphere • the signal strength.0.   1 (4.14) for a constant propagation speed c(x) = c. Basic Relations and Definitions.0.0. x) = 0 c(x) t can be used as a mathematical model for wave propagation.16) ∆ − ∂t G0 (t.18) ∆ − ∂t U (t.1.0. • the signal direction and • the velocity of wave propagation will be altered. x) = −e−ıωt δ(x) c 19 . the field solves   1 2 (4.0.16) has the solution δ(t − |x| c ) (4.15) describes the field generated without an external source only generated from the initial conditions at t = 0.0. In this section some fundamentals of signal propagation will be given and the characteristics of the ionospheric and tropospheric signal disturbance will be discussed.

In a dispersive medium the phase velocity depends on the frequency.0. For a fixed location x the field U has a periodic behavior with the period 2π (4.19) U (t.0. a simple example of two waves with different frequencies travelling through a dispersive medium is considered. SIGNAL PROPAGATION having the solution |x| e−ıω(t− c ) (4. The value currently in use in satellite geodesy is (4.0. If a superposition of different frequencies travels through a dispersive medium besides the phase velocity a second velocity is produced. the so-called group velocity.2.0.28) = e−ı[(ω)t−(k)|x|] e−ı[∆ωt−∆k|x|] + e−ı[(ω)t−(k)|x|] eı[∆ωt−∆k|x|] = 2e−ı[(ω)t−(k)|x|] · cos(∆ωt − ∆k|x|) The superposition of waves with different frequencies ω ± ∆ω travelling with differ- ent velocities k ± ∆k results in a wave of frequency ω travelling with the velocity .25) c = 2.0. Frequency f and circular frequency ω are related to each other by (4. Dispersion.27) N = (n − 1) · 106 is used for a characterization of the mediums electromagnetic properties. Consequently 2πc c (4. x) = G0 (t. x) ∗ e−ıωt δ(x) = 4π|x| This again is a spherical wave with the velocity c. The constant c is the vacuum propagation velocity and its numerical value is adopted by scientific communities. s(t. In order to explain what a group velocity is.0.23) λ=c·P = = ω f The quantity 2π (4. Phase Velocity and Group Velocity.0.0. the ratio c (4.99792458 · 108 ms−1 .24) k := λ is the so called wave number.0.22) ω = 2πf The distance of two points where for a fixed epoch t the wave has the same state is called the wave-length λ.2.20 4.26) n := v is called index of refraction. The velocity vΦ a wave travels through a medium is called phase velocity.20) P = ω The reciprocal value of the period is called frequency 1 (4. It equals the distance the wave travels within one period P .0. x) = e−ı[(ω+∆ω)t−(k+∆k)|x|] + e−ı[(ω−∆ω)t−(k−∆k)|x|] = e−ı[(ω)t−(k+∆k)|x|] e−ı∆ωt + e−ı[(ω)t−(k−∆k)|x|] eı∆ωt (4.0. Besides the index of refraction in some cases also the refractivity (4. If the wave travels through a medium different form the vacuum its velocity changes from c to a different value v. 4.21) f= P it characterizes the number of repetitions of the same state per second at a fixed location.

0. the final result is dnp (4.30) 1 ∂vp λ2 ( ∂λ λ−vp )dλ = − λ12 dλ ∂vp = vp − ∂λ λ A medium is called dispersive if the phase velocity depends on the frequency. Since vp vp dλ = d( ) = − 2 df f f is valid. In the troposphere the refraction index is slightly larger than 1.31) n g = np + f df 4.29) vg = dk holds.0. Let us now assume that the phase velocity vp depends on the wave-length λ vp = vp (λ) with these two relationships a connection between phase velocity vp and group velocity can be derived dω vg = dk v (λ) 2πd( pλ ) = d( 2π λ ) (4. 4.30) a corresponding relation between the refraction indices of phase and group can be derived easily.0. The troposphere is the gaseous part of the atmosphere charged particles are practi- cally absent.0. For an animation click here From the simple example can be concluded that dω (4.1. STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE 21 ω/k which is modulated by a wave of frequency ∆ω . The velocity of this artificial modulating wave is called group velocity. Structure of the atmosphere With respect to signal propagation the atmosphere is usually divided into tro- posphere and ionosphere • The troposphere is the lower part of the atmosphere which extends from the surface of the Earth to about 40 km above. The signal propaga- tion in the ionosphere is mainly influenced by the density of free electrons. It decreases . The ionosphere is a dispersive medium but the troposphere is not. From relation (4. which means that the troposphere can be considered electrically neu- tral. which travels with the velocity ∆ω/∆k. The signal propagation in the troposphere depends mainly on the water vapor content and the temperature. vg ng = c vp dnp = c −λ dλ vp dnp = np − f dλ holds.1. Obviously. • The ionosphere is the upper part of the atmosphere extending approxi- mately between 70 km and 1000 km above the Earth.

6 m maximum 500 m 30 m 20 m 1.1.1) shows that the time delay of signal propagation is indirectly propor- tional to the square of frequency and therefore decreases for increasing frequencies. The refractivity at the base of the troposphere is given by P e NT = C1 + C4 2 = Nd + Nw T T where P is the air pressure in [HPa] e is the partial pressure of water vapor in [HPa] and T is the temperature in [K] Recommended numerical values are C1 = 77. The refraction index of the phase delay is given by ne np = 1 − 40.0.1. C = 40.1.1. The refraction index in the ionosphere depends on the electron density ne in the following way [2] ne (4. the influence of the troposphere can be divided into Nd .1. .1. Ionospheric refraction.1) n = 1 − C 2.22 4.3 nf 2e A comparison of (4. Signal propagation through ionosphere and troposphere. Table 1. The resulting range error can be computed by Z Hd Z Hw (4.2 m 4. The state of the ionosphere is described by its electron den- sity ne in units of [number of electron m−3 ]. Tropospheric refraction. C4 = 3.1. The influence of the ionosphere on signal prop- agation is characterizes by dispersion. 4.2) shows that the influence of the ionosphere on the group velocity and the phase velocity has the same magnitude but the opposite sign. Refractive effects in the troposphere are inde- pendent of the frequency.1.1.12 m 90% smaller than 250 m 15 m 10 m 0. The ionospheric delay induce range errors versus the frequency is given in the following Table. Hw of the dry and wet term.the wet part. SIGNAL PROPAGATION with increasing height. Influence of ionosphere onto ranges f 400 MHz 1600 MHz 2000 MHz 8000 MHz average 50 m 3m 2m 0.6.3 m−3 s−2 f Formula (4.1.2) = 1 − 40.3 2 f using (4.3) ∆S = ∆Sd + ∆Sw = 10−6 Nd dS + 10−6 Nw dS R R Where the integral is evaluated along the signal path from the observer R upto the effective altitudes Hd .1.3n f3 e = 1 + 40.31) the corresponding refraction index of the phase delay is obtained by dnp ng = np + f df (4.73 · 105 Obviously.the dry part and Nw . nf 2e + 2f 40.1) and (4.

82 m .21 m ∆ST 2.4) and (4. The influence of tropospheric refraction onto measured ranges is indicated in the following Table.58 m 0.72(T − 273.5) Nw (h) = Nw0 .58 m 14.5) into the integral (4.136 + 148.61 m ∆Sw 0.14 m 2.1. STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE 23 Since neither the air pressure P nor the water vapor pressure e can be measured along the signal path these missing data have to be replaced by an empirical model.1.31 m 6.29 m 9.71 m 8. Nw0 being the dry and the wet refractivity at height-zero.90 m 23.2 · 10−7 4810e T 2 Hw an E being the elevation angle of the incoming signal measured in degrees.1.3) and assuming the signal path to be a straight line yields Kd Kw ∆ST = p +p 2 sin(E + 6. Introducing (4. Table 2.1.1. Hw = 11000 m H with Nd0 .1.25) sin(E 2 + 2.25) With Kd = 155.04 m 25. Influence of troposphere onto ranges E 90◦ 20◦ 15◦ 10◦ 5◦ ∆Sd 2.2 · 10−7 PT Hd Kw = 155.51 m 7.20 m 0.81 m 12.77 m 1. The Hopfield model [3] is widely used  4 Hd − h (4.16) and  4 Hw − h (4. 4.4) Nd (h) = Nd0 H where Hd = 40.


6) describes the gravitational force of the Earth and the second term the gravitational forces of the other bodies acting on the 25 .1. the first term in (5.1.1) mi ẍi = k with mi being the mass of the i-th body and k being the gravitational force of all other bodies acting on the i-th body n n X X mi mj (5.3) changes into (5.e. Moon. Mi = mn + mi yields n−1   Xi X xi − xj Xj (5. Equation of Motion The motion of an artificial satellite is determined by the gravitational field of the Earth.1.5) Xi = xi − xn .3) mi ẍi = −G (xi − xj ) j 6= i j=1 kxi − xj k3 describes the motion of the i-th body in an inertial fame. Therefore. CHAPTER 5 Theory of Satellite Motion 5. i.6) Ẍi = −GMi +G mj + j 6= i kXi k j=1 kxi − xj k3 kXj k3 The body i can be identified with the satellite and the body n with the Earth.2) k= kij = −G (xi − xj ) j 6= i j=1 j=1 kxi − xj k3 The equation n X mi mj (5. ( Pn (x −x ) Pn−1 (x −x ) ẍi − ẍn = −G j=1 mj kxii−xjjk3 + G j=1 mj kxnn−xjjk3   −xn Pn−1 xi −xj xj −xn = −G (mn + mi ) kxxii−xnk 3 + j=1 mj kxi −xj k3 + kxj −xn k3 j 6= i Introducing the notations ( In this form the satellite motion is the solution of the multi-body problem in celestial mechanics. all tidal potential are neglected Under these assumptions the equation of motion for the i-th body is: (5.1. Moon and the planets are con- sidered point-mass fields (2) the gravitational field of the satellite itself is neglected (3) the gravitational fields are considered time-invariant. Sun and the planets. Sun. Since there is no closed solution of this problem some simplification will be made here (1) the gravitational field of the Earth. If the motion is considered relative to the motion of the n-th body.

. Method of first integrals means to identify six quantities Ci which are constant along the orbit. Having identified the first integrals Ck a solution of (5. Integration of Keplerian equation of motion The differential equation (5. THEORY OF SATELLITE MOTION satellite.6) Xi (5.2.6) I := X ∧ mẊ = const is constant.1.2.7) is a nonlinear second order differential equa- tion. Equation (5.1.1. 6 The constants Ck are then used as integration constants. . t = const.1.5) C = X ∧ Ẋ immediately follows.2) is multiplied vectorial with X GM (5.4) 0 = X ∧ Ẍ = (X ∧ Ẋ) dt the relation (5.1.   (5. Ẋi .2.1) for Xi . . kXj k2  kXi k2 This leads to the following simplification of (5. if 6 integration constants are fixed. .2) Ẍ = −GM kXk3 Step 1: Equation (5.5) represents the first two integrals of ( The methods of the first integrals will be now applied in detail to equation (5.7) unambiguous.2). It describes the motion of a satellite in the absence of any other attracting body and under the assumption the Earth being a homogeneous spherical body with the mass mn . Sun and the planets • the radiation pressure of the sun • atmospheric friction • tides • polar motion Ẍi = −Gmn kXi k3 This equation is called the Keplerian equation of motion.7) is nonlinear it can not be solved straight-forwardly but the so-called method of first integrals has to be applied.1. Since the distance of the other bodies from the satellite is much larger than the distance of the satellite from the Earth. which are constant along the satellite orbit.26 5. The solution of (5. .3) X ∧ Ẍ = − (X ∧ X) = 0 kXk3 Since d (5.1) Ck = Ck Xi .7). which for simplicity is rewritten as X (5. The real satellite orbit differs from the solution of (5. These constants could be the initial position and the initial velocity or any other six functions. Ẋi delivers the orbit. Since the equation (5. the following relations are true mj Mi mj Mi kxj −xi k2  kXi k2 . This property corresponds to Kepler’s second law: The planetary motion is in a plane.2.2. since it proves that for a Keplerian motion the orbital spin vector (5.7) due to • the deviation of the Earth from a homogeneous spherical body • the gravitational influence of Moon.2. k = 1.2.

9) follows d dt kXk · X − ẊkXk   d   d X (5. Step 2: Vectorial multiplication of (5. orbital geometry and i are the first two integration constants.2.7) C = kCk (sin i sin Ωe1 − sin i cos Ωe2 + cos ie3 ) the third integration constant is kCk. Hence.2.2. 5.1. Ω Figure 5. INTEGRATION OF KEPLERIAN EQUATION OF MOTION 27 The orientation of the orbital plane in space is given by the two angles −i -the inclination −Ω -the right ascension of ascending node The definition of these two angles can be read from the following figure.8) Ẍ ∧ C = − 3 X ∧ (X ∧ Ẋ) kXk or equivalently d   GM h i (5. Since (5.2.9) Ẋ ∧ C = − 3 X(XT Ẋ) − Ẋ(XT X) dt kXk Since d XT Ẋ kXk = dt kXk from ( Ẋ ∧ C = −GM 2 = GM dt kXk dt kXk .2) with C GM h i (5.2.2.

2. Since P has to be orthogonal to C it has only two degree of freedom.the angle ω between P and the nodal line.11) Ẋ ∧ C = GM +P kXk with P being the integration constant.13) CT (X ∧ Ẋ) = GM + XT P kXk follows. its ξ axis points to the Earth-closest point. Step 4: As an auxiliary step. the so-called perigee. the relation XT X (5.2. the shape of the satellite motion and its location in space has been deter- mined. which gets its final form by the introduction of the abbreviations p and e: p kCk2 kPk (5. Which after slight manipulation becomes "  T # 2 kPk X P (5.2. So far.16) reflects Kepler’s first law The planetary motion is a cone section.28 5.16) is the equation of a cone-section in polar form. Step 3: Scalar multiplication of Ẋ ∧ C and X   T T X (5.its length kPk and . These two degrees of P are . THEORY OF SATELLITE MOTION Integration on both sides yields X (5. the determination of the angle ν as a function of time: ν = ν(t).e. i.15) kXk = kPk 1+ GM cos ν is obtained. which are the next two integration constants of the Kepler problem.2. e= GM Equation (5. The angle ω is called argument of perigee and the straight line passing through P is called apsidal line. p= GM .2.12) X (Ẋ ∧ C) = X GM +P kXk Since the dot-product XT (Ẋ ∧ C) is invariant against cyclic permutation of it arguments. The last step will be the establishment of the timely evolution of the motion of the satellite along the cone-section. Its origin coincides with the focal point.16) kXk = 1+e cos ν . e=0 ⇐⇒ circle 0≤e<1 ⇐⇒ ellipse e=1 ⇐⇒ parabola e>1 ⇐⇒ hyperbola All geodetic relevant satellites have very small numerical eccentricity. This means that (5.2. The kind of the cone-section is indicated by the numerical value of e. we represent the orbit in polar coordinates with respect to an orbital-plane attached coordinate system. the so called numerical eccentricity.2.14) kCk = GM · kXk 1 + GM kXk kPk If the angle between X and P is denoted by ν the final relation kCk2 GM (5. the .2.

2. INTEGRATION OF KEPLERIAN EQUATION OF MOTION 29 Figure kCk = ν̇ kXk2 Equation (5.2.17) is the so-called area theorem or Kepler’s second law The line from the Earth to the satellite covers identical areas in identical times. With respect to this coordinate system the satellite position is X = kXk (cos νd1 + sin νd2 ) =: kXkd dkXk Ẋ = dt d + kXk dd dt Hence   dkXk C = X ∧ Ẋ = kXkd ∧ dt d + kXkḋ = kXk2 d ∧ ḋ = kXk2 (cos νd1 + sin νd2 ) ∧ (− sin νd1 + cos νd2 ) ν̇ = kXk2 ν̇ cos2 ν + sin2 ν d1 ∧ d2 = kXk2 ν̇ d3  Computing the norm on both sides yields (5. It is solved by separa- tion of the variable kCk dt = kXk2 dν leading to p2 kCk dt = dν (1 + e cos ν)2 . Cartesian orbital system η-axis is in the orbital plane and orthogonal to the ξ-axis and the ζ-axis is normal to the orbital plane.17) is also a differential equation for ν = ν(t).2. 5.2. Equation(5.

2.3).2. cos E−e cos ν+e (5. THEORY OF SATELLITE MOTION Integration on both sides gives ν p2 Z (5.18) an auxiliary quantity.2. The integral in (5.2. Therefore p a cos E − ae kXk = = . true and eccentric anomaly Obviously. The definition of the eccentric anomaly can be read from Fig.2.2.21) cos ν = 1−e cos E ⇐⇒ cos E = 1+e cos ν .20) cos ν [p − ae(cos E − e)] = a(cos E − e) a(cos E−e) cos E−e cos ν = = p p−ae(cos E−e) a −e(cos E−e) p Using the relationship a = (1 − e2 ) yields the final result. a closed solution in this form is impossible.19) kXk cos ν = a cos E − ae holds. the so-called eccentric anomaly is introduced.18) kCk (t − t0 ) = dν ν0 (1 + e cos ν)2 solving (5.2. Unfortunately. which does not have a solution in closed form.2.30 5. Figure 5. 1 + e cos ν cos ν which leads to p cos ν = a(cos E − e) + ae cos ν(cos E − e) (5. In order to solve (5.18) is a so-called elliptic integral.18) for the upper limit gives the solution ν = ν(t). (5.3.2. (5.

  d d dν dν ( sin ν = sin ν = cos ν dE dν dE dE On the other hand √  d d 1−e2 sin E dE sin ν = dE 1−e cos E √ √ 1−e2 cos E 1−e2 sin E·e sin E = 1−e cos E − (1−e cos E)2 ( and (5.2. INTEGRATION OF KEPLERIAN EQUATION OF MOTION 31 √ √ ( RE p2 √ = E0 (1−e2 )2 1 − e2 (1 − e cos E)dE √ RE = a2 1 − e2 E0 (1 − e cos E)dE In this way the elliptic integral (5.2. The evaluation of (5. For a complete substitution also the replacement of the differential dν by dE is necessary.18) was replaced by the simple trigonometric integral (5.25) dν = dE 1 − e cos E Inserting (5.2.24) yields √ 1 − e2 (5.18) by a function of E.2.2.25) into (5.22) can be used to substitute cos ν in the integral (5.26).26) is very simple p .2.2.22) 1−e2 sin E 1−e2 sin ν sin ν = 1−e cos E ⇐⇒ sin E = 1+e cos ν Equations (5.2.21) and (5.18) leads to √ p2 RE 1−e2 kCk (t − t0 ) = E0 (1+e cos E−e 2 1−e cos E dE ) 1−e cos E R E p2 √1−e2 (1−e cos E) = E0 (1+e cos E+e cos E−e2 )2 dE (5.21) and (5.24) √ √ √ 1−e2 cos E− 1−e2 e cos2 E− 1−e2 e sin2 E = (1−e cos E) 2 √ √ √ √ 1−e2 cos E− 1−e2 e 1−e2 (cos E−e) 1−e2 cos ν = (1−e cos E)2 = (1−e cos E)2 = (1−e cos E) A comparison of (5. 5.2.

2.E (5.27) kCk (t − t0 ) = a2 1 − e2 (E − e sin E) .


2. E0 If we now recall the definition of p kCk2 (5.28) p= GM we obtain .

E q kCk kCk2 (E − e sin E) .

= √ (t − t0 ) = (t − t0 ) .

2. a2 1−e2 a3 (1−e2 ) E0 q q kCk2 GM = a3 p (t − t0 ) = a3 (t − t0 ) Without any loss of generality the time t0 can be chosen as that instant of time the satellite passes the perigee. leading to r GM (5.29) E − e sin E = (t − t0 ) a3 Obviously r ! a3 E(t) = E t + 2kπ k = 0. For this choice E0 = E(t0 ) = 0 holds. 1. 2 GM .

2.2. This means after r a3 (5. Combining (5. n = 0.2. Computation of satellite position from Keplerian elements. the iteration converges very fast.the mean anomaly M .2. It connects the given mean anomaly M with the unknown eccentric anomaly E. T is called orbital period and relation (5.30) T = 2π GM the satellite position repeats itself.32) M = n(t − t0 ) The mean anomaly M is the true anomaly of a fictive satellite orbiting the Earth on a circular orbit with the same orbital period as the actual satellite. The next two elements Ω. t0 The first two elements a.33) is the so-called Kepler-equation.2. The sine and the cosine of the true anomaly ν(t) are computed √ 1−e2 sin E(t) sin ν(t) = 1−e cos E(t) (5. ω.31) n= = T a3 Equation (5.2. 1. e. 2. Due to the fact that the numerical eccentricity e is very small. i describe the orientation of the orbital plane in space.36) cos E(t)−e cos ν(t) = 1−e cos E(t) Now the position of the satellite in the orbital system can be computed     ξ cos ν(t)  η  = r(t)  sin ν(t)  p (5.31) motivates the definition of a third angular quantity.2.2.2. THEORY OF SATELLITE MOTION holds. The element ω defines the orientation of the orbital ellipse in the orbital plane and t0 is the time the satellite passes the perigee. (5.32) and (5.2.2. Since (5.2. Now all six integration constant of the Kepler-problem are found. They are the so-called Keplerian elements a.32 5.2.37) r(t) = 1 + e cos ν(t) ζ 0 .2. . i. First for a given time t the corresponding mean anomaly M (t) is computed r GM (5. 5. n= a3 Using Kepler-equation the mean anomaly is converted into the eccentric anomaly E0 (t) = M (t) (5.30) reflects Kepler’s third law The squares of the orbital periods are proportional to the third power of the semi-major axes. Ω.33) is a nonlinear equation.35) En+1 = M (t) + e sin En (t). .2.34) M (t) = n(t − t0 ).29) gives (5.33) E − e sin E = M Equation (5. it has to be solved iteratively. e describe shape and size of the orbital ellipse. The mean angular velocity of the satellite is given by r 2π GM (5.1. .

kXk3 where F collects all disturbing forces acting on the satellite (5. This simplification uses the fact that the disturbing forces are much smaller than the Keplerian attraction force GM k Xk  kF(X(t). The right-hand-side of (5. 5.5) can be split off into the general solution yh of the correspond- ing homogeneous problem and a special solution of the inhomogeneous problem yi (5. For this reason an initial simplification is made. Disturbed Keplerian Motion The differential equation for the undisturbed Keplerian motion X0 (t) is homoge- neous GM (5.3. FS .  X2  = R3 (−Ω)R1 (−i)R3 (−ω)  η  X3 ζ 5.5) y 00 + py 0 + qy = f The solution of (5.3. Before applying the variation of the constants method to (5. Variation of the integration constants.6) y = yh + yi The homogeneous equation (5. linear differential equation of second order ( Ẍ0 + X0 = 0 kX0 k3 The actual equation of motion is in contrast to (5. t) ≈ F(X0 (t). DISTURBED KEPLERIAN MOTION 33 The relation between the orbital system and CIS is given by     X1 ξ (5.3. the problem is only slightly changed by the approximation F(X(t).3.3.3. t).3.force of the atmospheric friction. the essence of this technique will be explained.1) of the undisturbed Kep- lerian motion changed into the corresponding inhomogeneous problem GM (5.2) is highly complex and prevents a solution in closed form.1) GM (5.gravitational force of the tidal deformation of the Earth FF . The solution of an inhomogeneous problem with a known solution for the corresponding homogeneous equation can be con- structed by the technique of the variation of the integration constants. kXk3 Therefore. t)k.nonspherical part of the Earth’s gravitational force FM .4).2.7) y 00 + py 0 + qy = 0 .3.3.4) Ẍ + X = F(t) kXk3 for the disturbed Keplerian problem.3. The basic ideas of this technique will be explained for the simple example of a scalar.3.2) Ẍ + X = F(X(t).gravitational force of the Moon and Sun FN .3) F = FN + FM + FS + FT + FF with FN . t) =: F0 (t) With this simplification the homogeneous problem (5. 5.

3.5) 00 0 (5.8) yi = C1 (t) · y1 (t) + C2 (t) · y2 (t) we try to vary the constants C1 .3.34 5.11) yields (5.13)  0 0 C1 y1 + C20 y20 = f The determinant of this equation .3.9) forms one constraint for the two unknown functions C1 . we use the ansatz (5.3. The determination of the unknown functions is done by insertion of the ansatz (5. y2 and the general solution of (5.10) C10 y1 + C20 y2 = 0 has to be added. THEORY OF SATELLITE MOTION has two linear independent fundamental solutions y1 .3.12) C1 [y100 + py10 + qy1 ] + C2 [y200 + py20 + qy2 ] + C10 y10 + C20 y20 = f | {z } | {z } 0 0 and we arrive at two linear equation for the derivatives C10 . This ansatz motivates the name variation of the constants for this technique.8) into the inhomogeneous equation (5.3. Using (5.3.3. C2 of the homogeneous solution in such a way that the inhomogeneous solution is generated. C2 . C2 .9) (C1 y1 + C2 y2 ) + p (C1 y1 + C2 y2 ) + q (C1 y1 + C2 y2 ) = f Equation (5.3.3. In order to get an unambiguous solution a second constraint (5.7) is the linear span of these two fundamental solutions yh = C1 y1 + C2 y2 For the unknown inhomogeneous solution yi . C20 of the unknown function C1 .3. we obtain yi0 = C10 y1 + C1 y10 + C20 y2 + C2 y20 = C1 y10 + C2 y20 (5.3.9) and (5.11) yi00 = C10 y10 + C1 y100 + C20 y20 + C2 y200 The combination of (5.  0  C1 y1 + C20 y2 = 0 (5.3.10).



y1 y 2 .


= y1 y20 − y2 y10 .




0 0 .


y1 y 2 .

C2 of the homogeneous problem.3. y2 and therefore always different from zero.3.14) f y1 C20 = y1 y20 −y2 y10 Equation (5. There- fore (5. .14) is sometimes called disturbing equation since it describes the way the inhomogeneity f disturbs the constants C1 .3. is identic to the Wronskian of y1 .13) has the unique solution −f y2 C10 = y1 y20 −y2 y10 (5.

e. The only prob- lem which has to be solved is to determine the timely variation of the orbital con- stants u1 (t). 35 5. the Keplerian orbital elements. .. . . the disturbed orbit is represented as a sequence of Keplerian orbital ellipses. These changing ellipses are usually called osculating orbital ellipses. u6 ) The parameters u1 . The main components of the disturbing force F are of course the conservative gravitational forces.g.14). . which constantly change their shapes and their orientations in space. u1 . ∂X ∂X0  = ∂ω i − hF. ∂X ∂i i 0 dM 1−e2 ∂X0 2 ∂X0 dt =n− na2 e hF. VARIATION OF INTEGRATION CONSTANTS.the solution of the homogeneous problem- GM Ẍ(t) − Ẍ0 (t) = 0 kẌ0 (t)k3 has the general form X0 (t) = X0 (t. .4. 5. these variations are the solution of the so-called Gauss- ian disturbing equations da 2 ∂X0 dt = na hF. ∂ω i di √ 1 cos ihF. ∂M i √ de 1−e2 ∂X0 1−e2 ∂X0 dt = na2 e hF. . u6 (t)). Hence. ∂X ∂i i 0 + ∂X0 na2 e hF. . . In close analogy to (5. there exist a potential V with F = grad V . For the determination of the solution of the inhomoge- neous equation GM Ẍ + X = F(t) kXk3 the following ansatz is made X(t) = X0 (t.3. . i. u6 are an arbitrary set of integration constants.4. . ∂e i dΩ dt = na2 √ 1 1−e2 sin i well as nonconservative forces as the atmospheric friction.e. ∂M i − na2 e hF. . . .. Variation of integration constants for disturbed orbit computation The Keplerian the irregular gravity forces. .4. . u1 (t). u6 (t). ∂a i The vector F is the total disturbing force acting on the satellite. It contains con- servative forces. . ∂Ω i 0 dt na2 1−e2 sin i (5.1) √ − cos i 1−e2 dω dt = na2 √ 1−e2 sin i hF. ∂e i − na hF.

φ. M ).the shape terms R l+1  r Flmp (i). M. e. Ω.4.2) require the knowledge of the partial derivatives of the potential with respect to the orbital elements a. THEORY OF SATELLITE MOTION This leads to a simplified form of the Gaussian disturbing equation (5. Originally. Nev- ertheless. Ω.m (e) = (1 + β 2 )n+1 p=0 q=0    n+m+1 n−m+1 (−β)p+q Jk−m+p−q (ke) p q with e β= √ 1 + 1 − e2 . ω. Θ) R m=0 p=0 q=−∞ a l=2 Here the terms of the series are split off in . e. λ) = Plm (sin φ) [Clm cos mλ + Slm sin mλ] R m=0 r l=2 yields a rather complicated series representation of V as a function of the orbital elements. i. ω.the eccentricity function .the inclination function Glpq (e). Ω.angular terms Slmpq (ω. the so-called Lagrangian disturbing equations: da 2 ∂V dt = na ∂M √ de 1−e2 ∂V 1−e2 ∂V dt = na2 e ∂M − na2 e ∂ω di √ 1 cos i ∂V ∂V  dt = na2 1−e2 sin i ∂ω − ∂Ω (5.36 5. Inserting this relation into the spherical harmonics expansion ∞ l  l+1 GM X X R V (r. these partial derivatives have not to be computed at arbitrary positions in space but only along the reference-orbit X0 (t) = X0 (t. a. M .l−2p Glpq (e) = Xl−2p+q (e) ∞ X ∞ 1 X Xkn. M. i. the potential V is a function of the position vector x in space and not of the orbital elements.4. ∞ l l ∞  l+1 GM X X X X R (5.2) √ dω − cos i ∂V 1−e2 ∂V dt = na2 √ 1−e2 sin i ∂i + na2 e ∂e dΩ √ 1 ∂V dt = na2 1−e2 sin i ∂i dM 1−e2 ∂V 2 ∂V dt =n− na2 e ∂e − na ∂a Equations (5. Ω.3) V = Flmp (i) Glpq (e) Slmpq (ω.4.4. Θ) Both the inclination function Flmp and the eccentricity function Glpq are series expansion −l−1.1).

with Ψlmpq = (l − 2p + q)M + (l − 2p)ω + m(Ω − Θ). M. l − m odd. 37 an Jj being the Bessel-function of the first kind. Ω. Inserting Eq. VARIATION OF INTEGRATION CONSTANTS. (5. Θ) = Alm cos Ψlmpq + Blm sin Ψlmpq . since the eccentricity e is very small for most geodetic satellites. 5. l − m even Alm = −Slm . For the series expansion of the inclination function we have j2    l−m (l + m)! X 2p 2l − 2p j Flmp (i) = (−1) 2 (lp) (−1) · 2l l! j l−m−j j=j1  l−m−2p+2j  l−m−2p−2j i i · cos sin 2 2 with j1 = max{0. 2 Glp 0 = 1 + glp 0 e2 + O(e4 ) Glp ±1 = glp ±1 e + O(e3 ) 2 Glp ±2 = glp ±2 e2 + O(e4 ) with l+(4p−3l)(l−4p) glp 0 = 2 3l−4p+1 glp 1 = 2 4p−l+1 glp −1 = 2 (l−2p+2)2 glp 2 = (l − p)(2l − 3p + 25 ) + 4 (l−2p+2)2 glp −2 = p(3p − l + 52 ) + 4 For indices |q| > 2. 2p − l − m} . the series expansion can be truncated. The remaining angular term Slmpq is defined by Slmpq (ω. l − m odd  Slm . Θ = GAST and the coefficient Alm and Blm are related to the spherical harmonic coefficients Clm and Slm by  Clm . j2 = max{l − m. 2p} Fortunately. the eccentric function can be neglected.4.4. l − m even Blm = Clm .3) into the Lagrangian disturbing equations (5...4.2) yields ∞ l l ∞  l+1 da GM X X X X R ∂Slmpq = Flmp (i) Glpq (e) (l − 2p + q) dt R m=0 p=0 q=−∞ a ∂Ψlmpq l=2 .

it is useful to integrate as a first step the Lagrangian disturbing equations using the potential term V2 only.1. Therefore. It is about one-thousand times larger than any of the other terms  l+1  GM R Clm cos mλ V2 > 1000 · Plm (sin φ) R r Slm sin mλ. First V20 has to be represented as a function of the orbital elements. Due to the dominance of V2 .5. the solution will represent the main part of the orbital disturbances. Since Glpq (e) = O(e|q| ) only the index q = 0 has to be considered.38 5.5. which will be . Integration of the disturbing equations 5. The flattening is represented by the term  3 GM R V2 = P2 (sin φ) · C20 R r in the spherical harmonics expansion of the Earth’s gravitational potential. Orbit disturbances due to the Earth’s flattening. THEORY OF SATELLITE MOTION ∞ l l ∞  l+1 de GM X X X X R ∂Slmpq = Flmp (i) Glpq (e) · dt R m=0 p=0 q=−∞ a ∂Ψlmpq l=2 " √ # 1 − e2 1 − e2 (l − 2p + q) − (l − 2p) na2 e na2 e ∞ l l ∞  l+1 di GM X X X X R ∂Slmpq = Flmp (i) Glpq (e) · dt R m=0 p=0 q=−∞ a ∂Ψlmpq l=2 1 [cos i(l − 2p) − m] √ na2 1 − e2 sin i ∞ l l ∞  l+1 dω GM X X X X R = Slmpq dt R m=0 p=0 q=−∞ a l=2 " √ # − cos i 1 − e2 F 0 (i)Glpq (e) + 0 Flmp (i)Glpq (e) na (1 − e2 ) sin i lmp 2 na2 e ∞ l l ∞  l+1 dΩ GM X X X X R F 0 (i) = Slmpq Glmpq (e) √ lmp dt R m=0 p=0 q=−∞ a na2 1 − e2 sin i l=2 ∞ l l ∞  l+1 dM GM X X X X R =n− Slmpq Flmp · dt R m=0 p=0 q=−∞ a l=2 1 − e2 0   2(l + 1) G (e) + Glpq (e) na2 e lpq na2 5. The Earth’s flattening has the largest effect onto a satellite orbit.  3 2 2 GM R X X V2 = F20p · G2pq · S20pq R a p=0 q=−2 As a next approximation we neglect all terms smaller than O(e). For reasons.

INTEGRATION OF THE DISTURBING EQUATIONS 39 considered in a later section also the restriction to p = 1 is possible.5. 5. e(t) = e0 = const. The resulting representation is R 3 V2 = GM  R a F201 G210 [A20 cos Ψ2010 + B20 sin Ψ2010 ] GM R2 = r 3 F201 G210 C20 GM R2 − 32 3 sin2 i 1  = r3 4 − 2 1 − e2 C20 This results in da 2 ∂V2 = =0 dt na ∂M √ de 1 − e2 ∂V2 1 − e2 ∂V2 = − =0 dt na2 e ∂M na2 e ∂ω   di 1 ∂V2 ∂V2 = √ cos i − =0 dt na 1 − e2 sin i 2 ∂ω ∂Ω √ dω − cos i ∂V2 1 − e2 ∂V2 = √ − dt na2 1 − e2 sin i ∂i na2 e ∂e  2 3  2  − 2 cos i sin 4i cos 4i  R 3n R 2 i 1 2eC20 =n C20 − 3 sin − a (1 − e2 )2 sin i 2 a 4 2 (1 − e2 )2 2 1 − 5 cos2 i  3 R = n C20 4 a (1 − e2 )2 2 3 2 sin 4i cos 4i   dΩ R 2 3 R cos i =n C20 = nC20 dt a (1 − e2 )2 sin i 2 a (1 − e2 )2 2 3 cos2 i − 1  dM 3 R = n − nC20 3 dt 4 (1 − e2 ) 2 a The solution of these equations can immediately be given a(t) = a0 = const.  2 3 R 1 − 5 cos i0 ω(t) = ω0 + n0 C20 ·t 4 a (1 − e20 )2  2 3 R cos i0 Ω(t) = Ω0 + n0 C20 ·t 2 a (1 − e20 )2 2 3 cos2 i0 − 1  3 R M (t) = n0 t − n0 C20 ·t 4 a (1 − e20 )3/2 . i(t) = i0 = const.

The direction of precession and rotation depends on the orbital inclination. i.5. The flattening causes only a pre- cession of the orbital plane around the polar axis of the Earth and a rotation of the orbital ellipse within the orbital plane. the closer the satellite is to the Earth the quicker the precession of the orbital plane and the rotation of the apsidal lines.1.1) and (5.5. Figure 5. THEORY OF SATELLITE MOTION This means that the shape of the orbital ellipse and the inclination of the orbital plane is not changed by the Earth’s flattening.e. Figures (5.2) show the daily change of Ω and ω as a function of the inclination i for different orbital heights respectively.40 5. nodal movement versus inclination . Since C20 < 0 the precession of the orbital plane is − retrograde for 0 ≤ i ≤ π2 − prograde for π2 ≤ i ≤ π The line of apsides rotates − clockwise for i > i0 − clockwise for i < i0 The critical inclination i0 with stationary lines of apsides is given by 1 − 5 cos2 i0 = 0 leading to i0 = 63 ◦ 260 .5. The rotation rates are dominantly in- fluenced by the ratio Ra .

Ω. Θ) = Alm cos Ψlmpq + Blm sin Ψlmpq .2. M. General solution of disturbing equations. . 5. Θ) R a The function Slmpq is defined by Slmpq (ω.2. and Ψlmpq = (l − 2p + q)M + (l − 2p)ω + m(Ω − Θ). INTEGRATION OF THE DISTURBING EQUATIONS 41 Figure 5.5. apsidal line spine rate versus inclination 5. M.5.5. Ω. The general form of the Lagrangian disturbing equations is da 2 ∂V dt = na ∂M √ de 1−e2 ∂V 1−e2 ∂V dt = na2 e ∂M − na2 e ∂ω di √ 1 cos i ∂V ∂V  dt = na2 1−e2 sin i ∂ω − ∂Ω √ dω − cos i ∂V 1−e2 ∂V dt = na2 √ 1−e2 sin i ∂i + na2 e ∂e dΩ √ 1 ∂V dt = na2 1−e2 sin i ∂i dM 1−e2 ∂V 2 ∂V dt =n− na2 e ∂e − na ∂a with ∞ X X ∞ X l X ∞ V = Vlmpq l=2 m=0 l=0 q=−∞ and  l+1 GM R Vlmpq = Flmp (i)Glmq (e)Slmpq (ω.

is assumed Ψlmpq (t) = Ψ̇lmpq · t Ψ̇lmpq = (l − 2p)ω̇ + (l − 2p + q)Ṁ + m(Ω̇ − Θ̇) .42 5. Ṁ . Θ̇ = const. X∞ X l X ∞ X ∞ a(t) = almpq (t) l=2 m=0 l=0 q=−∞ with almpq (t) solving dalmpq 2 ∂Vlmpq = dt na ∂M The same assumption is made for the rest of the orbital elements. THEORY OF SATELLITE MOTION For the solution of the Lagrangian disturbing equations the superposition assump- tion is made. Hence. Ω̇. the index-wise Lagrangian disturbing equations are  l+1 dalmpq 2 ∂Vlmpq 2GM R ∂Slmpq = = Flmp Glpq (l − 2p + q) dt na ∂M Ra a ∂Ψlmpq √ delmpq 1 − e2 ∂Vlmpq 1 − e2 ∂Vlmpq = − dt na2 e ∂M na2 e ∂ω  l+1 GM R ∂Slmpq h p i = Flmp Glpq (1 − e2 )(l − 2p + q) − 1 − e2 (l − 2p) na2 e a ∂Ψlmpq   dilmpq 1 ∂Vlmpq ∂Vlmpq = √ cos i − dt na2 1 − e2 sin i ∂ω ∂Ω  l+1 GM R ∂Slmpq = √ Flmp Glpq ((l − 2p) cos i − m) 2 2 na 1 − e sin i a ∂Ψ lmpq dΩlmpq 1 ∂Vlmpq = √ dt na2 1 − e2 sin i ∂i  l+1 GM R 0 = √ Flmp Glpq Slmpq na2 1 − e2 sin i a √ dωlmpq − cos i ∂Vlmpq 1 − e2 ∂Vlmpq = √ + dt na2 1 − e2 sin i ∂i na2 e ∂e  l+1 "√ # GM R 1 − e2 0 cot i 0 = Slmpq Flmp Glpq − √ Flmp Glpq na2 a e 1 − e2 dMlmpq 1 − e2 ∂Vlmpq 2 ∂Vlmpq =n− − dt na2 e ∂e na ∂a l+1 1 − e2 0    GM R =n− Flmp Slmpq Glpq − 2a(l + 1)Glpq na2 a e If additionally ω̇.

Consequently. 5. INTEGRATION OF THE DISTURBING EQUATIONS 43 follows. . the time variable t can be uniquely expressed by the angular quantity Ψlmpq : Ψlmpq t= Ψ̇lmpq Using the abbreviation Z Ψ S̄lmpq = Slmpq dΨ 0 the solution of the index-wise Lagrangian disturbing equations can be given by Z t Z Ψ dalmpq dalmpq 1 ∆almpq = dt = dΨ 0 dt 0 dt Ψ̇lmpq  l+1 2GM R Slmpq = Flmp Glpq (l − 2p + q) Ra a Ψ̇lmpq Z t Z Ψ delmpq delmpq 1 ∆elmpq = dt = dΨ 0 dt 0 dt Ψ̇lmpq  l+1 GM R Slmpq h p i = Flmp Glpq (1 − e2 )(l − 2p + q) − 1 − e2 (l − 2p) na2 e a Ψ̇lmpq Z t Z Ψ dilmpq dilmpq 1 ∆ilmpq = dt = dΨ 0 dt 0 dt Ψ̇lmpq  l+1 GM R Slmpq = √ Flmp Glpq ((l − 2p) cos i − m) na2 1 − e2 sin i a Ψ̇lmpq Z t Z Ψ dΩlmpq dΩlmpq 1 ∆Ωlmpq = dt = dΨ 0 dt 0 dt Ψ̇lmpq  l+1 GM R 0 S̄lmpq = √ Flmp Glpq na2 1 − e2 sin i a Ψ̇lmpq Z t Z Ψ dωlmpq dωlmpq 1 ∆ωlmpq = dt = dΨ 0 dt 0 dt Ψ̇lmpq l+1 "√ # 1 − e2  GM R S̄lmpq − cot i 0 = Flmp G0lpq − √ Flmp Glpq na2 a Ψ̇lmpq e 1 − e2 l+1 1 − e2 0    GM R S̄lmpq ∆Mlmpq = Flmp Glpq − 2a(l + 1)Glpq na2 a Ψ̇lmpq e These formulae can be used for a classification of disturbances.5.

about daily period. 5. Because of l − 2p 6= 0 only odd zonal harmonics C2k+1. This leads to the conditions (l − 2p + q) = m = 0 l − 2p 6= 0 As in the case of the secular disturbances. This is the case if (l − 2p + q) 6= 0 and/or m 6= 0 holds. .5. − resonant disturbances.0 are responsible for long-periodic disturbances.e. 5. changes of the orbital elements with a period longer than the orbital period T of the satellite. In the investigations of disturbances. . In order to generate long-periodic distur- bances the angular velocity Ψ̇lmpq has to be small.3. are solemnly generated by the term Slmpq .1. This means short-periodic disturbance are produced by tesseral harmonics. the largest disturbances were in the focus. Completely analog to the long-periodic case. A non-periodic disturbance can only be gener- ated if Slmpq = const.44 5. Secular disturbances. Therefore Ψ̇lmpq = 0 has to be valid. Recall that Ψ̇lmpq = (l − 2p)ω̇ + (l − 2p + q)Ṁ + m(Ω̇ − Θ̇) holds.5.3. . This leads to the condition l − 2p = l − 2p + q = m = 0 the condition m = 0 leads to the conclusion that secular disturbances can only be generated by zonal harmonic coefficients Cl0 . i. Ṁ .period of several days. Since the time variability of the orbital disturbances ∆almpq . Short-periodic disturbances. the behavior of Slmpq decides the periodicity of the orbital disturbances. Long-periodic disturbances.5. non-periodic orbital elements changes.5. the long-periodic disturbances are gener- ated by zonal harmonics.1).3.e. Secular disturbances are larger than any other disturbances if only enough time has elapsed. THEORY OF SATELLITE MOTION 5.e. In order to be long-periodic. Each term in Ψ̇lmpq produces a different period ω̇ . 5. − short-periodic disturbances.orbital period T of the satellite. if Ψ̇lmpq large hold. caused by C20 . changes of the orbital elements with a period shorter than the orbital period T of the satellite. − long-periodic disturbances. i.3. the Ṁ and (Ω̇ − Θ̇) have to vanish in Ψ̇lmpq . Orbital disturbances are clas- sified in four classes: − secular disturbances. Θ̇ . The condition for secular disturbances is 0 = l − 2p = 2 − 2p = 0 =⇒ p=1 This was the reason for setting p = 1 in Section. i. Classification of orbital disturbances.3.2. one can reasons that short-periodic effects are generated.5. (5. ∆elmpq . Ω̇. .

e. . INTEGRATION OF THE DISTURBING EQUATIONS 45 5. Table (1) shows which elements are secular. the disturbances get particularly large if Ψ̇lmpq is close to zero. This is the case if Θ̇ (l − 2p + q) = Ṁ m holds. long-periodic or short-periodic disturbances.3. i. Characteristics of disturbances in the Keplerian elements element secular long-periodic short-periodic a . Table 1. × e . Since in general ω̇ and Ω̇ are very small this is the case if (l − 2p + q)Ṁ = mΘ̇ holds.4.5. × × i .5. The solution of the index-wise Lagrangian equa- tions always have the term Ψ̇lmpq in the denominator. × × Ω × × × ω × × × M × × × . Different kinds of orbital disturbances act differently on the orbital elements. Resonant disturbances. 5. Therefore. ratio between the length of a day and the orbital period T of the satellite is a rational number.


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