Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

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This content provides you with a sample Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification
that is useful for field inspectors.

Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

This specification covers the minimum basic requirements for various aspects of the
above ground piping and in trench piping for the industrial plants as follow:

a) Shop and filed fabrication and erection of piping.

b) Installation of in-line instrument items like orifice flanges, control valves, rota
meters, safety valves, etc.

c) Installation of items like line mounted filters, ejectors sample cooler, etc.

d) Installation of expansion joints.

e) Fabrication & erection of pipe supports including installation of spring supports, etc.
both shop and field fabrication include cutting, threading, bending, welding, bolting, etc.

Administration of material certificates, welding operations and execution, administration
of all destructive & non-destructive examination and all testing operations as required by
the applicable procedure and standards.

1.1. Where this specification and the petroleum refinery piping code ASME B31.3
conflict, this standard shall govern. Sound engineering practice shall be followed in the
absence of specified standards or specification subject to OWNER prior approval.

1.2. CODES AND STANDARDS - Piping Fabrication and Erection

SpecificationStandards referred to in this specification shall be the latest editions,
including all revisions and addenda as listed below:

Process Piping ASME B31.3

11 Butt Welding Ends ASME B16. General Purpose (Inch) ASME B1. Socket Welding and Treaded ASME B16.1 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings NPS 1/2” ASME B16.19 Wrought Stainless Steel Butt Welding Fittings MSS-SP-43 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ASME-VIII Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ASME-IX 1. Pressure Test of Piping System D.1 Pipe Threads.Unified Inch Screw Threads ASME B1.3. RELATED ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION The following specifications are applied as supplement of this specification.20.2 Welded and seamless Wrought Steel Pipe ASME B36.25 Square and Hex Nuts (Inch Series) ASME B18.2. Construction Work for Piping C. Welding Procedure for Piping . Cleaning for Pipe Lines E.5 Through NPS 24” Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt welding Fittings ASME B16.10 Stainless Steel Pipe ASME B36. Piping Material B.9 Forged Steel Fittings. A.

3. Marking & Color Coding K.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification The word pipespool. PIPE SPOOL INDEX All pipespools to be constructed by the fabricator are listed in the Pipespool Index. Piping hanging & support I. This page is a record of all revisions to the pipespool index. and special information or treatment. Each index is in numerical order for each field assembly area. DIVISION OF WORK All piping will be fabricated by a field construction crew either in a pipespool fabrication shop hereinafter referred to as the "shop” (as per ------) or in-place hereinafter called the "field".2. quantity of identical pipespools. The assembly area. DRAWING APPLICATION . and other components integral to the assembly. Painting Specification 2. The shop shall fill out and keep current the information columns on the pipespool indexes. flanges.1. PIPE SPOOL DEFINITION . revision mark. material class. 2. Welder Qualification Test G. and provide copies to Consultant when requested or completed. Piping Design J. and material are given at the top of each sheet. unless a list giving some other priority is provided by Consultant. The shop shall fabricate the pipespools in the order they are listed in the index. Included with each index for each area is a Pipespool Index Revision page. DEFINITION 2. The index will show for each pipespool the pipespool number. 3. line number. Inspection & Test of Piping Construction H. This piping is assembled in the shop and conveyed to the construction site for installation. 2.F. as used in this specification. is a unit of prefabricated piping consisting of pipe. fittings. revision date.

or first flanged joint including the first flange.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification Consultant will provide the isometric drawings for all 1-1/2 inch and larger forstainless steel and 2 inch and larger for carbon steel . the shop fabricated spool will include all branch connections for field piping.3. The isometric drawing will show also combined line number. quantity and description for each piping component. first screwed connection. One of the mating ends is square-cut 3 inches longer than the dimensions required. first field socket weld. Threaded piping and threaded components which are installed as attachments to shop fabricated pipespools shall be termed field installed materials. "FU" A fit-up weld is a field weld that allows some dimensional adjustment of a pipe spool during final assembly.3. and to be welded at the construction site. A bill of material take off for the isometric shall be attached. Pipespools in all sizes of butt welded and socket welded construction will be prefabricated in the shop. The other mating end is bevel-cut to the exact dimension indicated on the drawings.4. made to drawing dimensions. up to the first field butt weld. . "S" means shop fabricated. ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS . equipment nozzles to which the pipeline is connected. The following definitions specify what is required when certain letter symbols are used on the drawings. "DW" A dummy weld is a weld connecting a supporting appurt enance to a pipeline. SYMBOLS Drawing symbols used on the piping drawings are defined on legend. Here. "FW" is a weld done in the field. The division between the three different types is shown on the drawings as indicated in figure. 3. 3. The support is an extension of the piping but with no connection into the fluid stream. "F" means field-installed material and "R" stands for field-installed random lengths. call outs and high point vents and low point drains. beveled for welding. These straight runs are installed by the field crews in random lengths. Straight runs of piping indicated as random piping are not pipespools. size. PIPESPOOL INDEX All pipelines are identified with the line classification on the plan and isometric drawing. EXTENT OF PIPESPOOLS Where field installed material connects to shop fabricated pipespools. The bill shall include the code. "FW" A field weld is the joining of two components. 3.2.1.

threaded connections. 4.3. 4. FIELD WELDS The Construction contractor shall locate on the piping erection drawings.6. DIMENSIONS Unless otherwise specify all dimensions terminating at a flange are measured from the gasket face for raised-face flanges and flat-face flanges. Construction Contractor shall ensure that flange faces are protected from corrosion or rust.5.1. and the raised face of ring-joint flanges. Only gaskets which have a different thickness than the material class gasket are dimensioned.1. All materials included in the finished piping systems shall be undamaged.1.3. GENERAL .1. 4. 4.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification Fabrication works shall comply with the drawings and this specification including relevant Engineering and Construction Specifications. field welds or fit-up welds as required for site erection. to enable trace ability of each weld and each welder.W tee has one weld number. e.5.4. Piping shall be stored in a relatively clean. Gaskets are indicated by a short line placed beside or between the dimension limit lines. S.2. except no location will be shown for socket weld connections between pipe spools built in the shop and those built at the construction site. Construction Contractor must provide adequate protection for piping.1.g. FABRICATION 4. flange faces. Construction Contractor shall maintain the color coding on piping materials to allow easy and quick reference in accordance with the project engineering specification. 4. 3. 4. etc.1. Whenever an overall dimension does not appear on a drawing. All weld numbers and welder’s identification number shall be painted close to the weld.1. socket welds shall be numbered per fitting. to prevent damage during handling and storage. dry or well drained area on elevated dunnage and protected against contact with salts or salty water. . the dimension is assumed to be the sum of individual standard fitting lengths coincident with the piping line class material.

In general thickness stainless steel pipe of equivalent to schedule 10S and thinner shall not be bent. or centerline of pipe to flange face. i.2.2. Bolt Holes of Flanges Flange bolt holes shall straddle the established centerlines (Horizontal or vertical). 4.15mm per centimeter width of joint face.5. Wrought bends shall show no significant marks or corrugations and shall be smooth and regular in outline.E. are to be made of same material to the pipe. with the pipe adequately supported. When these connections differ. Butt Welds . 4.There shall be no significant thinning when the pipe bend radius is 5 x nominal diameter or greater. 4. 4. Wrought Bends A. DIMENSIONAL . 4.2.18' (0. flanged connections on equipment may vary and should be individually checked.4. Pipe Dimensions Tolerances shall be ±1.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 4. or 3% of the pipe outside diameter for vacuum duties.2.2. B. 4.2. However.5mm from flange face to flange face.e.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification TOLERANCE 4.3°) I.4. Flattening shall not exceed 8% of the pipe outside diameter for pressure duties.1. the bolt hole orientation shall be indicated on the isometric piping detail sheet. All attachments to piping. 0.3.3. WELD DETAILS .1.6. Flange Face Flange faces shall not be concave. Convexity from flange bore to joint face periphery shall not exceed 0. Squareness of Flanges Flanges shall be square to the axis of the pipe to within an angle of 0° . pads. etc.2.3.05mm per centimeter measured across the face of the flange. Holes in double flanged pipes shall be correctly aligned.1. saddles.

The term "Butt-Weld" refers to circumferential butt joints only. local heating or grinding as required to reduce any misalignment due to diameter tolerances. Pipes may be cut mechanically by sawing or grinding machine.3. whereas those not complying are not acceptable and must be chipped out before completing the weld.4.3. The tack welds complying with the requirements of ASME B31. Where pipe.3. 4.1(C) may be allowed to become a part of the finished weld.3. Longitudinal and spiral welds existing in pipes as produced at the mill are outside the scope of this specification.3mm 2) Square cut for wall thickness 2. 4. Special requirements may be imposed where longitudinal welds are to be made and these welds shall not be carried out before Consultant has approved the methods to be used. hammering. parts having unequal wall thickness and bores shall be prepared in accordance with one of the details shown in ASME B31. the corresponding parts shall be modeled and matched so that any misalignment at the inside of the piping shall not exceed 1/16 inch at any point of the circumference of the joint.3. out-of-roundness or unequal wall thickness of the parts of less than 1/16 inch. .3. Bore Matching and Alignment Bore matching and alignment shall be in accordance with ASME B31. 328. B. Weld Preparation Weld preparation shall be in accordance with the following: A.3.3 mm and less 4.5.3.3. Ends shall be beveled or square cut for welding as follows: 1) Beveled for wall thickness greater than 2. 4. fittings and flanges are to be joined by circumferential butt-welds.3 and the modifications to the standard contained within clause 5. Fit-up work may include pressing. Root Gaps Spacers shall be used while tack welding pipe and fittings in position to insure proper gap and full penetration in welding. Cutting A.5.6 of this specification.2. Preparation standard shall be applied to ASME B31.

B. Plasma-jet cutting may be use to cut austenitic stainless steel pipes and other materials. Reinforcing Pads A. Forged branch attachments (Brancholets) shall be of the type specified on Consultant's drawings and fitted accurately to the contours of the run pipe.3. 4.4.2. Flame or arc cutting for carbon steel are allowed providing the cut edge is machined or ground back sufficientl y far to give specified parent material properties at the cut edge with a minimum of 1. The tapped hole shall be plugged using wood.6. 4. plastic or mastic material not capable of retaining pressure. No Fitting Branches shall be of 'Stub-in' design in accordance with Construction Specification 0000- S1830-003 and ASME B31.3. D. All branch connections shall be designed in accordance with Para. Forged or extruded branch connections are preferred. Longitudinal seams in adjoining courses shall be preperably at 180°but a minimum between seams are in accordance with construction specification. The hole shall be drilled and tapped with a 1/8 inch pipe thread for testing and venting. 4. Other methods of cutting may be used providing written approval is obtained from Consultant. Flame cutting of austenitic stainless steel pipe is not allowed. 304.g.B. 4.1. 4. Cutting method involving heating e.5 mm. C. Welding Position of Longitudinal Seams Longitudinal seams in seam welded pipe shall be located so as to clear openings and external attachments possible.3.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification Branch connections shall be located as indicated on the piping detail sheet or isometric piping drawings. For structural attachment .3.4. E.4. BRANCH WELDS .3 of ASME B31.4. For pressure reinforcement Reinforcing pads required by the referenced code or by piping detail sheets shall be provided with at least one vent hole if fully welded.

Beveled Ends Refer to Construction Specification XXX 4. or isometric drawings. Cold bends to a radius less than five (5) times the nominal pipe diameter is not allowed. In order to prevent a notch effect.5.5. The number of cuts shall be as stated on the drawing. Mitered bends are used only when specified on the drawings and shall be in accordance with ASME B31.4. Hot bend is not permitted. C. Bends shall conform dimensionally to the drawings and relevant clauses of this specification.0mm).1.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 5.2. The welds in mitered bends shall penetrate the full thickness of the pipe and the bead on the inside of the throat shall be smooth and have an even curvature.4.1. 4.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification . shall exist between the periphery of the pad and the pipe to which it fits.5. Cold bends to a centerline radius greater than five (5) times the nominal pipe diameter may be manufactured without a subsequent heat treatment unless a heat treatment is specified on the project specification.4. C.3 Chapter V. 4. Fillet Welds Refer to Construction Specification XXX 4. Bending after completion of fabrication to meet dimensional requirements shall not be carried out without the approval of the engineer. B. Cold Bending A.6. WELDING . measured before welding. Mitered Bends Mitered bends shall be in accordance with piping material specification ------. 4. WELDING PROCESS . 5.4. piping detail sheets. Where reinforcing pads are fitted either for branches or structural attachments they shall be accurately shaped so that no gap larger than 1/8 inch (3. BENDING .Reinforcing pads for structural attachment shall be provided with an untapped hole of 1/4 inch (6 mm) diameter for venting.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 4.5. A joint efficiency not exceeding 70% shall be used in the strength calculations for mitered bends.

5. 5. 5.2.1.1. Flange faces shall be kept free from weld spatter and arc strike.2.3.4. Welding procedures are to be qualified in accordance with the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code section IX and ASME B31. WELDING PROCEDURE .5.1. Fusion faces may be prepared by sawing.4. Inert gas metal (MIG) C.1. in which case they may be absorbed into the finished weld. 5. Tack welds shall be removed so that they do not form part of the finished weld unless they are produced fully qualified and tested welders to the same procedure as the finished weld.1.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 5.5.2.2. 5. Tungsten inert gas with filler wire (TIG) The (SMAW) and (TIG) processes are preferred as welding process. machining or grinding. or a combination of the following processes: A.2.1.3. Welding shall be carried out by one.1. Welders shall be approved in accordance with the relevant clauses of this standard. 7. 5. and shall be approved by Consultant before any work is carried out. 5. 5. It is fabricator's responsibility to reference each weld to its welder and correct procedure.2.3. chipping. Welder's competence shall be determined in accordance with Welder Qualification Test 5. Backing rings shall not be used without prior written content and approval of Consultant.6. They shall be smooth and free from defects and together with the adjacent material shall be . Basic welding requirements are to be in accordance with ASME B31. Shield metal arc welding (SMAW) B.3. 5.2. tacks shall be as large as possible and to the satisfaction of the Consultant inspection. 6. Electrodes and filler wires shall conform to the requirements specified in para. 5.1. Where tack welding is carried out.2. Requirements for mixed metal welds are specified in para.2.

5.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 5.3. chipping or machining. then such undressed or partly dressed edges shall be stress relieved before welding.10.3. 5.3.2.3. When the welding procedure does not include pre-heating and the ambient conditions are such that the metal temperature of the parts to be welded are below 4°C. considering the thinner component being joined: Component Thickness (in.7. Heat Treatment of flame-cut edges for carbon steel is not required when the edges are dressed back in accordance with para. Preheating . 5. regular uniform in contour. crack or blowholes and free from spatter. B where dressing back proves to be impossible. The basic principles of the welding procedure initially used are to be employed for repair of faulty welds. Work control procedure shall be prepared prior to start the special process such as heat treatment. 5.thoroughly cleaned of oil. The visible surface of all welds are to be clean of slag.5. The finished internal and external surfaces of the weld shall merge smoothly into the component surfaces or the weld toe. Processing and result of special process shall be recorded and maintained to verify the work quality. the surface in a zone .2. SPECIAL PROCESS CONTROL .) Maximum Reinforcement (in.2. 5. 4. ice/water for a distance of 50 mm from the edge of the weld. without undercuts. When unacceptable defects are found in complete welds. 5.8. Weld reinforcement: The thickness of weld reinforcement shall not exceed the following.3. paint and shall be free from all rust.1.2.2. they are to be removed by grinding.) 1/2 and Under 1/8 from 1/2 to 1 5/32 Over 1 3/16 For double welded joints this limitation on reinforcement shall apply separately to the weld reinforcement inside and outside. grease. 5.9. scale.3.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification A.

D2T3MR. 5.3 unless para. PWHT shall be performed on all type joints butt.3.H. 5. C. After completion of final P. D2D2V. A record of the time/temperature for normalising and stress relief must be kept.3. 5.W.3. 5. then preheat shall be applied on wall thicknesses of 20 mm (3/4") and above. Stress Relieving . etc. BCDX. unless this is specifically called for in the drawings or pipeline specifications.3.5. hardness test shall be performed in accordance with ASME B31. AUT3P. for piping classes A2T3MR. C. socket.3. B2T3MR. 5. B. Preheating shall be carried out in accordance with ASME B31.3.4. A2D2.3. A applies.T. Temperature Measurement Temperature measurement shall be in accordance with ASME B31. B2D2V. One test is required in the weld and one test is required in the heat affected zone (HAZ). B.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification A. Welds produced in austenitic stainless steel shall not require stress relief. Normalizing Normalizing shall be carried out as follows: Temperature 920°C/950°C Time/Inch of Thickness 1 Hour Minimum soaking time 1/2 Hour Cooling shall be uniform at a rate less than 250°Cper hour down to 300°C. when rutile and cellulosic electrodes are used. thereafter cool in still air. Irrespective of pipe wall thickness.3. B2T6MR.extending 15 mm each side of the joint is to be heated to 20°C "Handwarm" before welding commences.6. In addition to the requirements of ASME B31.4. . for other piping classes PWHT shall be carried out in accordance with ASME B31.7.3.

the weld procedures.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 6. welding techniques.1.. 7.1. 6. LOW ALLOY (CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM ETC. DIFFERENT GRADES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS . MATERIALS . Electrodes and filler wires shall in general be of higher alloy content than the austenitic stainless steel.6.2. MIXED METAL WELDS .1. welding techniques. 6.1. shall be appropriate to the grade and thickness of the low alloy steel involved. Where welds are to be produced between low alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels. 6. the above procedures.2.4. LOW ALLOY (CHROME MOLYBDENUM. shall be those appropriate to the austenitic stainless steel.2.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification Where welds are to be produced between differing grades of stainless steels. Where welds are to be produced between carbon steels and austenitic stainless steels. Where welds are to be produced between low alloy steels and carbon steels. or ER NiCr3.3. electrodes. Electrodes and filler wire shall be ER 309. the weld procedures. ETC. ELECTRODES AND FILLER WIRES . filler wires. welding technique and heat treatment etc. filler wires. shall be those appropriate to the austenitic stainless steel. Any heat treatment required shall be that appropriate to the grade and thickness of carbon steel involved.. 6. Electrodes must be of the basic type. The welding procedure proposed shall be approved in writing by Consultant.4.1.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 7.4.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 6.1..) AND AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL . Any heat treatment required shall be that appropriate to the grade and thickness of low alloy steel involved.1.. shall be those required by the higher grade of material. etc.) AND CARBON STEELS 6. etc. CARBON AND AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS . the weld procedures. 6.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 6.2. welding techniques etc. ENiCr Fe3 the choice depending on service conditions. E309. electrodes.

7. . B.2. Electrodes to be used for general butt welding of low carbon steel pipes will be as follows: 1) Pipe wall thickness up to 19 mm (0.1. 2-1/4%Cr-1% Mo Grade P11. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.1. ER70S-3 & basic electrodes E7018. For Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes A. For Carbon Steel Pipes A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5. B. B.1. For Carbon-Molybdenum Alloy-Steel Pipes A.9.5. 9%Cr-1% Mo Grade P7.75") use cellulosic electrodes E6010 and E7018.75") and above and special carbon steel (for low temperature or high carbon content).2 and AWS A5.18. The dissimilar metal welds should be avoided whenever possible. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.1.5. 7%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P5.1. For Alloy Steel Pipes A. 1-1/4%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P12. B. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5. 2) Pipe wall thickness 19mm (0.4 and AWS A5. Electrodes to be used for general butt welding of austenitic stainless steel will be rutile type EXXX-16. Welding electrode shall be 7018 A1.1.5.7.4. 1%Cr-2% Mo E 505-15 E 7Cr-15 E 502- 15 E9018-B3 E8018-B2 E8018-B2 7. Welding Dissimilar Metals A. 7.4 and AWS A5. using instead some mechanical joint such as a thread or flanged connection.1. 7. AWS A5.3. Welding electrodes to be used for general butt welding of alloy steel piping shall be as follows: PIPE ELECTRODE ASTM SPECIFICATION A335 AWS-ASTM CLASSIFICATION Grade P9. 5%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P22.

For Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes A.2.3. 7. 7. There are innumerable combination of dissimilar alloys which could be jointed. D. GRINDING WHEELS . Mechanical. WIRE BRUSHES . The composition of the joining metal must be compatible with both alloys. 7. with the welding procedure depending on the intended use. If hardenable alloys are involved. H. Refer to following specification for complete list of electrodes and filler materials. Grinding shall be carried out using resin bonded alumina or silicon carbide grinding wheels. C. 7. 7. formability and other fabrication operations may require special consideration. INSPECTION AND TEST .1.6. Welding electrodes shall be in accordance with Specification XXX. If corrosion is involved.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification . hardness and toughness.1. depending on whether or not the design requires a high strength member. Rubber bonded wheels or wheels containing sulphur shall not be used. or a buffer layer must be placed between them. Storage of electrodes and other welding materials shall be in accordance with the vendor's instructions. Wheels previously used on ferritic steels shall not be used on the carbon steels.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification All wire brushes used on austenitic stainless steel pipes shall be of stainless steel. consideration must be given to eliminating hard areas and brittle areas. A. galvanic attack and resistance to process corrodents must be taken into account. F.1.2.B. G. particularly if cycle. or to restoring strength. 8.8. The particular brands of electrodes and wires chosen shall be approved in writing by the engineer before use.7.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 7. and most of these combinations are special cases which must be handled on an individual basis. If high temperatures are involved.1. the coefficients of thermal expansion of the parent metals and diluted weld metal must be considered. E.

8.4.3. shall be shop tested hydraulically.3 and the following inspection requirements.4. Extent of pressure testing shall be indicated on the line list.2. Where this procedure is required.4.4.1.2. All pressure testing shall be carried out after the application of any specified heat treatment. 8. hydrostatic tests shall be carried out using clean water unless other fluids are specified on the drawings or pipeline specifications. 8.1.4. PROCEDURE AND RECORD . Pressure testing shall be hydrostatic unless otherwise stated.1. 8.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 8. 8.4. 8.7.6. water having a chlorine content above 100 ppm should not be used in . all shop fabricated piping. it will be specified on the drawings and pipeline specifications. Chlorine content of less than 50 PPM should be used wherever possible. 8. VISUAL EXAMINATION Visual examination shall be carried out in accordance with Inspection & Test of Piping Construction 8. Inspection and test procedure/plan shall be prepared and approved prior to inspection activity.1.4. RADIOGRAPHY Radiography shall be applied in accordance with Inspection & Test of Piping Construction 8.5. Where site hydraulic testing is to be avoided. For austenitic stainless steel pipelines. PRESSURE TEST 8.3. including make-up lengths and lengths with loose flanges. Provision shall be made by the fabricator for closing the open ends of pipe for this test.4. Result of inspection and test shall be recorded and maintained to verify the quality of items and activities. Shop testing of finished fabricated piping is not required unless specified.Inspection shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 andPressure Test of Piping System 8. Particular attention must be paid to using potable water. 8.1. Pressure testing shall be carried out in accordance with ASME B31.2.4.

Socket weld connections shall be fitted with taped polyethylene plugs or plastic sheet securely wired or taped to the spool.3.2.2. 10. this will be the subject of a special specification. or water with a chloride content in excess of 50 ppm.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification .Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 11.2. chlorine compounds. CLEANING . refer also to para. Hooks shall be provided to hold chains clear of operating areas. lines shall be flushed with a chlorine-free liquid with a short period of testing. ERECTION . 10.1. Install valves so that the stems are not below a horizontal position. The protection applied shall not be capable of passing into the bore of the pipe. Pipe-ends and flange faces shall be properly protected against the ingress of dirt.2.2. VALVES Valves equipped with chain wheels shall have the stems arranged so that chains do not fall on equipment.2. where specified.2. PROTECTION . Orient all valves so that the hand wheels do not obstruct passageways. The term "pipe-end" shall include any weld preparation. 11. If special cleaning is required. 9. 11.2. 10.3.1.1. 10.any circumstances.1 All bores of all fabricated piping shall be free from all sand.7 and 5. weld spatter etc. FLANGED JOINTS . Threaded connections shall be fitted with a line class plug or covered with a plastic sheet securely wired or taped to the spool. mechanical damage and atmospheric corrosion. PROTECTION AND PACKING 10. 10. 9. and where it is necessary to use water within a range of 50-100 ppm.2. Chain wheels will be shown on the piping drawings. the bores of pipes shall be thoroughly drained and the ends immediately sealed in accordance with para. DRAINING OF BORES . 9. scale.2. The cleaning of austenitic stainless steel pipe surfaces prior to welding shall not involve the use of hydrochloric acid.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 9.8.After hydrostatic testing and cleaning. 5.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification 10.

depending on anticipated direction and magnitude of movement after the line reaches the operating temperature. . The inspector shall be notified when heating for fit-up is required. Make a final check to see that shipping ties have been removed after line tests and that any preset that may be specified has been accounted for. or flushing shall not be installed until after completion of the pressure test and line flushing operations. venturis. u se temporary blocking or other adequate means of support until the field supports can be installed. If the field supports are not installed or are unavailable when the piping is erected. venting. RESTRICTIONS . Careful consideration must be given to the support of 2-inch and smaller piping to prevent excessive deflection. turbines. magnetic meters. 11.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification Protect gaskets from damage until final installation is complete.Protect all flange faces from damage. strainer screens.3.7. turbines. TEMPORARY GASKETS .4. and similar in-the-line equipment. such as pumps.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification All restrictions which would interfere with filling. FLANGED OR BUTT WELDED EQUIPMENT CONNECTION A flange cover shall be kept on all flanged connections to pumps. draining.5. make up the joint with a less expensive sheet gasket and save the special gasket for the final installation. 11. the gasket shall be compressed until the raised faces of the flanges uniformly contact the compression gauge ring. 11. Take care not to mar the faces of the flanges. PD meters. and then take up with uniform bolt tension. 11.6. EXPANSION JOINTS . In bolting joints with spiral wound gaskets. Corrugated expansion joints shall be installed with length extended or compressed for the ambient temperature condition at erection. When temporary make up at flanged joints is required in piping systems using special gaskets.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification Check the expansion joint specification for special instructions. prior to tightening the bolting or welding the joints. This includes orifice plates. and compressors shall be fitted-up in close parallel and lateral alignment.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification All field supports shall be installed in accordance with the standard drawings. Piping connecting to mechanical equipment. 11. rotameters. and similar equipment until ready to connect the piping. turbine meters. The temperature shall not exceed 660℃ Cooling of the pipe shall not be accelerated by the application of water. compressors. The installation shall be approved by the inspector prior to tightening the bolting. Carbon steel piping that has not required post-weld heat treatment may be heated for minor corrections in fit. PIPE SUPPORTS . Bring all flanged joints up flush so that the entire flange face bears uniformly on the gasket. flow nozzles.

They shall be located between the suction block valve and the equipment.1 without exception. 11.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification All pipe threads shall be taper-pipe threads in accordance with ASME B1. Return from Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification to Industrial Inspection Return from Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification to Inspection for Industry Home . Field welds are necessary for the installation of flanged pipespools unless the platform supports are intended to be clear of piping. TEMPORARY STRAINERS .9.11. The gags and shipping spacers should be removed until after hydrostatic testing of the line has been completed. or to the rod assembly on suspended-type springs. should be made before the gags are removed.8. in the factory. for the cold condition.11.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification Temporary suction strainers shall be installed at the suction nozzles of all pumps and compressors before pipeline flushing.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification Platform holes for piping have been sized for pipe or insulation outside diameter plus approximately 25mm clearance. 11.20. Teflon tape shall be used for all threaded joints where the design temperature in 205°C or below.Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification The variable and constant support type spring hangers are preset. Once the spring is unblocked it is very difficult to make any adjustments.10. the field shall add or relocate any structural supports and stiffeners required because of holes made for piping. Any dimensional adjustments that have to be made to the load flange on the compression-type springs. PLATFORM HOLES . SPRING HANGERS . 11. THREADED CONNECTIONS .