Science Reviewer

Properties of Matter and Changes in Matter

Physical properties
-are characteristics that can be observed without changing the composition of a substance

Examples of physical properties
1. Boiling point 6. Hardness
2. Melting point 7. Electrical and thermal conductivities
3. Density 8. Tenacity
4. Color 9. Elasticity
5. Odor 10. Plasticity

Intensive properties
-can be used to identify substances

Extensive properties
-such as mass and volume, depend on the amount of the sample

Chemical properties
-are characteristics that a substance exhibits when it undergoes changes in composition

Physical changes
-Changes like these, which do not alter the composition of a substance

Words that indicate a physical change
1. Melt 5. Evaporate
2. Boil 6. Condense
3. Freeze 7. Sublime
4. Dissolve

Chemical changes
-involve changes in the composition of substances

Words that usually signify the occurrence of a chemical change
1. Cook 6. Decay
2. Bake 7. Grow
3. Decompose 8. Rust
4. Combine 9. Spoil
5. Corrode 10. Ferment

Deposition 2. Boiling 6. Condensation 3.Phase Changes Examples of physical processes 1. Sublimation Melting -occurs when a solid changes to a liquid Melting point -the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid Freezing -occurs when a liquid changes to solid Freezing point -is the temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid Boiling -occurs when a liquid changes to gas at its boiling point Boiling point -the temperature at which a liquid boils to become a gas Evaporation -a substance changes from liquid to gas below its boiling point Volatile liquids -liquids that evaporate easily at room temperature Condensation or liquefaction -is a change from gas to liquid Sublimation -occurs when a solid changes directly to gas without going through the liquid state. Freezing 5. Bed frames are made of iron 3. Deposition or desublimation -occurs when particles of a gas condense directly into a solid without going through the liquid state Elements and Compounds Element -is a substance that is made of only one kind of atom -There are 118 known elements Examples: 1. Cooking pots and pans are made of copper or aluminum 2. Evaporation 7. Melting 4. Food and beverage containers are made of tin .

Lead storage batteries and in the manufacture of detergents 2. Insecticides 6.Naming Elements Scientists -einsteinium from Einstein Countries -americium from America States -californium from California Planets -plutonium from planet Pluto Greek words -chlorine from chloros meaning greenish yellow Latin words -gold from aurum meaning shiny Minerals -magnesium from magnesia Chemical symbols -are composed of one or two letters where the first letter is always capitalized Metals -usually hard and solid Nonmetals -usually sof Oxygen -gas rise in respiration -is consumed in combustion or burning -is largely used in steel making Sulfur -occurs in nature as a yellow solid -used in production of sulfuric acid Examples 1. Pharmaceuticals . Paints 4. Lubricants 3. Plastics 5.

Explosives Nitrogen -used in the manufacture or fertilizers -is also used in making detergents Phosporus -The bones in our bodies are made up of a calcium-phosphorous compound Phosphoric acid -is used to give various sof drinks their sour taste Carbon -is a major component of fossil fuels -exists in diamond and graphite Silicon -is used in the manufacture of transistors and solar cells -is a major component of glass Atoms -Elements are made up of tiny particles -Can be seen using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to get images of the atoms Molecule -is a group of two or more atoms that are chemically combined Diatomic molecules -molecules formed by two atoms Triatomic molecules -three atoms Polyatomic molecules -four or more atoms Compound -is formed when two or more elements combine chemically in a fixed ratio Mixtures -are combinations of two or more substances that can be separated by physical methods Homogeneous mixture -has uniform composition and properties as seen by unaided eyes Heterogeneous mixture -is not uniform in composition . Food additives 8.7.