GEODETIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY, GEOID

,
CURRENTS, AND CHANGES IN OCEAN MASS AND VOLUME
C.K. Shum (1), Hans-Peter Plag (2), Jens Schröter (3), Victor Zlotnicki (4), Peter Bender (5), Alexander Braun (6),
Anny Cazenave (7), Don Chamber (8), Jianbin Duan (1), William Emery (9), Georgia Fotopoulos (6),
Viktor Gouretski (10), Richard Gross (4), Thomas Gruber (11), Junyi Guo (1), Guoqi Han (12),
Chris Hughes (13), Masayoshi Ishii (14), Steven Jayne (15), Johnny Johannesen (16), Per Knudsen (17),
Chung-Yen Kuo (18), Eric Leuliette (19), Sydney Levitus (20), Nikolai Maximenko (21), Laury Miller (19),
James Morison (22), Harunur Rashid (23), John Ries (24), Markus Rothacher (25), Reiner Rummel (11),
Kazuo Shibuya (26), Michael Sideris (27), Y. Tony Song (4), Detlef Stammer (28), Maik Thomas (29),
Josh Willis (4), Philip Woodworth (13)
(1)
Division of Geodetic Science, School of Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, USA,
ckshum@osu.edu, duan.29@osu.edu, guo.81@osu.edu
(2)
Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology & Seismology Lab., University of Nevada, USA, hpplag@unr.edu
(3)
Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar & Marine Research, Germany, Jens.Schroeter@awi.de
(4)
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, USA, Victor.Zlotnicki@jpl.nasa.gov;
Tony.Song@jpl.nasa.gov; richard.gross@jpl.nasa.gov; joshua.k.willis@jpl.nasa.gov;
(5)
Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, University of Colorado & NIST, USA, pbender@jila.colorado.edu
(6)
Department of Geosciences, University of Texas at Dallas, USA, braun@utdallas.edu, foto@utdallas.edu
(7)
LEGOS, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, France, anny.cazenave@cnes.fr
(8)
College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, USA, dchambers@marine.usf.edu
(9)
Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, University of Colorado, USA, emery@colorado.edu
(10)
KlimaCampus Universität Hamburg, Germany, viktor.gouretski@zmaw.de, detlef.stammer@zmaw.de
(11)
Institute of Astronomy & Physical Geodesy, Technische Universität Muenchen, Germany,
thomas.gruber@bv.tum.de, rummel@bv.tu-muenchen.de
(12)
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, Canada, HanG@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
(13)
Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, United Kingdom, cwh@pol.ac.uk; plw@pol.ac.uk
(14)
Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan, ism@jamstec.go.jp
(15)
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA, sjayne@whoi.edu
(16)
Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Norway, johnny.johannessen@nersc.no
(17)
National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark, pk@space.dtu.dk
(18)
Department of Geomatics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, kuo70@mail.ncku.edu.tw
(19)
Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry, NOAA, USA, Eric.Leuliette@noaa.gov, Laury.Miller@noaa.gov;
(20)
Ocean Climate Laboratory, National Ocean Data Center, NOAA, USA, Sydney.Levitus@noaa.gov
(21)
International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii, USA, maximenk@hawaii.edu
(22)
Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Lab., University of Washington, USA, morison@apl.washington.edu
(23)
Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University, USA, rashid.29@osu.edu
(24)
Center for Space Research, University of Texas at Austin, USA, ries@csr.utexas.edu
(25)
Institute of Geodesy & Photogrammetry, ETH Zurich, Switzerland, markus.rothacher@ethz.ch
(26)
CAEM, National Institute of Polar Research, Japan, shibuya@nipr.ac.jp
(27)
Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada, sideris@ucalgary.ca
(28)
Center for Marine and Climate Research, KlimaCampus Universitat Hamburg, Germany, detlef.stammer@zmaw.de
(29)
GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany, maik.thomas@gfz-potsdam.de

Abstract processes. In particular, geodesy is the fundamental
The tools of geodesy have the potential to science to enable determination of an accurate geoid
transform the Ocean Observing System. Geodetic model, allowing estimate of absolute surface
observations are unique in the way that these methods geostrophic currents, which are necessary to quantify
produce accurate, quantitative, and integrated ocean’s heat transport. The present geodetic satellites
observations of gravity, ocean circulation, sea surface can measure sea level, its mass component and their
height, ocean bottom pressure, and mass exchanges changes, both of which are vital for understanding
among the ocean, cryosphere, and land. These global climate change. Continuation of current satellite
observations have made fundamental contributions to missions and the development of new geodetic
the monitoring and understanding of physical ocean technologies can be expected to further support accurate
monitoring of the ocean. The Global Geodetic

1

as they directly Satellite altimeters provide means for relate to ocean dynamics. measurements of key variables as an integral part of the and will map the global geoid and gravity field with Ocean Observing System. and changes in ocean mass monitoring both short-and long-period temporal variations in sea surface height globally. The study areas of geodesy are therefore topography. Achieving this potential will depend on satellite missions. glacial isostatic adjustment. ITRF 2008 Earth rotation/orientation into a consistent system for http://itrf. gravity GRACE is primarily aimed at observing the temporal field. A new generation of missions has been we use continuously operating satellite altimetry and established. 2002). integrating the geodetic techniques that monitor the and hydrosphere [55]. altimetry. Introduction 2 are important to the monitoring of the cryosphere and The guiding thesis of this white paper is that ice-covered oceans. including ocean general circulation modelling. the Committee on Earth primarily to altimetry and gravimetry (components 1 Observation Satellites (CEOS) and space agencies to and 3 of Tab. cryosphere. launched surface slope and ocean bottom pressure variations and in 2000). Accurate knowledge of the geoid combined (GGOS. mean and time-dependent geometric shape. The most 2 . 1 [46]) of the International Association of with altimeter observations of sea surface height will Geodesy (IAG). Specifically. rotation/orientation. and the Gravity field and variations over a broad continuum of temporal and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE. and mass transports within the Earth's deglaciation. unprecedented accuracy (1–2 cm in geoid. oceanic sub-mesoscale variability and surface water ocean circulation. The variations in Earth rotation and polar and post-seismic earthquake deformations. Achieving this potential will depend on merging the Data from non-repeat satellite altimetry missions have remote sensing techniques with in situ measurements of been used to generate a map of global ocean bathymetry key variables as an integral part of the Ocean Observing with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. changes in land hydrology. anomalies. the Gravity Recovery And Climate thus infer ocean circulation and mass distribution Experiment (GRACE. This system depends stability of ITRF are crucial to many ocean on both globally coordinated ground-based networks of observations. Tab.. GGOS works with the Group on The geodetic tools we discuss here relate Earth Observations (GEO). Satellite radar altimetry is an ensure the availability of the necessary expertise and established technique for observing ocean surface height infrastructure. The innovative capabilities of geodesy. co-seismic system. we summarize the (or shape). sea level observables currently enabled by geodetic systems. motion reflect both mass transports in the Earth system and the exchange of angular momentum among its 2. and the planned Surface Water and the tools of geodesy have the potential to transform the Ocean Topography (SWOT) wide-swath synthetic Ocean Observing System. and terrestrial reference gravity field caused by mass redistribution in the Earth frame. cryosphere. its variability. GGOS provides the global Earth's time-variable surface geometry (including ocean. Earth observations. and International Terrestrial Reference Frame. ocean currents. pressure changes. land. circulation. GOCE is designed to improve merging the geodetic techniques with in situ knowledge of the Earth's static gravity field and geoid.ign. altimetry satellite missions is a critical requirement. Geodetic observations are aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) altimetry mission unique in the way that they produce accurate. critical to accurately tracking stations as well as an uninterrupted series of measuring global sea level rise. which can System. These mass changes include the circulation of gravity observables allows for the inference of mass the atmosphere and ocean.fr). and in particular. satellite missions. sea surface height. and mass exchanges among the Satellite gravimetry is complementary to satellite ocean. In this white paper. as as a reference for ocean circulation studies and sea level exemplified by the Global Geodetic Observing System research.Observing System (GGOS) of the International and sea level [4]. terrestrial reference frame (in the form of the hydrologic. and sea level rise highly relevant to ocean observations. and integrated observations of gravity. and sea level change. and rise). be applied to many areas of geophysics and oceanography. Much Beauty is Skin Deep: Sea surface components. ocean bottom hydrology. and ice surfaces). a series of TOPEX/Jason-class repeat track radar the requirements to continue such measurements. atmosphere and land. is intended for the mapping of high spatial resolution quantitative. starting with the CHAllenging Minisatellite spaceborne gravity sensors to measure time series of sea Payload for Geophysical Research (CHAMP. which is mandatory for most measuring ocean surface topography.ensg. 2009) spatial scales. include the determination of the Earth's enable quantification of general ocean circulation. Satellite altimeter missions such as CryoSat- 1. at 100 km). The accuracy and long-term ocean mass and volume changes. gravity field. 1). Combining the geometric methods with global system. Changes in mass are directly related to Association of Geodesy (IAG) provides the means for water mass exchanges among the ocean.g. For community consensus of critical oceanographic long-term ocean and climate studies (e.

based on drifters and density. without requiring a regional and global sea level rise [8]. and global surface water hydrology [1]. the GRACE orbits or alias signals associated with tides or the Sun mean geoid model is accurate at 1–2 cm level at 200 km into extremely long periods. were found to be biased in the Indian in barotropic mass transport. regional.. Therefore. estimates of MDOT. geodetic techniques (e. The continuity of such a system. Studies by [35] and [51] have demonstrated bottom pressure. independent observations. satellite altimetry and hydrography data transports of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current [22]. can be used to determine to the coastal impact of climate change [47] caused by geostrophic currents at any depth. Earlier MDOT models. [15]. and they can be used to estimate the rate of global much finer wavelength of 100 km.3 mm/year [8] improved accuracy of MDOT is expected in the near after extensive calibration efforts and comparison with future [29]. and global processes that drive local topography. [16]. i. or. and ocean heat storage MDOT when in situ drifter data are added compared to A basic tenet of measurement theory is to the MDOT which are based only on the GRACE. DORIS) are crucial for monitoring changes in an altimetry-derived mean sea surface (MSS) minus the sea surface height and land surface height. In the long term. At present. These instruments provide (half-wavelength). systems. together Such instrumentation is also required for the more with a number of complementary Earth observation complete exploitation of altimetry in coastal areas [11]. making it particularly attractive to reduces sampling error on small spatial scales. dynamic ocean topography (MDOT) determined from GNSS. is clearly a community priority [61]. these observations comes from in situ hydrographic profiles [63]. compared with the relative topography that sea level change.important altimeters for sea level studies are those of 1b) better describe many complex current systems TOPEX/Jason class that are not in Sun-synchronous associated with sharp fronts. are critically important deep ocean [14] and has demonstrated its potential to to quantify the freshwater budget and its effect on observe internal tides [50]. ocean bottom pressure (OBP). land storage change. which make Ekman currents required to extract geostrophic currents determining long-term changes in transport difficult. tide gauges. This was due to an error in the correction for have slowly varying datum fluctuations. This will be a crucial component of information required by means that the sea surface. our knowledge of the ocean. which are often densely geostrophic circulation is provided via the mean populated. Of the triad: sea level. [30]. In difference of two large signals. turn. or altimetry has enabled the construction of global the absolute water storage exchange between the barotropic ocean tide models with cm accuracy in the land/ice surface and the ocean. Velocity observations.g. These observations have general ocean circulation and global sea level change resulted in improved estimates of energy dissipated by [7]. intermediate-depth significant improvement of spatial resolution of the circulation. which is has been used to observe evolutions in global mesoscale demonstrated to be potentially quantifiable at the variabilities and ocean circulations throughout the ice. velocity (or assumption of a velocity) at a subsurface 3. The geoid is an equipotential surface and a observations provide critical constraints on models of unique reference from which to determine the absolute the local. [36]. avoid wherever possible measuring a small signal as the derived geoid and satellite altimetry data (Fig. Radar altimetry quantity. In situ OBP sensors tend to Ocean. so that the combined products (Fig. and the monitor this quantity directly. The anticipated geoid model from sea surface height observations with accuracies of a few GOCE is expected to have a similar accuracy but at a cm. locations. appropriate temporal and spatial resolutions by free ocean [64] and has been used to estimate changes in GRACE. optimally using at least one wide-swath a coherent. the smallest hydrography greatly benefit from altimeter data. When altimeter data are The observation of the mesoscale and sub- compared and merged with in situ instrumentation mesoscale variability and geostrophic currents requires provided by various coastal and offshore tide gauges either an extensive constellation of nadir-pointing (including GNSS-equipped ocean buoys). they approach altimeters. add most in situ measurements have typically been restricted the scales smaller than the ones resolved by the current to deployments of one year at a limited number of model of the geoid. which signal is OBP [3]. as a level of known motion decision and policy makers for mitigating and adapting measured by altimetry. For example. based only on geostrophic currents and can be used to infer variations drifters [41]. although with present-day technology it is 3 . Gradients of the ocean GRACE-derived geoid which provides information at bottom pressure across major currents determine bottom large scales. Getting to the Bottom of Things: Ocean level. from drifter trajectories [34]. The cited studies address the former tides throughout the deep ocean [39]. The quasi-steady state of the surface In coastal areas. worldwide monitoring system for sea level instrument. The Satellite altimetry has significantly enhanced observations of total land (including ice-sheets. including Argo. Multi-year time series of OBP is difficult to obtain and converted into the horizontal gradient of sea level. Such geoid. satellite mountain glaciers and ice caps) water storage change. such as the SWOT Mission [1].e. change [23]. further mean sea level rise to an accuracy of 0. 1).

[9]. In fact. Because of the long.g. as [6] and [65] have done for the Antarctic may therefore be possible to detect changes in the deep Circumpolar Current. and in the Southern Ocean historically been inadequate [20] and there is currently [28] that dominate sea level change. transport variability across a much larger area.6 flow. Estimates of thermal expansion of the upper changes in sea surface elevation only in a barotropic ocean vary for the last 50 years from 0. In addition to the difference in horizontal used to infer time-variable ocean bottom pressure on resolution. and directly relate to mass transport variations. Thus to properly resolve contributions.3 can occur in the deep ocean below 2. 5). [13]. variable gravity field with monthly sampling (or finer) More importantly. satellite altimetry and GRACE data to estimate changes indicating significant discrepancy depending on the in steric sea level and heat storage (see e.possible to deploy for 2 to 5 years.g. [43]. the models also may prove to be important. see e. the combination of altimetry and spatial scale as fine as 250 km or longer. The distribution and number impossible. sampling of the deep ocean has changes and ENSO events. GRACE has yielded monthly maps reference to which information from the Argo floats can of mass changes since April 2002. there is evidence that OBP: in the Arctic at seasonal [44] (Fig. [57]. there is a difference in vertical sampling. depending and GRACE should more accurately represent the long- on latitude and location. These data can be be added. model and ice sheets. While most continuous record. With longer profile for a particular location in the ocean. [22].and space–scales. of aliasing.24 mm/yr to 0. The Because GRACE data are global. ocean..2) and temperature fluctuations on periods of 10-years or more interannual [38] time-scales. there is 4 . where changes in pressure density changes.g. and current estimates disagree at freshwater. energetic eddies can obscure the interannual and longer variability difficult or nearly longer wavelength signal. nearly ocean by combining all three data sets.. The current array of Argo floats only take measurements to a accuracy of measurements yields suitable signal-to. combinations of have an averaged signal of 1–2 mm/yr over the ocean. In some areas of the ocean (notably the western location. and salinity at a resolution of about 3°. the use no plan for comprehensive in situ sampling of the deep of GRACE data to study changes in large-scale. [38] (Fig. Separating the globally averaged sea level rise However. The combination of short time records for each boundary currents and the Antarctic Circumpolar instrument and their different drifts makes studying Current). and 4) [53]. meaning there are several thousand noise ratios at mid to high latitudes [5]. fluctuations in the transports of mass. of floats will never be sufficient to fully reduce this type At present. It to another. [31]. where pressure gradients are uniform with depth mm/yr [2]. which vary with depth. These GIA global monthly observations of upper ocean temperature models. in the North Pacific (Fig. such as obtained by redeploying instruments at the same eddies. long time series are only signals from very short-wavelength fluctuations. and [33]. [38]. [62].000 m [32]. represents temporal changes in the vertical determine how the transport is changing from one area integral of density from the surface to the ocean floor. and however. It requires extreme accuracy [7]. one must combine GRACE with altimetric the ~1 mm/yr level. small-scale. [56]. [26]. include both the long-wavelength signal as well as [44]. there are issues involving depth- frequency volume transport has not yet been fully dependent instrument biases in XBT and MBT data and exploited. depth of 2. [25]. that are used as correction to the GRACE data and the Although the Argo program is now making short time series available for the study. In addition. one can compute combination of GRACE and altimeter measurements. the relationship is not so simple in a into its two key components. The ocean measurements have wavelength steric sea level. [55]. heat. expressed in terms of oceanic mass variations. GRACE data have also been used to seasonal to interannual fluctuations will be confined to demonstrate significant low-frequency fluctuations in the upper 1. [10] that are likely related to transport Furthermore. various investigators have different estimates of (upper) The gradient of OBP fluctuations and the near ocean warming and the corresponding thermosteric sea bottom currents they produce are directly related to level rise. [45]. the altimetry-GRACE lower signal-to-noise ratios than the measurements over combination will be important as a fundamental land or ice-sheets. GRACE measures the global time. However. water mass addition and baroclinic environment. Consequently. However. The Argo floats give predicted a correction on the same magnitude as the accurate measures of the temperature and salinity observed GRACE ocean mass signals.000 m of the ocean.. This will time series and other geodetic measurements. results suggest that at long time-scales OBP is strongly which is complicated by the correlation of the spatial related to density variations that induce baroclinic and temporal characteristics of some of the currents [54]. Thus. The similar time. [37]. In addition. [12]. low. see e. much of this is related to data and in situ measurements of T and S. [20]. allows for a comparison of the global gradients occur due to spatial differences in temperature water budget with estimates of ice melt from glaciers and/or salinity. from either the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) forward models hydrography or Argo floats. [26]) choice of the model. meters of ocean depth not covered in many areas. This is a very difficult computation.000 m.

g. Geostrophic ocean currents reflect a balance continuous measurements of gravity changes in the between pressure gradients and the Coriolis force. Significant for the end of the GRACE mission is 2013. providing very accurate monthly time series of changes Here again.” Satellite altimetry: Because of its enormous In addition. e. with unacceptable negative impacts time of signals emitted by GNSS satellites. altimetry will become part supported the idea of a GRACE stop-gap or continuity of operational satellite systems such as the Jason series mission based on the present GRACE technology. demonstrated during the World Ocean roadmap is to accomplish “a multi-decade. While surface geostrophic currents. The U.000 Argo floats now allows cooperation with Space Agencies to formulate and agree one to derive the absolute dynamic height (ADH) and on a roadmap for future gravity satellite missions. Current estimate Environment and Security (GMES) [60].S. To The baroclinic component due to horizontal density facilitate a long-term commitment to satellite gravity gradients tends to diminish the currents and turn their missions. glaciers and land water unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution. This adds a new Argo floats is a novel approach to provide an improved – and very central – parameter set to the study of global quantification of the state of the ocean. Combining the recently available ggos. Universität Graz in 2007 and 2009. to satellite systems capable of particular from the contribution of GOCE to the monitoring temporal gravity field from global down to improved quantification of the absolute general ocean regional spatial scales and on time scales of two weeks circulation [29]. altimetry and in the Earth’s wavelength gravity field.potential to improve GIA models. If this delay occurs. This data set will contribute to an integrated gridded dataset was made available at the Asia-Pacific and sustained operational observing system for mass Data Research Center (APDRC). in and leading. a preliminary monthly or shorter. change phenomena such as de-glaciation in the large ice geodetic observations (including GRACE. we will have to rely on orbiting satellites. Emerging Geodetic Technology & Challenge climate change. GOCE will altimeters) also provide the means to determine mass deliver a global static gravity field and geoid with changes in the ice sheets. The assess geostrophic currents in the upper 2. with and the Sentinel series of European Union/European emphasis on the continuation of time series of global Space Agency (EU/ESA) Global Monitoring for gravity changes with a minimum gap.org/workshops/Graz) was co-organized by high-quality MDOT with satellite altimetry and CTD. A number of groups are currently optimum use of a greatly expanded program of in situ investigating the accuracy of such a measurement observations. shields of Antarctica and Greenland. and to improve understanding of 4. the combination of GRACE. the analysis of the travel gravity and OBP. and Satellite gravimetry: GRACE is currently Argo can be used to evaluate different GIA models. IAG/GGOS and Global Earth Observation (GEO) in profiles from more than 3. Of particular interest redistribution. and the wide-swath InSAR radar altimetry the next 15 years. i. gravimetry. the SAR/Interferometric Radar Decadal Survey lists the GRACE follow-on (laser Altimeter (SIRAL) system onboard of the CryoSat interferometry) as one of its recommended missions for mission. instrument. the geodetic techniques particular serve as reference for global ocean circulation are crucial in establishing a global mass balance in the studies by altimetry. This is an idea first proposed nearly 30 years gravity satellite missions. long time-series of altimetry. before 2020. water cycle as an additional constraint for changes in To completely understand the physical the ocean mass. since GIA concept. sea level rise. The strategic target for this ago [63]. In fact. requiring a new technology developments include the high priority GRACE Continuity satellite mission Delay/Doppler altimeter [50] with an earlier version of launch soon after that time. which have both Workshops on the future satellite gravimetry missions baroclinic and barotropic components. First results look promising but the technique corrections are quite large for GRACE but not for is far from being well established. form of an ongoing series of satellites are necessary. resource management. are defined by were held at ESA/ESTEC [27].e. An emerging technique This would mean a gap of 5–8 years in time variable is GNSS reflectrometry. processes of the Earth under a warming climate. NRC the instrument design. Moreover. to monitor natural hazards and their are the studies of the vertical structure of baroclinic potential early detection. and InSAR and Wide-Swath the variations of the global water cycle. reflected at on all scientific objectives and applications described the ocean surface and received in airplanes or low above. respectively. below the sea surface. the Graz Workshop participants value for ocean monitoring.000 meters of Workshop participants agreed on a roadmap for future the ocean. the 2009 Graz workshop (http://iag- direction with depth. innovative geodetic satellite missions and techniques. and that is now possible in part due to the Earth's gravity field begun with the GRACE mission. ~2015. GRACE. It will in storage and discharge. to support global water currents [57]. [58]. continuous Circulation Experiment (WOCE) using hydrographic series of space-based observations of changes in the data [17].. altimetry. and at the Technische the dynamic surface topography. 5 . Also. Recently. or laser and radar altimetry. but in the 2017–2020 time frame. onboard of SWOT.

when performance provides an opportunity to extend its combined intelligently with in situ measurements of the mission to 2013. An example illustrating this as is the identification and maintenance of the core contribution of the geodetic ocean observing system geodetic infrastructure required for the determination of could be the monitoring of the Atlantic Meridional an ITRF that meets the requirements of global change 6 . These applications are of a moderate inclination orbit. The various geodetic techniques (geodetic and in situ) measurements to quantify oceanic and their maturity level and future challenges are mass variations and global water cycles and their impact summarized in Tab. Continued refinements to the system. The 5. mooring arrays. The medium term priority should be focused on Overturning Circulation (AMOC) to study its potential higher precision and higher resolution gravity in both weakening as a result of anthropogenic climate change. GGOS represents IAG as Participating terrestrial reference frame depend on adequate coverage Organization in GEO and other international activities and collocation of geodetic techniques. Closing the current large of the geodetic contribution and make the geodetic geographical gaps in the global network of core observations and products available to the ocean geodetic stations is therefore a high priority of GGOS. have significant impact on systems and active angular and drag-free control accurate estimates of oceanic mass variation. strait and inter-ocean transport using the combined Elements of a strategy in this direction are the use of altimetry sea surface height and GRACE ocean bottom two or more pairs of satellites. GOCE-measured geoid and the mitigation of geographically-correlated high spatial MODT. at distinct inclinations and at lower provide. 2. have the potential to make a expeted to be launched in the 2017–2020 time frame. the Little Ice Age. we can potentially Continuity mission to minimize the data gap between measure deflection of the sea surface and ocean bottom GRACE and its follow-on would be launched around pressure to infer circulation and mass distribution over a 2015. for example. oceanography has suffered from GRACE and the GRACE follow-on is seen as a critical observations that are too sparse in space and time to problem. GRACE has a nominal mission life span of 5 give a clear picture of the ocean environment. With these tools. such as laser interferometry ranging extent. It is recommended that the planned GRACE broad continuum of temporal and spatial scales. [21]. This step requires (1) the reduction of Here multi-mission radar altimetry sea level and surface the current level of aliasing of high-frequency geostrophic current velocities. There are serious challenges to be sure. and these links can be explored to raise awareness and satellite laser ranging. Another scientific application is to estimate separability of the observed geophysical signals. on ocean freshening and circulation. probably with one pair in pressure data [48]. hydrologic and spatial aliasing and improvement of spatial resolutions geodynamic mass changes of the Earth with a global by flying more than one pairs of GRACE-type satellites perspective that no other observational systems could in a constellation. The GRACE follow-on mission is Ocean Observing System. perturbations on the oceanography [18] and climate change [19]. including VLBI [46]. It is systems. Now the gap between Historically. Other experimental and longer-term sensor recommended that the GIA forward models be technologies that potentially shows promise for gravity improved and their error characteristics be quantified observations include cold-atom quantum gravity sensors when they are used to correct GIA effects integrated and ultra-stable clocks. however. its extraordinary the new remote sensing tools of geodesy. Proposal for Integration of GGOS into the GRACE measurements have demonstrated its Ocean Observing System importance for ocean monitoring. Utilizing the full potential of the geodetic Much of the progress in ocean observation technologies requires integration of altimetry and ultimately will depend on the success of the global gravimetry. collectively can establish a monitoring system to non-isotropic sensitivity of a single pair of low-low SST potentially monitor the present-day evolution of the measurement system and (3) the improvement of the AMOC. observation community. improvement and the constraints of the GIA processes This will open the door to an efficient use of improved resulting from the Last Glacial Maximum and to a lesser sensor systems. We feel years (2002–2007). [53]. The satellites due to atmosphere loading and ocean tides. GRACE-derived ocean geophysical signals including ocean tides and bottom pressure and GRACE-observed land and ice atmosphere loading into the gravity field time series (2) melt water mass fluxes. and data from tide gauges and frequency distortions (caused primarily by the peculiar Argo. transformative leap in the breadth and detail of our There is a reasonable good chance that a GRACE observations. altitudes. and this is one of the key objectives of geodetic community behind GGOS to maintain the GGOS. Continuity mission would have potential incremental Furthermore. GGOS plays an important role in bringing the accurate and long-term reference frame required for global geodetic activities into the ocean observing Earth observation. space and time. these same satellite tools provide improvements such as mitigation of temporal and observables of the cryospheric. and efforts to improve the fundamental interest to address research problems in background models.

113. Shillington. The ocean science Merrifield.10. Springer-Verlag. comments. 11]. J. Fu. L. this this white paper and OceanObs'09 would be the conference. the commensurate observational sampling in the deeper [8] Cazenave. Meterological Organization. Geophys. R.1029/2006RG000197. Geophys. tide gauges. T. S. Rodriguez.. Lett. [12] Dobslaw. Ocean09 Community White Paper. Heidelberg. Wickert J (eds. future satellite altimeters should Workshop and a WCRP contribution to the Global Earth be designed to meet at least the 0. Nature. G. J. gratefully acknowledged. G. Z.. J. The relationship estimates of upper-ocean warming and multi-decadal sea- between sea-level and bottom pressure variability in an level rise. & Hughes.. most equipped with doi:10. There are key in situ measurements that we [5] Böning. Neilan.. Wilkin. F. (2009). H. Benveniste. A. 453. satellite gravity-based measurements and could improve [7] Cazenave. R.L. R.. Steric Res. 1955-2003..research. Rothacher altimetry and gravity (3) in situ bottom pressure arrays.000 m). Geophys. Danilov. Gross. Rev. In mass distribution changes inferred from satellite Flechtner F. techniques are an integral part of the observing system. (2008). Timmermann. the tools of geodesy can provide unprecedented spatial doi:10. J. Observing seasonal steric and ever improving array of observations. (2008). Improved [3] Bingham. Acknowledgement [11] Cipollini. The accuracy and stability of the ITRF.P. S. Chambers. Paris. that can validate and extend the [6] Böning. Hurell. M.e. Cipollini. P. & Willis J. Snaith. H. J. doi:10.P. H. 111 (C3). K. W. S.. Perhaps one of the most important outcomes of & Willis. 35. [13] Domingues. D. 112. Plag. 6–9 June 2006. D. Fu. R. Paris. A World Climate Research Programme be <0. Geodetic observations of ocean surface topography. Lett. Luk’s help on text-processing of the manuscript is Vignudelli. data for tidal and other high frequency motions and (4) (2009). K. M. ocean. M. Berlin. variability of the world ocean. Gommenginger. Aarup. (2008).1038/nature07080. 83-88.1029/2007GL032662. Güntner A. (2006). Argo (2009). Res. Geodetic observations and global reference frame contributions to understanding sea level rise and determination of the absolute ocean circulation. Altamimi. P. L12602.) Satellite Geodesy and including those in the polar ocean. (2007).1029/2006JC004035. & Larnicolm. H. J. C. R. Geophys. Geophys. P. & Dunn.004. Gleckler.. W.. Shum. ocean mass. & Chambers.. have significant impacts on monitoring sea C. J.000 m) and that validates and details the solutions and numerical ocean model simulations. Res.2008. P.. Strub. M. doi:10. M. F. 127–143. D. P. conference. observation of global ocean mass anomalies. C.1029/2008JC004930.P. community is on the verge of putting together a larger J. observing system of the future.W. L03602. Vandemark. Gruber T.. L. T. & P. & Zerbini.. 35.. W. 65.. Miller.. Timmermann. example. Ocean09 Community White Paper. our ability to de-alias the satellite gravity and altimetry Llovel. Hurell. and ocean 7. If geodetic sea level variations with GRACE and satellite altimetry. Kuo.. Madsen. Analysis of large- consequent insights into the behaviour of the world scale ocean bottom pressure variability in the North Pacific. [2] Antonov.1029/2008GL034974. Res. Griffin. satellite altimetry and compare velocity solutions over broad areas. J. (2007). & Lettenmaier. for Lemoine. will particularly value as part of the ocean observing J. D. GNSS receivers).W. Simulation and doi:10.L. Sea level budget over 2003-2008: A reevaluation Lagrangian drifter measurements with which to from GRACE space gravimetry. Lett. J. Church. Pascual. D. C. Res. and temporal continuity to the physical observations and [10] Chambers D. (2009). H. eddy-permitting ocean model. J. Chapter [4] Blewitt. C. Peter A. The Role of Altimetry in Coastal Observing Systems. which have improved this manuscript. Emery. T. C11003. Rothacher. thorough integration of geodesy into the ocean [9] Chambers. M. D.S. R. part of the ocean (>2. On the representation of transport variability of floats) that would extend the coverage and sampling to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in GRACE gravity deep ocean (>2.K. 2006. N. R.3 mm/yr accuracy in Observation System of Systems. A. Wilson. including those of oceanography [46. References volume changes.1016/j/gloplacha. Plag. C. WCRP. ocean currents. this [1] Alsdorf. J. It is Argo. Merrifield. Tregoning. S. Measuring surface water from space.1029/2005JC002914. C. Schoene. R. J. global sea level needed for climate studies that is UNESCO...1029/2005GL023112. Nerem. Berthier. C05040. doi:10. These include: (1) independent observations of GRACE solutions. Sea Level Rise: Regional and global trends. Shum. Macrander. J. Geophys. Ravichandran. & Thomas. doi:10. It is variability.1 mm/yr. & Boyer.K. 45. sea surface height (i.P. World that takes months or sometimes years [8]. Finally. A pattern-filtering method for the determination of ocean bottom pressure anomalies from system. E.S. level change and are therefore affecting the (2006). Willis. Ablain. Dominh. & Schröter. (2008). Nerem. Sideris. Schöne T. Wijffels. P. 6. P. D. (2005). M. J. Geophys. A.K. recommended that the Argo arrays be enhanced to cover doi:10. Mandea M. that validates the Earth System Science. & Woodworth. L. We thank Carl Wunsch for his constructive C. Global and Planetary Change. 7 .). J. White. & Schröter. Levitus. D. S.P. S. Church. in Understanding Sea-level Rise and recommended that the drift of the ITRF be monitored to Variability. 2007. M. Plag. T..P. C03010. satellite altimeter results (2) hydrography (e. Guinehut. Ramillien. 32(12). Cipollini. L18611. C. Mercier. Barker. doi:10. E. Davis. S. currently achieved by extensive post-flight calibration Woodworth (Ed.g. Res. F. Shum. H.

. Lett. D. in steady Ocean Circulation. Reevaluation of remaining challenges? Ocean09 Community White historical ocean heat content variations with time-varying Paper. (2007). U21C-0624. 2004.1007/s11038-004-7606-9. & Shibuya. Flechtner. doi:10. 39(22). Seasonal fluctuations in the West Atlantic Ocean through the Faroe Bank channel since Spitsbergen Current estimated from bottom pressure 1950. 94(1–22). R. phys.R. Res.tidal [23] IOC.1029/2003GL018628.. revealed by GRACE. (edited by M. A. 12217. Global Sea Level Observing System friction. 1–4. M. L. Geophys.P. A. 453–457. L04608. R. J. L07602.. A comparison of in situ bottom pressure array Gravimery Report.11. Progress in Oceanography. this conference.C. S. C. (2003). & Pyne. 408. Future Gravity Missions and Quasi.L. Wahr. Earth Planets and Space. J. How much is to sea level rise and variability. measurements with GRACE estimates in the Kuroshio April 12–13.P. Honolulu: PACON International. Susanto. K.1016/j. J. Level Change: What have we learned and what are the [25] Ishii. J. Extension. The circulation of the North Atlantic global ocean derived from near-surface velocity Ocean from altimetry and the GRACE geoid. G. and flow through Drake Passage. Variability of Mass in the Arctic Ocean Using level. (2009). R. London. & Koltermann. A. L12602. Leuliette. Maximenko. Res.. M. Recent trends in Arctic Ocean mass redistribution Annular Mode. Implementation Plan 2009. Academic Press. [18] Godfrey. 18. Lambin. Rio. (2009). doi:10. & Miller. C03005. press. ESTEC. (2005). 40..P. & surface layer flow.1029/2006GL029016. Fall Meet.. CA. D. Wilson. Morison. Woodworth.381- [22] Hughes. Church. Kwok. from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data. Gornitz. Southern [43] Peltier. (2009)..S. Famiglietti. J. W.1029/2005JC003128. 101.A. J. Morrow. P. Lett. M. doi:10. Nature.1029/2008GL036010. J. Antonov. K. Ishii. W. & Milly. (2001). Res. C. Fukumori.) Recent Advances in Marine Science and [17] Ganachaud.M.R. (2005). G. Res. J. & Lafon. doi:10. [30] Lettenmaier D. R. Southern Hemisphere (2007). Turrell. R.-H. F. D. Indonesian Throughflow as a consequence of restricted Laval. K. J.doi. B. Lett. Woodworth.D. Atmos. Res. N. magnitudes of the required corrections for global glacial [29] Legrand. 88(52). techniques. Alsdorf.L. The effect of the Indonesian Centurioni. 26(9).1029/2005GL023112. gravimetry. E. J. 254.. Chambers.A. Quaternary Science Reviews.H. & McWilliams. Dynamically balanced absolute sea level of the [26] Jayne. Decreasing overflow from the Nordic seas into the [37] Morison. & Niiler. Roy. Noordwijk. Closure of the budget of global sea Ocean Mass Variation Studies Using GRACE and level rise over the GRACE era: The importance and Satellite Altimetry.. Wahr. (2007). 1910–1919. Blackwell Publishing. Matsumoto. Lett. Stepanov. [15] Fu. Oceanic Tech. Geophys. from satellite and drifting buoy data using three different 12237. J. Earth and [16] Fu. Res.10. [45] Plag. Warming of the Earth sciences: a handbook of techniques and world ocean. D.epsl. in Merrifield. Geo. & J. 2. & Boyer. and Planets. (2007). (Ed. NASA Biancale. L. Objectives and requirements of SWOT [33] Lombard.. 111.. Lemoine. [38] Morison. & SWOT Workshop. The SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) [34] Maximenko. (2005). J.. this mean global sea level with mesoscale resolution. Melnichenko. O. L. J. 7–35. (2003). A. doi:10.. 96 (C10). N. 18. Saxena. Argo. heat transport and 59.P. Proceedings of the the ocean really warming? Geophys. Wilson et al. & Peralta-Ferriz.. L.395. C. J.R. (2007). Improved Technology. & Wunsch. & Rummel. Geophys.H. P. (1996). Lett.1029/2006GL027834.W. Res. Geophys. S. mixing from hydrographic data. Satellite altimetry and [32] Levitus. S. P.. A. 287–299. Geophy. Sahagian. [27] Koop. and R. Recent relative sea level trends: an attempt to quantify the forcing factors.. D.035. (2006). 1464. Hybrid decade- Mission. R. Mognard. throughflow on ocean circulation and heat exchange with (2009).1029/2003GL017240. 34: WCRP workshop ‘Understanding sea level rise and L01610. (2009). isostatic adjustment. T. & Osterhus. Inc. (2009). T. Watts. Merrifield). Abstract rise budget with altimetry. Whitworth.. D. Mean dynamic topography of the ocean derived the atmosphere: A review. Geophys. P. variability’. Shum. 927-930. [40] Nerem. In conference 2009. Schmidt. J. C. Wahr. Ocean09 Community White Paper. Geophys. T. observations.R. L. & Cazenave. [39] Munk. R. doi:10. A. Once again: Once again . 30(9). and GRACE. M. Cazenave. Guo. M. V..H. Res. Donohue. (1997). [44] Peralta-Ferriz. J. C. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. C. J. & Kimoto. 194–202. N. The Netherlands. 411. Nature. 55– estimates of global ocean circulation. Closing the sea level Transactions. Meredith. for observing the oceanic mesoscale variability. Soc. Yi. AGU. E. (2009).. Coherence of Antarctic sea levels. B. Garcia. doi:10.L. Lett. measurements. D. Chambers. 2164. N.. Mitchum. Vaze. 452–454. GRACE and In Situ Bottom Pressure Measurements.1029/ [28] Kuo.. Cool [36] Milly. 425.D. 1955–2003. 35. Trans. Sato. Nature. Y. 824-828. 65. Res. A. Terrestrial water storage contributions [20] Gouretski. & Galperin.2006..A. 1–9. A.L. eds. 1841-1869. P. Res.P. J. Willis.. Eos [31] Leuliette. Lett. 364. (2008). (2000). Workshop on the Future of Satellite (2008). (2000). P. V. L17601. [41] Niiler. 10. Planetary Science Letters.L. 34. Niiler. Lettenmaier.. 2008GL034778. (1990). M. [19] Gordon.. Oceanography. K. Braun.. 8 . C. S.. Kwok. (2003). K.R. Nature. Earth. San Diego. Rodriguez. R. (2009)..C.[14] Fu. A. Moon. J. J. XBT and MBT depth bias corr ections. Land waters and sea 2007.. & Jayne. & Vranes. D. T. Ramillien. Suppl. Estimation of steric sea level variations April 28–May 1. K. J. V. Cazenave. T.. 36. Zlotnicki. (2006). Aarup and [21] Hansen. Phil. C. S. R.. Observations of Sea preparation. I. N. V. 60. Geophys. The future of satellite [42] Park. [35] Maximenko. P.W. H. Scripps Institute of Oceanography.. P. doi:10. 32: applications.

37.229. doi:10. The delay/Doppler radar altimeter. Ocean.T. Observations as decision support for coastal Geophys. J. subsurface temperature. 113. & Stammer. C06015. Geophys. J. S. Remote Sens. [52] Song..1029/2002JC001755. 109..P. 20(24). & Fu. Lett. (2007). and a geoid model. & Pearlman. 725–745. Proc. 32. D. [59] Willis. J.M. J.P.. doi:10. J. Y. (2008). T.1029/2007JC004690.205–30. the ocean with application to geoid improvement.. & Heimbach. R. 2101-2104. & Gaposchkin. L. (1996).1029/2005JC003189. (2007). H. Springer... doi:10. 101(C5). Rev. R... L. R. Climate. Roemmich.[46] Plag. Res. Remote Sensing. Ponte. (2004).... M. 6091–6107. Willis. Geophys.. heat storage. & Cornuelle. & R. J. in press.. Barker. K. Geosci. F. P. Ridgway.M. Geophys. M. [51] Rio M. eds. Time- variability of the Earth’s gravity field: Hydrological and oceanic effects and their possible detection using GRACE. J. 21. Res.P.. Chambers.K. management in response to local sea level changes. J. J.. Vassie. 5889–5911. Ocean09 Community White Paper. (2009).. Christian.A. Geophys. J. satellite altimetry to determine the general circulation of Digiacomo. P. Berlin. Germany. Y. The subpolar ocean- bottom-pressure oscillation and its links to ENSO. & Nerem. 11935–11947. C. 36(5). IEEE Trans. 111. R. & Parisot. Passage transports estimated from satellite data.S. J. J. CEOS Ocean Surface Topography Constellation Strategic Workshop.. Antarctic circumpolar current transport variability during [49] Raney. Assessing the globally averaged sea level budget on seasonal to interannual timescales. 18. R. [48] Qu. (2008). in press. [65] Zlotnicki.L. M. 34.. Int.. Fukumori.M. F.L. & Hernandez. & Song. [58] Willis. R. Res. Geophys.. J. 3292. A test of the ability of Geodetic Observing System: Meeting the Requirements of TOPEX/POSEIDON to monitor flows through the Drake a Global Society on a Changing Planet in 2020. Midoro Strait and Sibutu Climate. Wahr. White. 108(C9). 332 pp. Bruno. S.P.W. Res. Adegoke. (1996). A mean dynamic topography computed over the world ocean from altimetry. this conference. & Zlotnicki.. & Church. doi:10. 113. J. Geophys. Assmannshausen. V. Geophys.. 5657–5672. E. Relation between sea level and bottom pressure and the vertical dependence of oceanic variability. and sea-surface temperature variability.T. [55] Wahr.1029/2006GL028588. Phys. C. Y. Changing expendable bathythermograph fall rates and their impact on estimates of thermosteric sea level rise.. (1980). (2003). C12032. Hughes. M. A. J. Geophys.J. G. & Bryan. (2008). On using [47] Plag. [61] Wilson. S. Sea Level Rise and Variability (Blackwells). V.. I. Molenaar. P. Nicholls.E. (1998). Combining altimeter and subsurface float data to estimate the time-averaged circulation in the upper ocean. doi:10. Geophys. Res. Lett. Combining altimetric height with broadscale profile data to estimate steric height. (2009). Geoscience Books. (2009).T. C. 29 (21).M. D. C1207. C11S19. J. H. Y.T. doi:10. Estimation of interbasin transport using ocean bottom pressure: Theory and model for Asian marginal seas. [63] Wunsch. (2008). McManus. [60] Wilson. Vol. Res.K.. L03608. Lett. N. 103. & Mitchum. 23(16). & 9 . Res. (2009).1029/2003JC002226. & Song. [54] Vinogradova. Decadal trends in sea level patterns: 1993–2004. van de Wal. [53] Song. J. Res. Domingues. and others. [56] Wijffels. P. Ponte. 29–31 January. B. (2007). Observing systems needed to address sea-level rise and variability. Res. [57] Willis. (1998). C. J. 1578– 1588. F. N. Passage. [62] Woodworth. in situ measurements. J. Surface manifestation of internal tides generated near Hawaii. Geophys. 230–244.K. J.. (2008). The Global Meredith. (2009). [64] Wunsch. 472. [50] Ray. 2003-05 from GRACE.1029/2007JC004517. D. Res.. Gronell. R.

terrestrial gyroscopes in length-of-day) solid Earth. Technique Maturity Challenges Satellite radar altimetry Established cm-orbits. IGFS: International Gravity Field Service. VLBI. intra. IGeS: International Geoid Service. Earth Rotation Integrated effect of changes in Classical astronomy. momentum exchange between Earth system components) III. tide gauges Service. LLR: Lunar Laser Ranging. International geodetic and (nutation. plates. VLBI. volcanoes. improvement of background models Wide-swath altimetry New Technology Processing of InSAR altimetry data. ILRS. International geodetic Frame determined at mm to cm level DORIS.) GRACE. and its associated IAG and mass transport in the global orbits. BGI: International Gravimetric Bureau. Geokinematics Shape and temporal variations of Altimetry. receivers. projects. gravity ILRS. International and national (size. IDS) motion. IGS. ocean variability. GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite Systems. oceans. EM bias GRACE Continuity Established De-aliasing. polar inertia tensor (mass changes in under development: (IERS. ILRS: International Laser Ranging Service. SLR. IDS: International DORIS Service. GOCE) IV. VLBI: Very Long Baseline Interferometry. time community (IERS with keeping/transfer. DORIS. InSAR. GGP: Global Geodynamics Project. de-aliasing GNSS reflectometry Experimental Processing of reflected signals. kinematics. absolute support of IDS. IGS. or InSAR service level) II. DORIS: Doppler Orbitography and Radio positioning Integrated by Satellite. variations atmosphere. drag-free. InSAR: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar. earthquakes. Terrestrial Global cluster of fiducial points. Ch. IAS: International Altimetry Service. astronomical community precession. IGFS. satellite IGFS. GNSS. water cycle. land/ice/ocean surface (plates. Earth's static gravitational Terrestrial gravimetry International geophysical and potential. IERS: International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service. GNSS. EM bias GRACE Follow-on New Technology Laser link. cryosphere. GNSS. induced by solid Earth processes airborne gravimetry. antennae Table 2: New geodetic satellite techniques for oceanography 10 . imaging techniques. Component Objective Techniques Responsibility I. space missions. gravimetry. cluster. SLR. LLR. VLBI. dedicated satellite Services. such as IGeS. future International Altimeter deformation) glaciers. Gravity field Geoid. BGI. IGS: International GNSS Service. IVS. SLR. sea levelling. SLR: Satellite Laser Ranging. Modified from [46. shape. core/mantle. temporal variations (absolute and relative). IGS. angular momentum and moment of LLR. geodetic community (GGP. and IVS) recording Table 1: The Global Geodetic Observing System(GGOS). etc. DORIS. 2]. missions (CHAMP. ionosphere. IVS: International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry.

Figure 1. Maps of mean dynamic ocean topographies calculated for the period 1993–2002 from the GRACE gravity and satellite altimetry mean sea surface (top panel) and with added drifter-based technique of [35] (bottom panel). Contour interval is 10 cm. 11 .

Seasonal averages of the monthly GRACE (Rel. 4. Figure 2. relative to the temporal mean from 2003 to 2006 [44]. 300 km radius Gaussian filter) Arctic Ocean bottom pressure anomalies in cm water equivalent from August 2002 to May 2008. 12 .

Figure 4.Figure 3. 13 . GRACE-observed Ocean-Bottom-Pressure oscillation in North Pacific is shown to link the tropical ENSO and the Aleutian Low through an atmospheric bridge [53]. GRACE-observed ocean bottom pressure variations in North Pacific compared with steric-corrected (Argo) satellite altimetry [10].

Figure 5. Other record averages are matched to Release 4. Bottom pressure at the North Pole from GRACE Releases 1 and 4 along with averages of in situ Arctic Bottom Pressure Recorder records. The interannual trends in steric pressure anomalies due to ocean mass changes from upper ocean hydrographic observations account for a significant part of the GRACE trends and in agreement with [38]. 14 . [54]. Absolute values are arbitrary and have been set to zero for Release 4. [53].