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|| Volume || 3 || Issue || 10 || Pages || 53-61 || 2014 ||

ISSN (e): 2319 – 1813 ISSN (p): 2319 – 1805

** Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear Axle Housing by using
**

Finite Elements Analysis

1

Khairul Akmal Shamsuddin, 2Mohd Syamil Tajuddin,3Megat Mohd Amzari

Megat Mohd Aris,4Mohd Nurhidayat Zahelem

1

Mechanical Section, Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL), Malaysian Spanish Institute (MSI)

2

Mechanical Section, Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL), Malaysian Spanish Institute (MSI)

3

Mechanical Section, Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL), Malaysian Spanish Institute (MSI)

4

Mechanical Section, Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL), Malaysian Spanish Institute (MSI)

----------------------------------------------------------ABSTRACT-----------------------------------------------------------

A premature failure that occurred due to the higher loading capacity of the heavy vehicle is studied. To

determine the reason of the failure, a CAD model of the housing was developed. The mechanical properties of

the housing material were determined from the manufacturer manual. By using the given data, stress

distribution analysis performed by using finite element software and fatigue life are predicted. Design

enhancement solutions were proposed to increase the fatigue life of the housing.

**Keywords - Rear axle housing, Stress Distribution, Finite Element Analysis and Fatigue.
**

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Date of Submission: 07 October 2014 Date of Publication: 20 October 2014

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I. INTRODUCTION

The automobile was considered merely a mode of transportation. Today, the automobile is

considered more and more as one of life’s necessities. Many countries around the world have immersed interest

and investment in the automobile industry which affects their industries a great deal. Also, they are focusing

on the development of vehicles with improve performance, increased stability, and enhanced driver pleasure

[1]. A premature failure that occurs prior to the expected load cycles during life of rear axle housing as shown

in figure 1 is studied. Due to their higher loading capacity, solid axles are typically used in the heavy

commercial vehicles [2]. During the service life, dynamic forces caused by the road surface roughness produce

dynamic stresses and these force lead to fatigue failure of axle housing, which is the main load carrying part of

the assembly. Therefore it is vital that the axle housing resist against the fatigue failure for a predicted service

life. In automobiles, axle shafts are used to connect wheel and differential at their ends for the purpose of

transmitting power and rotational motion. In operation, axle shafts are generally subjected to torsional stress

and bending stress due to self-weight or weights of components or possible misalignment between journal

bearings. Thus, these rotating components are susceptible to fatigue by the nature of their operation and the

fatigue failures are generally of the torsional, rotating-bending, and reversed (two-way) bending type [3].

Figure 1: Rear axle housing

www.theijes.com The IJES Page 53

crack originated at the high stress concentration region. If the loads are above a certain threshold. and the structure will suddenly fracture [6]. square holes or sharp corners will lead to elevated local stresses where fatigue cracks can initiate as shown in figure 3. These discontinuities in geometry cause high stresses in very small regions of the bars. In order to determine the location of the stress distribute or the failure point on the axle housing. Fatigue Failure Fatigue is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading [5]. Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear… II.com The IJES Page 54 . The nominal maximum stress values are less than the ultimate tensile stress limit. the axle housing dimension was measured and convert to CAD software and this design was imported to FE analysis software to analyze the housing by given loading on it. Stress Concentration In reality. Introduction Stress distribution analysis of rear axle housing is analysis to determine the stress distribute around the axle housing after load applied to the housing. Fatigue occurs when a material is subjected to repeat loading and unloading. LITERATURE REVIEW A. C. bars often have holes. The crack was occurred due to overload load carried by the vehicle. shoulders. B. Fatigue cracks always start at stress raisers. or other abrupt changes in geometry that create a disruption in the otherwise uniform stress pattern. threads. via a propagating crack. Figure 3: Crack initiation www.g. e. The discontinuities themselves are known as stress raisers [4]. so a reduction in area. results in a localized increase in stress. The loading point is referring to the real loading condition on the vehicle and other condition of axle housing is considered to reach this aim. The real fracture strength of a material is always lower than the theoretical value because most materials contain small cracks that concentrate stress. when a concentrated stress exceeds the material's theoretical cohesive strength. In this test.theijes. so removing such defects increases the fatigue strength. A material can fail. and may be below the yield stress limit of the material. keyways. The shape of the structure will significantly affect the fatigue life. Which is the vehicle carry a load more than the axle can support. Eventually a crack will reach a critical size. grooves. notches. Round holes and smooth transitions or fillets are therefore important to increase the fatigue strength of the structure. caused by a crack. Figure 2: Stress Concentration Region An object is strongest when force is evenly distributed over its area. microscopic cracks will begin to form at the surface. and these high stresses are known as stress concentration which is shown in figure 2.

7948 x mm². The distance between element A and B from the mounting ring is the same [7]. Element A and B represent for the force acting on the axle. This cap was replacing drive shaft position where the drive shaft transmits the rotation to make the rear tires rotate while the vehicle moves. Weld able fine grain structural steels are either normalized or obtained by normalizing co-lamination and thus keep their mechanical properties if the welded parts are normalized. Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear… III. the result shown have more accurate than using a greater size of element. Figure 5: Finite Element model of the housing B. which has a quadratic displacement behavior and is well suited to model irregular meshes. Finite Element Model The FE model used in stress and fatigue analyses is shown in figure 5. a dome is welded to the rear side for sealing reasons. Material number is 1. Support 1 and 2 stand for the wheel road contact. a mounting ring is welded with cap to increase rigidity of the housing.5 mm.com The IJES Page 55 . The distance between the support housing contact points is equal to the wheel road contact. housing was meshed a higher order three-dimensional solid element. To build the finite element model. In order to run the simulation. Housing Material Housing are manufactured by the stamp welding process from 7 mm thick sheets made from a micro alloyed fine grained. In order to take effects on the applied process on mechanical properties into FE analysis. Finite Element Analysis i. in Y-direction is 207. Mass body for the housing is 61. the model was converted to IGES file before run the simulation on FE software.5 mm and in Z-direction is 264. On the front side. Weld able fine grain structural steels are in compliance with the EN 10025-3:2004 standard. each value of www. hot formable normalized structural steel S460N. Figure 4: Complete CAD model of housing ii.theijes. The housing essentially consists of thin walled shells. the total FE model consisted is 53245 nodes which are consist of 30118 element. CAD models A full scale of rear axle housing model was developed by using Catia software as shown in figure 4 below.8901. In the other side. part must be converted to IGES file. which defines four levels of mechanical properties. METHODOLOGY A. These steels are used for welded parts that have to withstand high levels of strain. or for low-temperature applications at -50°C (NL grades) [8]. As a result for this housing. EN 10025 – 3: 2004 technical delivery conditions for normalized / normalized rolled weld able fine grain structural steels.189 kg and it volume is 7. The housing length in X-direction is 1180 mm. This is the rule while the part was developed from the separate software. By using small size for the element mesh. which is having uniform thickness of 5 mm. From the Catia file. The element size is defined by 10 mm completely bonded contact was chosen as the contact condition for all welded surfaces. There are two main part body was develop which is consist of main part of the housing and dome. Each grade can be obtained with guaranteed impact properties at -20°C (N grades).

Loading Condition Load applied to the FE model was chosen according to the loading range used in real vehicle condition. elasticity.com The IJES Page 56 . In this case. The load given was used to determine the maximum loading condition can be supported by the housing before failure. Figure 7: Schematic for loading condition IV.5 tons load in 12 seconds as shown in figure 7 below. By applying the force data before in 12 seconds. which is supported by two air springs in real life but in FE analysis support was defined as in fixed condition.8901 ) 208. Ultimate strength. Equivalent von-Mises Stress This result based on the equivalent tensile stress known as von Mises theory where this theory state that the failure at a particular location occurs when the energy of distortion reaches the same energy for failure in tension. the result of the stress was shown in figure 9 below. v Sy (Mpa) Sut (Mpa) S460N ( 1.5 0. The maximum loading can be supported by the housing before failure determined on this analysis is while loading at 4224.755 kg. The mechanical properties of this material as shown in figure 6. The material was defined as structural steel with constant variable. The load pressed on the element A and B was divided with same loading condition which is each element was given starting 0 tons up to 2.theijes. 9: Equivalent von-Mises Stress www. yielding occurs when the equivalent stress reaches the yield strength of the material in simple tension. 8: Graph for Equivalent von-Mises Stress vs Time Fig. Housing for a rear axle.5 643 Figure 6: Mechanical Properties C.3 497. Fig. RESULT AND DISCUSSION A. During the loading press. Tests were performed on a 5 metric tons loading capacity. Material Modulus of Poisson's Yield strength. Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear… mechanical properties of this material was defined before simulation. the bending moment occurs before the housing failure. E (GPa) ratio.

C. After 12 second. Initial value from 0 second until 12 second. The minimum values of this stress means that the load applied still do not achieve the maximum load applied. The relationship between the normal stress and time is directly relative where stress is increasing when time is increase. This means after 318. the stress was increase based on the load applied on it. Based on the graph shown in figure 8. Starting from 0 second until 12 second. and acts on the plane that bisects the angle between the directions of the largest and smallest principal stresses. the stress was raise based on the load acting on it.10: Graph for Normal Stress versus Time Fig 11: Normal Stress From the result as shown in figure 11 above. Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear… From the result. The maximum shear stress or maximum principal shear stress is equal to one-half the difference between the largest and smallest principal stresses. On this stress component analysis. B. the stress reach the maximum stress where the stress obtained from this analysis based on normal stress is 25. the stress on rear axle housing was determined by using finite element analysis.77 MPa.theijes. The stress increase because of the loading applied is increase. The stress increase because of the loading applied is increase. Based on the graph shown in figure 10.613 MPa. After 12 second. Principal Stresses The principal stresses are defined as the algebraically maximum and minimum values of the normal stresses and the planes on which stress act. Normal Stress Fig. the stress also increase directly proportional to the time until reach the maximum stress before the axle housing failure. The minimum values of this stress means that the load applied still do not achieve the maximum load applied. the result exposed that the minimum equivalent von-Mises stress is 0.082 MPa when time initially at 1 second.com The IJES Page 57 . the stress reach the maximum stress where the stress obtained from this analysis is 318. This means after 25. the graph for normal stress versus time was constructed.0036 MPa when time taken reaches 1 second. There are two types of result for principal stress which is divided by maximum and the minimum principal stress. When time is increase. Figure 12: Graph for Maximum Principal Stress versus Time Figure 13: Graph for Minimum Principal Stress versus Time www.77 MPa the failure is initiated and these maximum stresses occur on the expected failure region where the failure initiated. the graph for equivalent von-Mises stress versus time was constructed. The stress increase proportional to the time until reach the maximum stress before the axle housing failure.613 MPa the failure is initiated and these maximum normal stresses occur on the expected failure region where the failure initiated. the result exposed that the minimum normal stress is 0. This is the relationship between the load applied and stress occurs.

0290 MPa.45. The maximum value for principal stress obtained at time 12 second.com The IJES Page 58 .755 kg ≈ 42000 N where for equivalent von-Mises stress is 318. the value of load adding is increased by 5000 N. the axle was tested in 12 second where starting from 1 second until 12 second. The true fatigue strength from the calculation is 361. the value of the principal stress obtained from the analysis result shown that the maximum principal stress has the higher stress compare to the minimum principal stress. The minimum value of n from calculated is 1. Figure 16: Graph S-N curve for S460N material Figure 17: Factor of Safety www. the curve as shown in figure 16 below fulfills the requirement for the structural steel curve behaviour. at time 12 second the total load acting on axle housing is 50000 N ≈ 5 tons. These two graph which are shown in figure 12 and 13 were had a similar trend line where the stress is directly proportional to the time. S-N Diagram and Fatigue Life Prediction By using Finite element software the S-N curve for axle housing material was developed directly after the mechanical properties for the housing was defined. This mean at critical region. In order to predict the maximum loading capacity. Reason of the Premature Failure and Maximum Loading Capacity Premature failure occurs when the axle housing reach the limit of fatigue strength. D. the fatigue life for the material is increase. The stress occurs at the critical region of the axle housing where the failure initiated. So. while the force acting on the axle is 5 tons (5000 kg). the maximum principal stress obtained is 298MPa and the minimum principal stress is 42 MPa. when the alternating stress is decrease. From the analysis result show that the maximum loading capacity is 4224. fatigue crack can initiate before 1 x cycles as observed in this analysis. The value obtain fulfill the theory statement which is the maximum must be higher than the minimum value. E. The cycles developed for this diagram is up to cycles. The axle is no longer can prevent the failure if the stress acting is higher than the true fatigue strength. From this analysis.56 where the maximum stress concentration was observed. According to the theoretical. Fatigue life from this experiment is 1 x cycles.theijes. the axle became failure. At this point the obtained minimum value of n from this analysis is 1. From the analysis. Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear… Figure 14: Maximum Principal Stress Figure 15: Minimum Principal Stress Based on these two types of principal stress (maximum and minimum) as shown in figure 14 and 15 above. As a result.77 MPa.

theijes.504 . For the fatigue life prediction of the part in the range of – cycles. it is observed that there are stress concentrated regions on critical area and arm transition areas. = factor = exponent Since the roughness of the shell surfaces is similar to hot rolled sheet after hot stamping.7 and b = . Therefore. fatigue analysis was also performed.0. shot peening. stands for the stress life endurance limit of ideal laboratory samples. In addition. which is greater than 50 mm. (1) Where.718. On the other hand is deﬁned as: = (5) www. An estimation of the stress life endurance limit is given as: = 0. a fatigue strength modifying factor must be taken into account by means of the static stress concentration factor that is related to fatigue stress concentration factorc . This represents the fatigue strength at cycles and more. size factor can be assumed as 0. Hence is used in the fatigue analysis as 0. = surface factor = size factor = load factor = temperature factor = fatigue strength modifying factor where a surface factor which depends on surface finish is given as: (3) Where.959.5557 for = 643 MPa. is given as: = (2) Where. Fatigue Strength Calculation Since the rear axle housing is actually loaded with dynamic forces during the service. Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear… i. recommended values are a = 57. can be assumed as to be equal to . = Endurance limit = Ultimate strength for steels with ultimate strengths of less than 1400 MPa [12]. Hence is calculated as: (4) For safety reasons. By means of static FE analysis. To predict the true fatigue strength for a mechanical component has to be multiplied by several modifying factors which represent various design. in addition to the modifying factors mentioned. and environmental influences on the fatigue strength. The calculated value of = 0. manufacturing. Because of the dimensions and shape complexity of the housing cannot be derived from data in the standard literature [2]. the S–N curve of the housing material was predictable by means of a practical method given by FE software. a well-known process to introduce favorable residual stresses in the material surface of a component is also applied on the housing surfaces after hot stamping to increase the fatigue life of the part. For non-round sections.com The IJES Page 59 .75 for the values of the depth of the cross-section h. Load factor is given as 1 for bending and temperature factor is 1 for the range of the ambient temperature of T = 0– 250 °C.

the value of stress is decrease. the rear axle was assumed as a simple beam which has a uniform box proﬁle cross-section X–X of critical region along the longitudinal axis Y and subjected to pure bending .454. the new design with more thickness than before can be used to solve the axle problem and the axle can be used longer than before. All fatigue analyses were performed according to inﬁnite life criteria (N = cycles). Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear… where is the peak stress and at the root of the notch and the nominal stress which would be present if a stress concentration did not occur was used as the value obtained from static FE analyses as = 318. Rear Axle Model Solution By increasing the thickness sheet metal from 5 mm to 7 mm at critical region as shown in figure 18 below. Since the loading has a sinusoidal ﬂuctuating characteristic (mean stress. when the area is increase. Distribution of n at the lower shell can be seen in factor of safety distribution region. the axle can prevent from failure.13 MPa and and matching a minimum 0. Fig. the error between both result is 7% still can be accepted because less than 10% error.man approach given as: (8) was used. M was obtained as 5724. In the light of the fatigue analysis results. 18: Geometry of rear axle housing www. Factor of safety to be used in this design is essentially a compromise the benefit of increased safety and reliability. From the theoretical. Here n stands for factor of safety (as shown in figure 17). By using manual calculation.6 kN. both corresponding to maximum 381. So. the value of safety factor is 1. Von Mises stresses obtained from ﬁnite element analyses are utilized in fatigue life calculations.202 and = 0. the value of safety factor of the axle is 1. F.mm. Stress amplitude is given as: (9) and the mean stres can be expressed as: (10) Here.56.77 MPa. in order to reduce the value of stress acting on the axle. The S–N curve plotted regarding the modifying factors was deﬁned in the FE software user interface. Stress-life approach was used to determine the fatigue life of the housing material. When the stress is decrease.96 mm³. Hence was computed as 144. the rigidity and safety of the axle housing can be improved.0035924 MPa of vertical load were obtained via FE analysis. From the analysis. So. it was estimated that crack initiation can occur at the region E1 and E2 of the outer shell surface. was computed by means of the model given as: = (6) Z= (7) where M is bending moment and Z is the section modulus of the critical cross-section. Factor of Safety Factor of safety is used to provide a design margin over the theoretical design capacity to allow for uncertainty in the design process.com The IJES Page 60 . ii. > 0). The value of n is obtained. To calculate .765 MPa. modiﬁed Good. ≈ is found as 2.theijes.45. Section modulus Z was calculated as 39543.

[7] Higgins.J.P.A. ANSYS Release 14. Mechanics of Materials. [4] Carol Francois (2011). [8] Yung-Li Lee. Failure analysis of a final drive transmission in off-road vehicles. But other consideration such as material changing and redesigning also can be used to improve the problem REFERENCES [1] Woongsang Jeong. pp 34-37. Formula for Stress. H. Material Selection [18] F. 3rd Edition.wisegeek. Makevet. [17] Chris Dolling (2006). [9] Yasushi Ito. All the parameter and boundary condition for the rear axle was defined in the FE analysis before run the simulation.S. maximum principal stress.D.The reason failure occurs is because the axle housing no longer can prevent the load given onto it. The factor of safety for the axle housing was determined from the analysis and manual calculation. Inc. From the analysis. J. pp 107-176. [20] Collins. 8th Edition In SI Units. [10] ANSYS Theory References. Dordrecht. Davis.45 can be accepted because only has 7% of the error. (Jack A. Raymond Aurelius (2001). Roman (2001). the result given will more accurate. Elsevier Butterworth- Heinemann. John Wiley & Sons. Fatigue failure prediction of a rear axle housing prototype by using finiteElement analysis.com The IJES Page 61 . Strain and Structural Matrices. C. The dimension of the axle housing follow the real dimension based on the data collected. RF.A. Keith Nisbett (2008). N. Mark Barkey (2005). the result for stress distribution for equivalent von-Mises stress. in which the stress are distribute. McGraw-Hill. Reliable Isotropic Tetrahedral Mesh Generation Based on an Advancing Front Method. Pilkey (2005). Higgins. Jeong Kim. Fatigue failure of a rear axle shaft of an automobile. The Properties of Engineering Material.755 kg ≈ 42000 N. Dover (1995). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. [15] E. and minimum principle stress was analyzed and determined. The model of the axle was developed by using CAD software. Analysis and design of hydroforming process for automobile rear axle housing by FEM. [22] Schijve J (2001). Y. Soni. pp. 2 nd Edition. In this FE analysis. Designing for Static and Dynamic Loading of a Gear Reducer Housing with FEA. Elmustafa. Automotive CAE Durability Analysis Using Random Vibration Approach [14] M. Anusavice and B.com/what-is-an-axle. The values from the analysis is n = 1. 8th Edition. normal stress. [12] Li-Ping Lei.M. Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear… V. stress concentration from the load given to the axle housing make the axle housing failure. Gere (2002). New York. Raymond A. pp 137-344. Pilkey DF. Gunal. Richard Hathaway. pp 257-319. [16] K.theijes. 68- 72. [21] Walter D. [5] James M. Kuralay (2008). Fatigue Testing and Analysis. Budynas & J. The result show that the maximum load can be carried by this rear axle housing is 4224. www. Modeling & Dynamic Analysis for Four Wheel Steering Vehicle. 21 March 2011. pp 159. By using small values of the element size. [13] Hong SU. Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading. 384-407. [6] Richard G. Nelson Thornes Ltd. 2nd Edition.) (1993). Ritinski (2010). pp. In order to increase the fatigue life of the housing. http://www. the model must be meshed.htm. What is an axle. Peterson’s (2008). pp 139. Mechanical Engineering Design. I.0 ANSYS. the fatigue life cycle for the axle material also was computed and the result shown that the axle material can stand up to 1x cycles before the crack initiated on the critical region. Changsoo Han. John Wiley & Sons. [2] M. Brennan and W. In order to run the simulation in the FE software.D.S. Beom-Soo Kang (2000). Jinhee Jang. [11] Shigley JE. 5th SI Edition. Ph. new design of rear axle model was developed with increasing the thickness of sheet metal to 7 mm used to make the housing can stand longer and increase the rigidity of the axle housing. 2011. Shih and Bharat K. Jwo Pan. [19] Pilkey WD. Failure of Materials in Mechanical Design. Hojjatie (1987).56 and from the calculation is 1. Fatigue of structures and materials. [3] Osman Asi (2006). the maximum load for the housing can stand was determined by using FE analysis. Inc. A. Stress Distribution in Metal-Ceramic Crowns with a Facial Porcelain Margin. Stress Intensity Factors for Threaded Connections. Mohammed. Topac. pp 286. Stress Concentration Factor. In the analysis. CONCLUSION Stress distribution analysis of rear axle housing was investigated by using finite element analysis. Martin. From the several load given. Mischke C (1989). Alan M.

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