Best Practices in Compressor Mounting

James A. Kuly
Chief Engineer
ITW Polymer Technologies
Montgomeryville, Pennsylvania

7th Conference of the EFRC
October 21th / 22th, 2010, Florence

Large reciprocating compressors are found in many industries including gas, oil and petrochemical
production, transmission and storage. Operationally they generate very large gas and inertia forces.
Their mounting systems must manage and transmit weight loads, vertical and horizontal gas and
inertia loads, vertical anchor bolt forces, and the forces of thermal growth. The effectiveness and
integrity of their installation is therefore crucial. This paper addresses the best practices related to
installation techniques, component design, and materials used in the mounting of large reciprocating
compressors including:
• Equipment Preparation
• Foundation & Mat
• Anchor Bolts & Sleeves
• Grouting & Chocking

vertical anchor bolt to it including horizontal gas and inertia loads. cracks or separations in the integrated compressor / foundation structure will prevent the vibration waves from traveling downward. Hold the to properly analyze and design a good foundation is compressor and driver in perfect alignment with the aid of such tools as Finite Element while accommodating all of the loads applied Analysis (FEA) and foundation design programs. Operationally they generate very large gas series or in parallel from one component to the and inertia forces. and eventually crankshaft failure. there are also many weight loads. and and the integrity its foundation. one mode of vibration can be either number of industries including gas. The The complexity of analyzing and mitigating the mounting system must do three things: negative affects of vibrations in a compressor 1 Position and support the compressor. its construction is not. Their mounting systems must next. The weight loads. Vibration To achieve a strong. Vibration energy travels in the form of waves down and out through the foundation where the soil can absorb it. In addition to these tools. lateral. but it will act of its installation are therefore crucial. OPERATIONS Best Practices in Compressor Mounting. important elements in the design of the mounting A compressor can vibrate in six different ways or system: modes – three in translation (vertical. torsional. A well designed and constructed foundation manage and transmit weight loads. • The compressor and its foundation must longitudinal) and three in rotation (pitching/ form a tightly integrated structure. oil and “coupled” or connected to other modes and drive petrochemical production. vertical and will not only accommodate all of the loads applied horizontal gas and inertia loads. its installation is difficult and complex. In Large reciprocating compressors are found in a addition. vibrations can be transmitted in storage. high-quality yet cost-effective The primary problem making compressor mounting installation it is important to recognize two very systems difficult to design and install is vibration. Unfortunately. influence the quality of construction and integrity long-term reciprocating compressor operation of the foundation and how both of these directly depends on the quality of the design and affect vibration attenuation. The purpose of the mounting system on a reciprocating gas compressor is simple. They by dynamic forces down through the are the small things that are often left off of the foundation while reducing or eliminating the installation drawings and specifications but have a harmful effects of those vibrations big impact on the longevity of a foundation. ITW POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES 1 Introduction All these modes of vibration have their own natural frequencies where resonance can occur. anchor bolt loads and loads due to effectiveness of the mounting system and integrity thermal growth and frame distortion. rocking). and the forces of thermal growth. anchor bolt loads and loads due practical design and installation “rules of thumb” to thermal growth and frame distortion that should be used. . It will not address the construction of the compressor mounting system interaction of the foundation and the soil. Breaks. Kuly. 3 Accomplish items #1 and #2 above for 30 years or more This paper will focus on those “rules of thumb“ practices or techniques used in compressor While the purpose of a compressor’s mounting installation design and installation that directly system is simple. to it including horizontal gas and inertia loads. forces. Degradation of the foundation or loss of the mounting system’s 2 Best Practices Related to Mitigating integrity can cause excessive frame vibration and misalignment. The only way driver and related equipment. Finally. yawing. Reliable. many of these 2 Effectively transmit the vibration produced are only learned through years of experience. James A. transmission and them. to reduce then effectively pass those vibrations down to the soil below.

together (the compressor and its 2. 2. should be at least 1. For example. excitation frequencies. The width of the foundation "form a tight integrated structure" is Monolithic.1. by themselves. because of their… • Higher physical properties 2. around compressors and drivers. Chocks also allow the recess in the foundation for the pan to be built shallower to reduce the weakness in this area of the block that was prone to cracking. Make the weight of the foundation 4 to 8 times the weight of The one best word to describe what it means to the compressor.1. . Kuly. Best Practices Related To the • Superior bond strength to concrete and Construction of the Foundation steel • Resistance to cracking The foundation has the biggest influence on • Imperviousness to attack by oil and mitigating vibration in a reciprocating compressor. Preventing with epoxy grout. objective behind a 2.5 times its height. A non-shrink grout is required between the concrete foundation. the mass of the should not cause the concrete to crack. Concrete absorbs support the machinery it seals and protects the vibration more easily than a steel frame or skid concrete foundation. Because individual chocks are because its internal molecular structure absorbs separated by a gap. A monolithic structure is one that is cast as a massive. foundation degradation and cracking means These practices act to stiffen the making sure that all mounting components steel. compressor and its driver so precise alignments can be achieved. Keep the center of gravity of the block and uniform. and rigid mat within 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 inches) of the piece. 2.2. This is because the steel. James A. Mechanically isolate the foundation block interacting pieces from any surrounding structures.1.5. a rigid structure whose dynamic response will the design and installation of the anchor bolts depend only on the dynamic load. OPERATIONS Best Practices in Compressor Mounting.1. air can easily flow under and vibration energy. The best practice is to cover the construction of the foundation that have to do with foundation with a full bed of grout then to mount reducing the impact of vibration. grout and fill the void spaces inside the skid concrete are all flexible. Install the compressor and driver on a The full bed of epoxy grout not only helps to concrete block foundation.4. Design the installation as components or mounting system. If the compressor has to be a series of interacting structures that move mounted on a skid. ITW POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES • A compressor installation must be treated as 2. 2.2. Minimize the elevation difference between compressor installation the machine’s dynamic forces and the center of is therefore to create a gravity of the machine-foundation system.1. grout and machinery must top of concrete foundation and the bottom of the become one.2.1. work together and none act to harm the other 2. two best and vibrate. considered a “Best practices that help reduce the impact of vibration in Practice” over the use of cementitious grout the structure.2. the compressor and driver on individual chocks.3. This means that the mat. foundation and on soil characteristics.1. The use of epoxy grout and epoxy The following describes the best construction chocks are.1.2. The design vertical centreline of the compressor’s crankshaft.1. seamless. Best Practices Related to Epoxy driver to a well Grout & Chocks designed concrete foundation) with enough size and mass to The following are best practices associated with separate the dynamic response frequencies from the epoxy grout and chocks. Vibration energy actually practices are to run the anchor deforms the structure as it passes through the bolts to the top of the skid and to structure. chemicals The following are best practices related to the 2.2. monolithic structure that clamps the series of 2.

16 X Safety Factor to manage any dynamic loads 2. oil.4.2. the chock.4. This may seem like an obvious statement 2. API 686 suggests an anchor bolt Preparation stress of only 30. Sand blast and clean metal frame.3.000 psi) to from the frame. Terminate the anchor bolts half way into surface a light texture. Do not prime them.2. sandblast divot and machining regarding which product to use is based on size of mark on the bottom of a compressor / driver.4. OPERATIONS Best Practices in Compressor Mounting. Both are good practice. effective an anchor bolt should be tightened to 60% sole plates or concrete foundation has always been to 70% of its yield strength. engine rails. a best practice. that. It also provides a 14 to vibration. The following are some additional best practices This should be a sufficient to firmly anchor the for component preparation the will help mitigate compressor and its driver.4. Static loading is made up of a the best way to prevent the various surfaces from combination of deadweight loading and the loading de-bonding and from sliding due to a low COF.1.3. It is adjustable type chocks. Their purpose is to prevent movement of the equipment or separations between the layers. The anchor bolts are essentially must be applied no more than 2 to 3 mills thick. Separations act as a barrier preventing Force pushing down by the Coefficient of Friction. vibrations from passing completely through the foundation to the soil.3. There can be no oil in the concrete 2.3. If this value is used. If a primer is required on steel to prevent the layers together. The adjustable chocks must be installed on a sole the Coefficient of Friction created by the anchor plate while the poured-in-place type chocks can be bolts that prevent sideways or lateral vibrations and placed either directly on top of the grout or on sole movement. This combined with heavy rebar COF. chipped and broken aggregate. With any single chock over 610 mm (24 Resistive Force is found by multiplying Normal inches) in length or 75 mm (3 inches) in depth it is best to use an epoxy grout rather than a chocking compound.3. James A. Best Practices Related to Frame.3. This will increase the the mat.9 MPa (1. increase poured-in-place type or the pre-manufactured the Coefficient of Friction (COF) of the layers. but anchor bolt tension is often arbitrarily limited.4. an anchor bolt foundation removing all laitance and expose 50% must stretch over about 50% of its length. it from rusting prior to installation.3. must be removed grout should be under 6. Poured-in-place chocks can be made from and prevents movement. sole plates and rail. in conjunction with a high COF creates a very high Resistive Force that absorbs the shaking force 2. Sole Plate and Foundation For example. grease dirt. This will provide a structurally solid surface to transfer vertical and horizontal loads down through the grout and into the concrete. connecting the mat to the foundation will help hold 2. ITW POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES 2. A high COF is caused by either 3-component epoxy grout or 2-component the intimate fit of epoxy to steel because it fills epoxy chocking compounds. Just reached. a best practice is to maximize anchor bolt tension. To 2.3. 2. etc. Increase the portion of the anchor bolt that must be a straight epoxy primer (NO ZINC) and it is being stretched.2. Chip off the surface of the concrete create an effective clamping force.4. remove anything on the surface and give the 2. 2.2. Best Practices Related to Anchor Bolts Anchor bolts clamp foundation and equipment layers together.5. Cleanliness is minimize creep.3. Rail. caused by the tensile stress on the anchor bolts.000 psi (207 MPa). Kuly. To reduce vertical vibration and lessen its impact. The static loading on the epoxy chocks or and all paint.1. Anchor bolts create the Normal Force plates. I believe that to be fully Cleanliness of the compressor frame. To mitigate horizontal vibration. The best practice every little scratch. springs that stretch and apply a clamping load. the anchor bolt will be tightened to only 23% of its Yield Strength. . sole before the compressive strength of the grout is plates or rail to SP 6. Individual chocks can be either the 2. that primer 2.

Edge-lifting – Edge-lifting is a common foundation. related to preventing foundation degradation. cracking. Steel fibers reinforce foundation. For example. points. of as little as 15 minutes can result in a cold joint Look for and eliminate stress risers that could separation between layers.Do not allow any grout to be installed until the concrete is fully cured. round sharp corners and vertical and horizontal vibration. anything that can act as a stress riser inside the concrete must be softened In addition to applying Best Practices to mitigate or removed. there Foundation Design & Installation should be not be a vertical connection between concrete and grout. Because the modulus of elasticity of the fiber is higher than the matrix (concrete or mortar binder). Rebar specification – Best practice is #6 (3/4”) rebar on 6” centers. Steel fibers have a surface of the concrete. it is also points. In other words.1. This section contains grout pockets recessed into the concrete the best practices related to the construction of the foundation should be avoided. do not add water potentially be created in the concrete which could to the concrete mix at the site as it will reduce the be caused by the ends of rebar.2. 2) full tensile strength and 3) water content reduced. foundation. anchor and chemicals that can degrade the concrete and bolt holes should be round and not square and allow vibrations to increase.1. OPERATIONS Best Practices in Compressor Mounting.625 to 4.5. 3. It is a de-bonding grade of M25 or M30 concrete.4. do not install keys or lips as concrete used in the foundation is extremely they cannot restrain thermal growth forces. James A. the concrete that has angular faces.6 N/mm2 (464 to 522 psi). Kuly. However. it can help carry the load by increasing the tensile strength of the material.1. Second best is #8 (1”) 3. It can occur when large there are wide (3. These are rebar staples or high modulus of elasticity and high tensile wickets that improve the bond of the grout to the strength to withstand excess strain and prevent concrete. rebar on 8” centers due to the increased difficulty Best practice is to limit the time delay between in placing the concrete.8. Apply a large radius to cracks in the foundation and the penetration of oil everything that penetrates concrete. The key factors in curing are 1) shrinkage complete. .1. important for ensuring a long successful life of the 3. eliminate compressive strength. Install troughs foundation and the installation of the machinery around the unit to take away oil. 3. Dense placement in the layers of concrete to no more than 25 to 30 upper 1/3rd of the foundation block and lighter minutes. Instead.There should be no vertical connections between different 3. Tensile strength . Improperly cured concrete can have its design strength reduced by as much as 50%. Connections should be 3.1. Vertical connections . Concrete curing . Best practice calls for a minimum problem on many installations. internal or “re- Degradation entrant” corners in the foundation to reduce built- in stress.1. Use crushed stone in foundation but does not support any equipment. the modulus of elasticity. 3. Good curing practice means keeping the concrete damp enough and at a uniform temperature long enough so it can reach its desired compressive and tensile strengths. breaks in concrete placement density in the lower 2/3rds of the foundation.1. Concrete specification .3.6. Also.2 to open areas where epoxy grout covers the 3.000 psi using steel fibers. ITW POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES 3 Best Practices to Prevent Foundation remove all sharp corners. The bond of There are three methods of preventing edge- angular faced stone to the cement paste is better lifting: 1) Round the outer edge of the concrete than round stone. Also.1.1. Foundation design – Best practice is to foundation. Best Practices Related To materials in a foundation. Also.The quality of horizontal only. possible stress points in the concrete by installing and tensile strength of the concrete rebar so it crosses at all internal corners of 3. This is concrete of the concrete just below the epoxy – concrete with a compressive strength of 25 to 30 N/mm2 bond line.1. Install a large radius on any internal angles important to do everything possible to prevent in the foundation. Also.A best practice is to using 12 mm (½”) rebar set into a 24 mm (1”) hole increase tensile strength of concrete to at least every 30 cm (12”) along the edge of the 1. 3) Install mechanical anchors in the the concrete in 3 directions.7. 2) Pin the edge of the foundation 3. Concrete placement and consolidation .350 psi) and a tensile strength of 3.

2. If properly sealed top foam.2. Bolt torque & tension – The nuts on all anchor bolts should be hand-tool tight while the grout is being installed. Spherical washers – The use of different anchor bolt designs.2.2. 3. Therefore the use that the plate at the bottom of the anchor bolt of a hydraulic bolt tensioner is a best practice. ITW POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES 3. They must be do not cast them into the foundation until the lubricated so the torque is not wasted in friction compressor is set in place. rock slightly on the bolt thread reducing the . on the concrete are pushed further out from the bolt.5 3. the bolt itself must be prevented from touching epoxy grout over the upper half of its length.9. long bolts separate reciprocating compressor mounting the anchor the stress area from the source of oil. accomplish this. between the threads or between the nut and washer. To Anchor bolt sleeves or covers are a best practice. Spherical difference is the design of their termination or washers allow the tension on the bolt to be spread bottom end. Nuts should be 2H. Bolt tensioning – The only accurate way to tighten an anchor bolt is to stretch it. face angularity of 1 to 2 degrees can have a They have advantages over embedded bolts significant effect of the fatigue life of a bolt.7.2. Super nuts are a very good practice but can be expensive. 3.2.1.It is also a best practice to install anchor bolts with a built-in The number one reason for foundation failure is tension monitoring device. Best Practice Related To Anchor x bolt diameter.2. Anchor Bolt Grade & Materials – For termination point. This is very important because nut without putting a strain on the bolt or concrete.2. Also.10. Longer bolts reduce loss in tension resulting from creep and reduce stress in concrete at their 3. The diameter of the plate should be after compressor and driver have come up to 3 to 4 times bolt diameter so that the tensile forces temperature. For a tight foundation and mounting system. Tension monitoring .2. Nuts – Anchor bolt nuts should be strength. but the plate itself must have is also a best practice to re-tighten anchor bolts round edges.It is best practice to Anchor bolts cannot be eliminated so the quality make anchor bolts as long as possible and to of their installation must be increased and their terminate the anchor bolts half way into the mat. nuts and washers thread. then any other long torque is often wasted on friction between the bolt can be used.2.No matter the style or type Sealing of anchor bolt. but not higher than 70% of tensile strength of bolt. James A. in length. Free-standing bolts are a best practice uniformly around the anchor bolt rather than on because they can easily be moved and positioned just one side. Anchor bolt length . Wrapping a bolt also provides the bolt with and bottom. The primary spherical washers is a best practice.8. rust and corrosion. the preload on the anchor bolts should be as high as possible. If bolts are to be cast into the foundation ASTM A-194 high strength nuts.6.2 m (48”) material. At a bolts must be made from 4140 ASTM A193 B7 minimum the anchor bolts should be 1. OPERATIONS Best Practices in Compressor Mounting.2. Free-stretch .3. Best Practices related to anchor bending stress that will be imposed on the bolt bolts. Anchor Bolt Types – There are many 3. Kuly. 3. Anchor Bolt Terminations – If free. After the grout has hardened the bolts should be tensioned per the equipment manufacturer’s instructions. 3. cracking. because the holding force is governed by the bolt’s tensile strength rather than the concrete’s tensile 3. Bolt Holes / Sleeves / Covering / 3. This not only means face of the nut and the washer. or torquing a bolt can be very inaccurate because standing bolts are not used. Twisting 3. negative affects must be mitigated. It should be round. but as a best practice its threads of the nut and bolt and between the bottom terminations must be round.3. This allows the bolt to free-stretch. the upper half to the bolt must be They cover a length of bolt so it can stretch wrapped with tape or covered with pipe insulation sufficiently when tensioned.5. they also protect the bolt from a large thread clearance which allows the nut to chemical attack.4. the thickness of the plate should be 1. 3. and the number one cause of cracking is improperly designed and installed anchor bolts. In addition.2.

For this reason it is a best square. 3. Best Practices Related To compression rather than to Alignment Tools drive themselves up into the grout or down into the concrete.1.5. Using expansion joints will ensure that the epoxy grout flows everywhere it is needed and that it 3.3. Proper stress risers to the grout.2.4. and blocks of any shape or size must never be left 3.5. practice NOT to embed any anchor bolts until the 3. This is expected difference in seasonal temperatures the not true. Best Practices Related To Expansion Joints The use of expansion joints is a best practice. wedges. Well sealed – the top and bottom of the done if the threads of the jacking screws are sleeves should be well sealed to prevent them coated with non-melt grease.3. Not too close to the edge .2. Proper spacing and . Expansion joints serve 2 purposes – 1) they prevent the concrete and epoxy grout from coming apart due to the difference in thermal expansion and contraction rates and 2) they guide flow of grout into areas of limited size.4.3. they will completely from the grout.1. If they are (except nuts on anchor bolts under the mounting allowed to stick partway up plate) are acceptable IF they are removed into the grout. This screws with non-melt grease on their threads.The best practice here possible away from the sides of the foundation – is to use jacking screws (d) and back out the screw 30 cm (12” minimum) completely after the grout has cured. This provides a stable place for the jacking screws to rest that will not add any 3. The best practice is to use jacking foam backed tape or foam pipe insulation. round.The bolt threads screw was located. shims.3. Jacking devices that from filling up with oil or water. In any event. on a relatively thin.4.Expansion joints must be compressor is set in place and aligned. Some sort of jacking device must be used to anchor bolt sleeves should be position the compressor and driver.3. practice to keep bolts and pockets as far as 3. James A. Corrugated anchor bolt sleeves are a liquids to pass down next to them. Jacks. Kuly. eventually crack the grout. Pushing an embedded anchor bolt puts a closer the expansion joints should be but is strain on it as well as the surrounding concrete that typically either 1. There are cut off even with the top of many different types of jacking devices and all the concrete. best practice because they have an ability to give under 3. OPERATIONS Best Practices in Compressor Mounting.1. Wrap bolt threads . This prevents grout or chocking compound from going is more cost effective as it allows the entire area to up into the bolt hole on the compressor and be grouted at one time. Round landing plate . landing plate with rounded edges. The larger the purposes during compressor installation.2. well sealed at the bottom so they cannot allow any 3. preventing the bolt from moving or stretching.5. This is costly and sticking up above sleeve must be covered using unnecessary. This can be 3.8 m (6 ft) could lead to cracking. Well sealed . ITW POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES Many people mistakenly believe that the purpose configuration of expansion joints is usually based of a bolt sleeve is to allow the compressor installer on the grout used and the extremes of weather and to easily bend the anchor bolt for alignment the thermal cycling expected. Jacking screws .4. Cracks are guaranteed if they are.Another best will stay in place practice is to have the jacking screw touch down once there.It is good inside the grout. are isolated and grouted around must have a second pour to fill in the space where the jacking 3. layout .2 m (4 ft) square or 1.

100% solids. Eliminate stress risers in grout and around the installation by following these best chocks. as (12”). This upward force ensures that any contraction in the epoxy has little or no effect on the alignment. and aggregate. Shot- expansion of the epoxy followed by an over blasting. as per compounds should be about 5 cm (2”).” Epoxy grouts are mounting foot.7. Grout / Chock level . Chocking compounds have a and/or chocked in place and the forms removed. just the place where the chocking compound is poured in place. or efflorescence. It is important to first differentiate mounting foot.6. smooth and creamy consistency.6. Foam strip . the more ICRI (International Concrete Repair Institute) exothermic heat it generates and that too can lead standard guideline #03732 for coating concrete.4. For this reason the depth coarser. It can also be on the opposite long between an epoxy “Grout” and an epoxy “Chock” side but it should never extend around the entire or “Chocking Compound.Most installation expansion joints and control joints should be drawings show the level of grout or chock at the properly addressed prior to application. which in turn puts an upward force on the epoxy under the mount. or sandblasting should be employed to prepare substrate. salts. OPERATIONS Best Practices in Compressor Mounting.6. This will protect the surrounding pressure on the epoxy surrounding the mount areas from oil penetration. Chock Overpour – The overpour is not concrete with a fast setting epoxy paste.Install a foam strip around Because of the aggregate.7. High temperatures also cause an over with adhesion and must be removed. welding slag. Concrete preparation .The surface of feet or sole plates with sharp corners instead or the foundation must be firm. For most epoxy grouts the 1. This is not 3. equipment mounting 3.2. However. mechanical scarification. the amount of shaking movement without causing the aggregate also allows the grout to be poured in chock or grout to crack. . Epoxy chocking compounds have no aggregate.5. 3. to a larger than expected expansion then producing a profile equal to 60-grit sandpaper or contraction in the epoxy. Best Practices Related To Epoxy role in the curing of the chocking compound. thick sections because it absorbs the exothermic heat created by the resin and hardener. hardener. large. ASTM E-1907. The surface profile 3.6. The depth of most epoxy chocking confirmed through a calcium chloride test.2.6. ITW POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES Bond the round landing plates to the surface of the 3.4 kg (3 pounds) or less per 93 square meter maximum depth should be no more than 30 cm (1. clean. This is Only epoxy grout and epoxy chocking compound done using metal dams placed no more than 19 are discussed in this section as their use is mm (3/4 inch) away from the mounting foot. Over heating can release agents. The overpour also plays a vital 3.6. poured concrete must age at least 30 days at 3. grouts have the the mounting foot or sole plate to take up a small consistency of lumpy oatmeal. Moisture vapor transmission should be of pour is important. Concrete coating – Mix and apply an correct and should not be done. free of any laitance well rounded corners are installed in the grout. cracks. sharp edges. angles are cast into the grout. Manage depth of pour – The larger the of the concrete should be CSP-3 to CSP-5 meeting mass of epoxy chock or grout.000 square feet) over a 24 hour time period. suitable contraction that can lead to soft foot problems.3. This puts a head chocks or grout. Form chock to eliminate over heating. Manage temperatures of the grout and temperatures over 70°F before coating.6. Best Practices Related To Coating As a result they get much hotter and must be and Sealing the Foundation poured in small blocks typically around individual After the compressor and driver have been grouted anchor bolts. Stress risers are created when re-entrant practices. The considered a “Best Practice” over cementitious overpour should be along the long side of the grouts. same level as the bottom of the mount. screw threads. mixtures of resin. prepare the exposed concrete surfaces under and 3. James A. moisture conditions. sealers. and be fully cured before coating.6. cause high thermal stresses that can lead to hardeners and other foreign matter will interfere cracking. Newly grout and chocks which can lead to cracking. It is Grout & Chocks the place where the chocking compound can expand up into and contract down from so the epoxy in it must remain cool and liquid. 3. 3. epoxy top level should always be 12mm to 24 mm (1/2 to 1”) coat over the concrete areas not covered by epoxy above the bottom of the mount.7. All surface irregularities. free of any adverse Also. The grout/chock epoxy primer and a 2-part. curing compounds. Kuly. chemical means.1. have an appropriate surface and points of any kind increase the stress in both profile.1.

J. tions/kwak-eberhard_aci-journal_jul02. • Mr Lothar Idler. • Mr Piero Arduino.A.J.K. Drip pans .uk 1994.After the grout or References chock cures. ACI Guidelines for Operators of Slow Speed Integral Engine/Compressors”. experts to the content of this paper: 1996 PRCR Gas Machinery Conference.washington.7. Harrison. ACI Structural Reciprocating Compressor Foundation • Mr Mark Huggins. piero. 8. Yoon- wide as the expansion joint. S. Pipeline and Compressor research Products. Equipment”. France. “Foundations for Industrial Montage Gmbh. Bucks. Don. Engineered Industrial Blocks”. 2008 idler@mim-hamburg.J. and Anthony J. 2000 and driver are not followed. Seal mounting feet . Keun Kwak. U. confirmed and applied by every company involved in reciprocating compressor foundation design and installation.K. “Parameter Studies for Enhanced Integrity of verk. Smalley.M. 99-S55 equipment with drain piping and troughs around http://faculty. all this work can be for nothing if the simple yet 10. D-CAD Publishers. Boissy • Mr Ramon Zubiaga Garteiz Jr. seal around the mounting foot or sole plate with a sealant that will prevent oil from 1. A.sintemar. However. “Shear Strength of Steel Fiber Reinforced The depth of the sealant should be only half as Concrete Beams Without Stirrups”. and P. bmirabaud@polyresine. Gas Machinery Research Council Report No. Javant S. Hamburg. Polyresine.A. A. Wartsila Italia S. January 1997 Genova. 6. rgz. TX. “Foundations for penetrating underneath and causing the COF to Vibrating Machines”.J. FEA and working to effectively control all aspects April.J. Reported by ACI Committee Pour liquid expansion joint sealant into this space 351. Lee.arduino@wartsila. Practice 686. OPERATIONS Best Practices in Compressor Mounting.4. Mandke. “The Grouting Handbook”. Gas Machinery Research Council Report No. EMHA Technisch Bureau 5.5. Gold. 1996. B.emha@emhabv. The above paper was not intended to be a complete list of Best Practices.3. Germany. Puri. of the installation at the design stage. A. “Design of Reciprocating The author would like to acknowledge the Compressor Mounting Systems and invaluable verbal contributions by the following Foundations for Integrity and Reliability”. James P. Technical Paper Title No. P. April – May 2006 3. to prevent oil from penetrating underneath. .pdf 4 Acknowledgements • Mr Bernard Mirabaud. “Crankshaft Protection: Smalley..7. R. Pantermuehl. Woo-Suk Kim and Jumbum Kim. “Recommended Practices for Machinery in a compressor and foundation system is by Installation and Installation Design”. Engineering.. Sintemar. Holland. Machines”.. Lewis and E. Kuly. James A.. Houston.. TR-97-2. Spain.P. September info@eiproducts.V. Johnson. Marc O. Journal of Structural decline.3R-04 “Foundations for Dynamic (1/2”) of the top and end of the expansion joints. understanding the entire system as whole using American Petroleum Institute. K. Installation “Best Practices” should be accumulated.G. ITW POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES 3. Seal Expansion joints – Remove 12 mm 2. and V.7. Smalley. crucial best practices for installing the compressor Gulf Publishing Co.. Bhatia. Eberhard.. “Foundation Guidelines”. TR-97-1. Prakash. Smalley. L’ the unit to take away oil. 5 Conclusion January 1997 The only sure way to actively manage vibrations 9. Council Technology Assessment. Ridderkerk. Marine-Und-Industrie. Chair and Yelena S. Secretary 3. Pantermuehl. Italy.Install drip pans under the Journal. 1996 • Mr Tom Hoekstra.

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