CHAPTER 8 LAKE, GROUND WATER and WETLANDS

LAKES – is a large, inland body of standing water that occupies depression in the land surface.
THE LIFE CYCLE OF A LAKE

 Most lake exist in place that were covered by glaciers during the latest ice age.
 The glaciers also deposited huge amounts of sediments as they melted and retreated.
 Lakes also form by nonglacial means. A volcanic eruption can create crater that fills with
water to form lake.
 Lakes also form or create by an active fault.
NUTRIENT BALANCE IN LAKE
When plants and animals die in a lake, their bodies settle to the bottom, carrying the essential
nutrients with them. If the water is deep enough, the nutrients accumulate below the zone
where there is enough sunlight for plant growth.
OLOGOTROPHIC LAKE –“ meaning poorly nourished” a clean and healthy lake. This lake have
low productivities, meaning that they sustain relatively few living organisms, although a lake of
this type is attractive for recreation and typically contains a few huge trout or similar game fish.
EUTROPHIC LAKE – a lake of this kind have a high nutrient supply. This lake become productive
because it covered with green scum of plankton or a dense mat of rooted plants.
TEMPERATURE LAYERING and TURNOVER IN LAKES
Termocline – the boundary between the warm and cool layers.
Lake turnover – is the process of lakes water turning over from top to bottom.
GROUND WATER

 Is exploited by digging wells and pumping the water to the surface.
 Groundwater – is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore
spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND WATER
POROSITY –is the percentage of the volume of the rock that is open space. It indicate the
amount of water rocks or soil can hold.
PERMEABILITY – is the ability of rock or soil to transmit water or any fluid.
THE WATER TABLE AND AQUIFERS
ZONE OF SATURATION- wet layer of the soil and bedrock above the barrier.
WATER TABLE – is the top of zone of saturation.

Perched Water Table– is an accumulation of ground water located above a water table in an unsaturated zone.Earth’s temperature increase by about 30 degree C per kilometer of the depth in the upper portion of the crust.form in broad regions underlain by limestone and other readily soluble rocks. CAVERN SINKHOLES AND KARST TOPOGRAPHY Cavern – forms when acidic water seeps into cracks in limestone. AN ACQUIFER. Ground Water can be heated in 3 ways . such as sandstone layer. Artesian Aquifer – an inclined aquifer. 1. magma or hot igneous rock may remain near the surface and can heat ground water at relatively shallow depths. Artesian Well – drilled through the shale and into the sandstone. . In regions of recent volcanism. 2. May hot springs have the odor of rotten eggs from small amounts of hydrogen sulfide.ZONE OF AERATOIN or UNSATURATED ZONE – lies above the water table.  Ground water flows from zone of high pressure toward zones of low pressure. SPRING AND ARTESIAN WELLS Spring –occurs where the water table intersects the land surface and water flows or seeps onto the surface. AND GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Hot Spring – is a spring produced by emergence of geothermally heated ground water that rises from the Earth crust. bounded top and bottom by impermeable rock. water rises in the well without being pump. dissolving the rock and enlarging the cracks. 3. GROUND WATER MOVEMENT  Ground water seeps slowly through bedrock and soil.  Ground water flows from somewhere the water table is highest toward areas where it is lowest. In this layer the rock or soil may be moist but not saturated. GEYSERS. Karst Topography. Sinkholes – forms if the roof of cavern collapse on Earth’s surface. HOT SPRING.any body of rock or soil that can yield economically significant quantities of water.

 they are regions that are water soaked of flooded for part or all over the year. WETLANDS  also known as swamps. Felizardo BEED 1A . Prepared by. bogs. marshes.Geysers – generally formed over open cracks and channels in hot under ground rock. Geothermal Energy – energy extracted from the Earth’s surface. mudflats and floods plains. Michelle D.