Water Resources

Datin Prof Ir. Dr. Lariyah Mohd. Sidek
Water Engineering Unit

Lot 9515 (PN 11480), & Lot 9516 (PN 11483), Jalan Gebeng
2/3, Kawasan Perindustrian Gebeng, Mukim Sungai Karang,
Daerah Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur

• The Project Site is situated in Gebeng Industrial Park Phase 2,
Mukim Sungai Karang, Daerah Kuantan, Pahang Darul

• The proposed site lies at the side of Jalan Gebeng 2/3 and
Jalan Gebeng 2/4, and is located approximately 20 km from
Kuantan town

• Generally, the Project Site is located on a relatively flat ground
with spot height level ranging between 8.40m – 9.00mm
above mean sea level.


Project Site


EROSION & SEDIMENT CONTROL PLAN • Most construction activities will result in the exposure of topsoil or erosive rainwater runoff. • Surface runoff can transport the soils into the natural waterways. resulting in siltation of the nearby water bodies .

EROSION & SEDIMENT CONTROL PLAN • Thus. Introduce suitable erosion/sediment control measures and best management practice for the project . Reduce and minimize soil erosion and water pollution of the waterways near to the site ii. the ESCP aims to: i.

such as  slope steepness  slope length  rainfall intensity  soil erodibility  land cover  soil conservation practices . • The extent and magnitude of the soil erosion is governed by a number of factors.A) Erosion Risk Analysis • Soil erosion results from site clearing and earthwork activities.

LS.ha.P Where.K.Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) A = R. A = Average annual Soil Loss (t/ha/yr) R = Rainfall Erosivity Factor (MJ.MJ.hr/(ha.mm)) LS = Slope Factor.hr. which is the combination of the Slope Length (L) and Slope Steepness (S) C = Cover and Management Factor P = Conservation Practice factor .mm/(ha.C.yr)) K = Soil Erodibility Factor (t.

Figure 12.5: Rainfall Erosivity (R) Map for Peninsular Malaysia (MSMA Chapter 12. Page 7) .

015 . K can be obtained from the following formula: *Or taken from Table 3. The value for K used is 0.The Soil Factor. The Soil Series for this project is Siri Kuantan & Siri Rusila. Page 43 in the “Guideline for Erosion & Sediment Control in Malaysia”.4.

6 for s ≥12% Sheet Flow Path Length λ = 239.065 + 0. λ = sheet flow path length (m or feet) Ψ = 22.272 . the calculated LS for this project is 0. S = 0.6 for English Units (BU) S = average slope gradient (%) M = 0.The Slope Factor. = 0.13 for SI Units and 72.2 for s<1.006% Thus.5 for 5≤s<12 and = 0.4 m Average Slope Gradient.046s+0.0065s2) Where. = 0. LS can be obtained from the following formula: LS = (λ/ψ)m x (0.4 for 3 ≤s<5.3 for 1≤s<3. = 0.





which is the combination of the Slope Length (L) and Slope Steepness (S) C = Cover and Management Factor P = Conservation Practice factor .MJ.LS.ha.mm)) LS = Slope Factor.Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) Y = 89.6 (VQp) 0. Y = Sediment Yield per storm event (tonne) V = Runoff Volume in m3 Q = Peak Discharge in m3/s K = Soil Erodibility Factor (t.hr/(ha.56 K.CP Where.

ZONE 1: ZONE 2: 2.841 ha 1.959 ha .

50 .117 97.817 0.088 97.621 5.50 Zone 2 1.84 12.80 24.677 4.074 97.702 164.313 0.043 97.953 2.504 0.50 TOTAL 4.84 0.96 0.259 81. Summary of Calculated Soil Loss Soil Loss (tonne/ha/year) Sub- Catchment Area During During Reduction Catchm (ha) Existing Construction Construction (%) ent (no ESCP) (With ESCP) Zone 1 2.133 97.220 97.030 8.724 2.443 82.50 Zone 2 1.96 12.409 3.80 1.50 TOTAL 4.50 Summary of Calculated Sediment Yield Sediment Yield (tonne) Sub- Catchment Area During During Reduction Catchm (ha) Existing Construction Construction (%) ent (no ESCP) (With ESCP) Zone 1 2.

.B) ESCP at Construction Stage • The implementation of erosion and sedimentation control is very crucial during the construction stage mainly due to the construction/earthwork activities carried out within the development area.

All contractors will be informed on their responsibilities in minimizing the potential for soil erosion and pollution of down slope areas.B) ESCP at Construction Stage • Amongst the general construction conditions to be observed during project implementation are as follows: i. The Erosion and Sediment Control Plan will be read in conjunction with the engineering plans or written instructions that may be issued in relation with this project. . Contractor shall ensure that erosion and sediment control works are implemented in accordance with the Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) iii. ii.

equipment and material storage area c) Construct Silt Trap. .C) ESCP Measures • The following erosion and control measures will be performed prior to commencement of clearing and grubbing operations: a) Identify temporary access site b) Identify vehicle site parking. The contractor is advised to adhere to the construction notes outlined in the previous mentioned technical drawings. Wash Through & Temporary Earth Drains according to the location and implementation stage of works.

e) Vehicular access to site will be limited to only that is essential for construction work and all vehicles shall enter the site only through the established access points with Wash Through. .C) ESCP Measures d) Identify stockpile area of earth fill materials (if necessary).

It shall be designed according to procedures outlined in the MSMA manual. The sediment must be removed when the storage zone is no more than 300 mm from being full (or as specified in the construction notes outlined in the drawing) . Marked place in the Sediment Basin will indicate the level at which the design capacity is exceeded and when the sediment will need to be removed. The Sediment Basin shall be constructed as shown in the drawings Provided. ii. the Sediment Basin must be inspected weekly and after each rainfall. iii. Generally.D) Pollution Control i.

. v. Temporary erosion and sediment control measures shall be removed only after the lands they are protecting are stabilized. Sediments removed from the Silt Trap shall be disposed at locations where further erosion and subsequent pollution to down slope will not occur.D) Pollution Control iv.

PROPOSED ESCP Temporary Earth Drain Silt Fence Around Stockpile Stock Pile Area Sediment Basin Propose Wash Bay Area .

Final Discharge .

3 5.75 1 450 3.2 460.0 0. Size Width Depth Volume 90% Basin Zone Storage (mm) (B) (H) (m3) Trapping Zone Efficiency (m3) 4. Summary of Sediment Basin Sizing Area Base (m) Top (m) Basin Depth (m) Orifice Emergency Sediment Sediment (ha) Outlet Spillway (m) Storage Yield Length Width Length Width Top of Settling Sediment nos.67 .6 0.5 0.80 40 20 45 25 0.




Example of Silt Traps/Sediment Basin .


Example of Silt Fence .



Example of Wash Through at the Site Entrance .


Example of Temporary Drain/Diversion Channel .


Example of Check Dam .

Example of Geo-Textile for Slope Protection .

A site inspection using the checklist will be carried out by the Resident Engineer: i. Condition of every BMP ii. Volume of sediment removed from the Silt Trap iv. At least weekly ii. Immediately before site closure iii. Location of the site where the sediment is disposed v. Immediately before any rainfall event • The self-audit will include records of: i. Maintenance requirement of every BMP iii.E) Site Inspection & Maintenance • A self-auditing program will be established based on an inspection checklist. Forwarded signed duplicate of the completed Inspection Checklist to the Project Manager for information .

during hot or dry weather when grass cover is less than 100% on vegetated areas  Weekly.Frequency of Inspection Inspection should be undertaken:  During any storm event that threatens to exceed the available capacity in sediment basins  After any storm event with substantial surface water runoff  Daily. in the form of routine inspection for all site work practices  Before site closure or at any other time when it might be left unattended for more than seventy two (72) hours .

Initiate cleaning if required  Removal of any stockpile material or sediment that has encroached within 2m of surface drain  Construction of additional earth drains and/or diversion drains that help to separate the on-site polluted waters from other runoffs  Install any new ESCP measures that have become necessary since the previous inspection due to severe storms or progress in the site’s development  Ensuring that any changes in the construction work performed at the site had not diverted sediment and runoff away from the established BMPs .Overall Program Activities The site inspection program will consist of the following activities  Inspection of all permanent and/or temporary drains throughout the construction site.

Inspection of Sediment Basin • All silt trap and/or sediment basins must be inspected after every rain or storm event and on a regular basis at least twice per week. • The inspection must cover the following:  Amount of silt/sediment retained – no more than 2/3 of the depth of the silt trap or 66% of the total basin volume  Integrity of side walls and bund – there must not be any leaks or breaches of the bund walls where water can bypass the bund wall or the pipe outlet  The aggregate material surrounding the perforated pipe should be inspected to ensure that these are not compacted with settled silt  Presence of vegetative debris or construction waste material inside the silt trap .

Inspection of Silt Fences • The inspection must cover the following: Sediment accumulation – where large amounts of sediment has accumulated on the upside of the silt fence. these should be cleared so as not to collapse the fence Integrity of fence supports – the silt fence must be vertical and not have collapsed over due to surface water flow Integrity of silt fence material – must not be breached or torn or missing in any form that allows water to bypass Presence of vegetative debris or construction waste material inside the silt fence .

Inspection of Other BMPs BMPs Inspection to be Done Temporary Drain Must be inspected after every rain or storm event and also on a weekly basis Drainage Outlet Has to be inspected after each significant rainfall for Protection erosion and/or disruption of the rock (followed by immediate repairs) Check Dams Must be inspected for sediment build-up and signs of erosion around the check dam after each rainfall Stabilized Has to be inspected monthly and after each rainfall event Construction Access .

. • In events where the proposed BMPs fail to reduce the erosion and the sedimentation rate as a result of structure failure or inadequate control facilities. 97. The risk is further reduced with the introduction of the proposed Best Management Practices (BMPs). CONCLUSION • The soil loss and the erosion risk assessment shows that the existing site mainly falls within the low risk category i. The mitigation measures could involve maintenance of the structures or introduction of new facilities or design revision.5% of the total area. Hence the erosion risk during construction work is minimal.e. the Engineer and the Environmental Officer at site shall assess the situation and advice on next step of action.

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