Department of Civil Engineering

College of Engineering, UNITEN

Lecture Notes
CEWB423
Water Resources Engineering

Datin Prof Ir Dr Lariyah Mohd Sidek
E-mail: lariyah@uniten.edu.my

Department of Civil Engineering
College of Engineering, UNITEN

Dams
Definition of Dams
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Dams
Classification of Dams
Types of Dams

Dams

Dams are made from a variety of materials such as rock. steel and wood. river or estuary to retain water. . What is a Dam? A dam is a structure built across a stream.

Stilling Basin 5. Section 7. Spillway crest/bay 2.1. Power Station . Armored Scour Prevention bed 6. Pier 3. Spillway 4.

Advantages of Dam Water Supply Irrigation Hydroelectric Flood Control Recreation Navigation .

ruin nature's work Dams have inundated the spawning grounds of fish Dams have inhibited the seasonal migration of fish Dams have endangered some species of fish Dams may have inundated the potential for archaeological findings Reservoirs can foster diseases if not properly maintained Reservoir water can evaporate significantly Some researchers believe that reservoirs can cause earthquakes . Disadvantages of Dam Dams detract from natural settings.

Classification of Dams Classification based on function Storage Dam Detention Dam Diversion Dam Coffer Dam Debris Dam .

Typical Storage Dam Vajiralongkorn Dam Srinagarind Dam .

Typical Storage Dam Tha Thung Na Dam Maeklong Dam .

Classification of Dams Classification based on hydraulic design Overflow Dam/Overfall Dam Non-Overflow Dam Classification based on material of construction Rigid Dam Non Rigid Dam .

Classification of Dams Classification based on structural behavior Gravity Dam Arch Dam Buttress Dam Embankment Dam .

. Concrete gravity dams are typically used to block streams through narrow gorges.Gravity Dam Gravity dams are dams which resist the horizontal thrust of the water entirely by their own weight.

Gravity Dam Cross Section Plain View .

. Arch dams are good for sites that are narrow and have strong abutments. Arch dams are thinner and therefore require less material than any other type of dam.Arch Dam An arch dam is a curved dam which is dependent upon arch action for its strength.

Arch Dam Cross Section Plain View .

.the face may be flat or curved. Buttress dams can take many forms .Buttress Dam Buttress dams are dams in which the face is held up by a series of supports.

Buttress Dam Cross Section Plain View .

They rely on their weight to resist the flow of water.Embankment Dam Embankment dams are massive dams made of earth or rock. .

Embankment Dam Cross Section Plain View .

Types of Dam .

Types of Dam Factors governing selection of types of dam Topography-Valley Shape A Narrow V-Shaped Valley : Arch Dam A Narrow or Moderately with U-Shaped Valley : Gravity/Buttress Dam A Wide Valley : Embankment Dam .

Types of Dam Factors governing selection of types of dam Geology and Foundation Condition Solid Rock Foundation : All types Gravel and Coarse Sand Foundation : Embankment/Concrete Gravity Dam (H≤15 m) Silt and Fine Sand Foundation : Embankment/Gravity Dam (H≤8 m) Non-Uniform Foundation : - .

Types of Dam Factors governing selection of types of dam Climate conditions Availability of construction materials Spillway size and location Environmental considerations Earthquake zone Overall cost General considerations .

Hydropower Plant Inside Hydropower plant .

Hydropower Plant .

Hydropower Plant Generator Turbine .

Q.81 kN/m3) Q = Water Discharge (cms) HT = Head (m) E = PE.2) E = Energy (kWh) T = Time (h) .T ------------------(9.1) PE = Power (kW) n = Efficiency (%)  = Specific Weight of Water (9.HT ------------------(9.Hydropower Energy Calculation PE = n. .

. Spillway? 1. 6. The excess water must therefore be discharged safely from the reservoirs. 4. By its very nature. the stream flow which supplies a reservoir is variable 3. The majority of impounding reservoirs are formed as a result of the Construction of a dam 2. In many cases to allow the water simply to overtop the dam would result in a failure of structure. For this reason carefully designed overflow passages – known as ‘spillways’ are in corporate as part of the dam design. It follows that there will be times when the reservoir is full and the stream flow exceeds the demand. 5.

Spillway crest/bay 2. Pier 3. Spillway 4.1. Power Station . Stilling Basin 5. Section 7. Armored Scour Prevention bed 6.

9. The ideal longitudinal profile of an overflow spillway should flow along the same curve as the underside of the tree-falling water nappe to minimize the pressure on the spillways surface. 10. 8. resulting in a ponding action . Basically spillway is an open channel with large slopes that allows the excess water to flow over it at super critical velocities. However. The spillways capacity must be sufficient to accommodate the largest Flood discharge (The probably maximum flood or 1 in 10000 years Flood) likely occur in the life of the dam. Spillway? 7. caution must be exercised to avoid any negative pressure on the surface 11. Negative pressure is caused by separation of the high-speed flow from the spillway surface.

Types of Spillway Chute Spillway .

Types of Spillway Without Spillway Weir Ogee Spillway .

Types of Spillway Bell Mouth/Morning Glory Spillway .

Types of Spillway Service Spillway .

Types of Spillway Auxiliary Spillway .

Types of Spillway Emergency Spillway .

Stilling Basin Without Spillway Weir Stilling basin is a structure .

Stilling Basin Stilling Basin .

Stilling Basin Baffle Piers .

Three Gorges Dam .

actual cost believed to be much higher Work began: 1993 Due for completion: 2009 Power generation: 26 turbines on left and right sides of dam. submerging 632 sq km of land. When fully flooded. One-step ship elevator due to open in 2009. water will be 175m above sea level Navigation: Two-way lock system became operational in 2004. Six underground turbines planned for 2010 Power capacity: 18.000 megawatts Reservoir: 660km long.Three Gorges Dam Type: Concrete Gravity Dam Cost: Official cost $25bn . .

Three Gorges Dam .

Three Gorges Dam Shipping Locks Shipping Locks .

It can generate 2400MW (max). an area as size of Singapore. This makes it one of the highest rockfill dams in the world after China. It will flood 69.640 hectares of land. a base width of 560 meters and a crest width of 12 meters. Reservoir Diversion Inlet Diversion Outlet Auxiliary Cofferdam • The Bakun dam is a 205-meter-high Concrete Face Rockfill Dam (CFRD). Sarawak. with a length of crest of 740 meters. CASE STUDY : The Malaysia Mega Project Bakun Hydroelectric Project (Bakun HEP) in Rejang River Basin. .

• Mechanical Engineers – turbine design – water flow (penstock) – Control gate • Electrical Power Engineers – transformer – Generator – Power line • Civil Engineers – Designing – Mixture of concrete – The strength of tunnel .• Engineering contribution to Bakun HEP • This project is fully contributed by latest technology with the knowledge and experience of engineers.

1 1 Natural Gas Moderately clean and depletable 171-188 24-26 Fuel Oil Polluting and depletable 204 29 Coal Polluting and depletable 831-1938 117-273 .Positive Impact to the project • Regulation of river flow • Generates economy • Mitigation of floods • Reduces fossil fuel consumption • Reducing CO2 emissions Carbon Dioxide Emission and Contribution To Global Warming Source Environmental & Natural Carbon Dioxide Relative Ratio of Contribution to Resource Implications Emission(g/mj)1 Global Warming Hydro Clean and renewable 7.

leading to loss of water quality .Negative Impact to the project • Highly cost – more than RM 11.Decay of submerged forests can upset the ecological balance of the area.36 billions (1994) • Destroying the rainforest – affecting 105 species of animals protected under Malaysian wildlife legislation and innumerable plant species.All the 15 affected communities will be resettled in areas near the Belaga River. about 30 kilometres from the Bakun dam site • Reservoir water quality . • Resettlement .

Pergau Hydroelectric Scheme .

Mohd Khanil Taib Kuala Yong Dam . Type of Dam: Earthfill Year of Completion: 1996 Crest Length: 750m Height of Dam: 75m Photo courtesy of En.

Power Intake – After Reservoir Filling .

Kuala Yong Spillway .

Perak Hydroelectric Scheme .Sg.

Type of Dam: Concrete & Earthfill
Year of Completion: 1984
Crest Length: 570m
Height of Dam: 47m

Photo courtesy of En. Mohd Khanil
Taib

Kenering Dam

Type of Dam: Concrete Gravity
Year of Completion: 1983
Crest Length: 252m
Height of Dam: 37m

Photo courtesy of En. Mohd Khanil
Taib

Bersia Dam

Type of Dam: Ambursen (Concrete gravity)
Year of Completion: 1930
Crest Length: 390m
Height of Dam: 23m Photo courtesy of En. Mohd Khanil
Taib

Chenderoh Dam

Type of Dam: Zoned Rockfill Year of Completion: 1978 Crest Length: 537m Height of Dam: 127m Photo courtesy of En. Mohd Khanil Taib Temengor Dam .

Cameron Highlands & Batang Padang Hydroelectric Scheme .

Type of Dam: Earthfill Year of Completion: 1968 Crest Length: 229m Height of Dam: 20m Mahang Dam .

Type of Dam: Earthfill Year of Completion: 1968 Crest Length: 209m Height of Dam: 45m Jor Dam .

Jor Spillway (Morning Glory) .

Type of Dam: Concrete Year of Completion: 1963 Crest Length: 140m Height of Dam: 40m Sultan Abu Bakar Dam .

Spillway .Sultan Abu Bakar Dam .

Kenyir Hydroelectric Scheme .

Type of Dam: Earthcore Rockfill Year of Completion: 1984 Crest Length: 800m Height of Dam: 155m Kenyir Dam Downstream Face .

View of Power Station from Dam Crest .

Type of Dam: Homogeneous Earthfill Year of Completion: 1984 Crest Length: 2240 m Height of Dam: 52 m Kenyir Saddle Dam ‘A’ .

Q.1) PE = Power (kW) n = Efficiency (%)  = Specific Weight of Water (9.T ------------------(9.81 kN/m3) Q = Water Discharge (cms) HT = Head (m) E = PE. .Hydropower Energy Calculation PE = n.2) E = Energy (kWh) T = Time (h) .HT ------------------(9.