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SURFACE METHODOLOGY : A CASE STUDY

**HE Zhen, College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, China,
**

zhhe@tju.edu.cn, Tel: +86-22-87401783

**ZHANG Xu-tao, College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, China,
**

lonewind1981@126.com

**XIE Gui-qing, College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, China,
**

cindy.xie@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

**Purpose – The paper aims to improve the key quality performance of the terminal of
**

earphone in an electronic company.

Design/methodology/approach – Sequential experimental designs are employed. Significant

input variables are found trough a full factorial design. Then a response surface model is

constructed considering curvature in the linear model.

Findings – Optimized key input variables’ parameters are found using the response surface

model. The key quality performance, coplanarity of the terminal of earphone has been

improved.

Research limitations/implications – Instead of running a full factorial design in the first

stage, a fractional factorial may be used to reduce experimental runs.

Originality/value – The methodology used in this case can be easily extended to similar

cases.

**Keywords quality improvement, design of experiments, response surface methodology,
**

central composite design, parameter optimization

INTRODUCTION

**Response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of statistical and mathematical
**

techniques useful for developing, improving, and optimizing products and processes. The

most extensive applications of RSM are particularly in situations where several input

variables have potentially influence on some performance measures or quality characteristics

of the product or process. RSM initiates from design of experiments (DOE) to determine the

factors’ values for conducting experiments and collecting data. The data are then used to

develop an empirical model that relates the process response to the factors. Subsequently, the

model facilitates to search for better process response, which is validated through

S4-120

RSM is a very important tool for product and process improving in the improvement phase of Six Sigma Management. system optimization and system robustness. Cihan M. Company A is an electronics enterprise in Tianjin. Myers and Montgomery. A screening experiment or a first order model is conducted first to identify important input factors. In this paper.T. OFAT does not work well for process optimization if there are interactions among input variables. the company adopted the one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach and just selected the best existing experiment conditions as the optimal operating conditions.2005. The article presents a systematic solution to this problem through sequential use of experimental design to minimize the coplanarity and thus improve product quality. If the there is strong curvature exists and the first order model is not adequate. we design a full factorial experiment to find the important factors and a response surface model to optimize process parameters to improve coplanarity of the terminal of earphone. THE FIRST STAGE EXPERIMENT Most applications of response surface methodology are sequential in nature. Güner & Yüzer. a second model or response surface model is needed. Myers and Montgomery (1995) also point out that most applications of RSM are sequential in nature. This purpose of the experiment at this stage is to screen important factors or input variables. The solution by OFAT was not optimal in practice. RSM is a critical technology in developing new processes. One kind of earphone named AJR45 had defect of bad echo caused by large coplanarity of the terminal. Sefa-Dedeh. Sharma & Yadava. 2005). That is. In order to improve the quality of products and reduce quality cost. optimizing their performance and improving the design and/or formulation of new products (Box et al. The above procedure iterates until an optimal process is identified or the limit on experimental resources is reached. C F Jeff Wu and Michael S Hamada(Wu & Hamada. 2013. This usually leads to an experiment designed to investigate these factors with a view toward eliminating the unimportant ones. the company often received feedback complaints from customers. 1995. at first some ideas are generated concerning which factors or variables are likely to be important in the response surface study. 2006. response surface exploration.experiments. In the supplying process. et al 2003). S4-121 . which engaged in supplying many kinds of electronic connectors for Motorola mobile phone division. 2009) classify experimental problems in to five broad categories according their objectives: treatment comparisons. et al construct response surface for compressive strength of concrete through sequential design of a 2 7-4 fractional factorial and then a D-optimal design (Cihan. Koleva and Luchkov. variable screening. 2013). As we know. He et al (2009) use sequential experimental design to improve the isolation of the fused biconical taper wavelength division multiplexer. LITERATURE REVIEW Experimental design is widely used in manufacturing (Mukherjee & Ray.

082 6 1 -1 1 1 1 0.093 18 0 0 0 0 0 0.085 17 1 -1 -1 1 -1 0. we can use full factorial design in order to screen significant factors.082 11 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 0.1-13. we need to identify factors that affect coplanarity of the terminal by cause and effect analysis using fishbone diagram and cause and effect matrix. Table 1 gives factors and their levels in the experiment.7 mm Yes D (slot width) variable 40-60 mm Yes Because there are less than five factors.081 10 1 1 1 1 -1 0.095 5 0 0 0 0 0 0.072 15 0 0 0 0 0 0. Table 2. block height.083 9 1 1 -1 1 -1 0.069 2 1 -1 -1 -1 1 0.093 7 1 -1 1 -1 -1 0.081 S4-122 . Table 2 shows the experimental arrangement. Experiment arrangement for the 24 design (coded variables) Run order Center pt A B C D Y 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 0.071 4 1 -1 1 1 -1 0.094 13 0 0 0 0 0 0.086 8 1 1 1 1 1 0. The coplanarity is mainly affected by the operating conditions of the gas riveting end machine. Factors and their levels in experiment Factors Types Levels Are there center points A (cylinder pressure) variable 6-8 Pa Yes B (decent speed) variable 2-4 s/mm Yes C (block height) variable 13. slot width. We choose the 24 design with four center points to check the possible curvature.079 16 1 -1 1 -1 1 0.Before starting experiment. Note that the run order of the experiment has been randomized.081 14 1 1 -1 -1 1 0. Table 1.087 3 1 1 1 -1 1 0.088 12 1 -1 -1 1 1 0. decent speed. The factors are cylinder pressure.

000 A -0.000315 -21.000315 3. From Table 3 we can find that factor A and C are significant with p-value<0.000500 0.001000 0.002000 0.485 A*C*D 0. the interaction of A*C is significant with p-value=0.000375 0.05.19 0.000315 1.001250 -0.57%.000000 -0.000 C 0.06 0.000315 -0.40 0.210 A*B*D -0.009250 0.59 0.001000 -0.00 1.000500 -0.000315 265.000375 0.000315 -1.000125 0.718 B*D -0.000250 0.79 0.000500 0.000000 -0. and the corresponding term is significant To reduce the regression model.000* B -0.073 20 1 1 -1 1 1 0. C and A*C in the model.004625 0.000 A*B*C*D 0.19 0.000250 0. Table 3 shows the estimated effects and coefficients for response Y. R-Sq(adj)=97.000315 1.05.79 0.00275 0.000500 0.99 0.000750 0.44 0.000315 1.006625 0.000315 -1.18 0.000703 -3.03 S = 0.485 A*B*C -0.718 B*C*D -0.000625 0.29% Note: * means that the p-value is less than 0.083500 0. and Table 5 shows the results of analysis of variance. R-Sq = 99.000125 0. we need to delete those insignificant terms and keep A.000125 0.000315 -0. Table 3.319 Ct Pt -0.000250 0.59 0. Run order Center pt A B C D Y 19 1 1 1 -1 -1 0. Estimated regression coefficients for Y (coded units) Term Effect Coef SE Coef T P Constant 0.000750 0.40 0.000000 0.000315 0.141 C*D 0.000250 0.000315 0.210 B*C 0.050* A*D 0.000315 14.084 The experimental data in Table 2 were analyzed by Minitab.00125831. Table 4 shows the estimated effects and coefficients for response Y of the reduced model. S4-123 .319 A*C 0.000250 0.000315 0.05.000315 -0.000315 0.000000 0.91 0.70 0.718 A*B 0.00 1.013250 -0.40 0.001* D 0.001000 0.

Estimated regression coefficients for Y (coded units) Term Effect Coef SE Coef T P Constant 0.98 0.0000263 0.83 0. and Figure 2 shows the normal probability plot of the standardized effects.001 -3.0000160 0.000* A*C 0.009* Ct Pt -0.0010445 0. and the corresponding term is significant Figure 1 shows the Pareto chart of the standardized effects.0010445 0.0000160 0. and the corresponding term is significant Table 5.000* 2-way 1 0.000 3. A second-order model for the significant variables A and C needs to be designed.0005223 298. C and A*C are significant.000* C 0.000* A -0.0000018 Totol 19 0.00925 0.000 -20.0000160 9. and more experiments need to be done to fit the model.03 0.002* S = 0. But the curvature term is also significant.05.0000263 0.004625 0.02 0.Table 4. That means the first order model is not adequate.0000242 0.05.72 0.002* Residual error 15 0.000 13.480 0.0000242 0.002750 0.0000263 0.01325 -0.64%. Both of them indicate that the effects of A. R-Sq = 97.0011110 Note: * means that the p-value is less than 0.00132288.0000263 0.0000242 13.01% Note: * means that the p-value is less than 0.000331 252.009* interactions Curvature 1 0.14 0.001000 0.0000018 Pure error 15 0.43 0. S4-124 . Analysis of variance for Y (coded units) Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P Main effects 2 0.00200 0.006625 0. R-Sq(adj)=97.08350 0.

a composite face-centered design (CCF) is used for the second stage experiments as shown in Figure 3.05) 2. Based on the engineering experience and steepest ascend analysis.05) 99 Type Not Sign. 95 Sign.13 A Term C AC 0 5 10 15 20 Standardized Effect Figure 1 Pareto chart of the standardized effects Normal Probability Plot of the Standardized Effects (response is Y， Alpha = 0. Coplanarity was significantly reduced through the first stage experiement. and the low level of height to the low level of operating end. for two variables. Since there is possible curvature. we choose the high level of pressure to the high end of operating range. Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects （ response is Y， Alpha = . there are four factorial points. 90 Factor 80 C Name 70 A Percent 60 C 50 AC 40 30 20 A 10 5 1 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Standardized Effect Figure 2 Normal probability plot of the standardized effects EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS FOR FITTING RESPONSE SURFACES The first stage experiements results also shows that the lower pressure (factor A) and higher Height may yield possible lower coplanarity. S4-125 . five centre points and four axial points in the design.

In the second column.031 5 1 1 1 0.-1) Figure 3 CCF design for two factors Table 6 shows the experiment arrangement and results. S4-126 .039 6 -1 0 -1 0.-1) (0. (-1.029 9 1 1 -1 0.1) (1. Experiment arrangement for the CCF (coded units) Run order Pt type A C Y 1 0 0 0 0.1) (0. Pt type is the type of the experiment run.1) (0.027 12 -1 -1 0 0. and 0 stands for center point. The new results are shown in Table 9 and 10.027 11 0 0 0 0.0) (-1.-1) (-1.1) (0.022 4 1 -1 -1 0.0) (1.029 2 -1 0 1 0. -1 stands for axial point.024 8 0 0 0 0. It can be seen from Table 7 that two-order term A*A is not significant and deleted from the model. 1 stands for corner point.022 7 0 0 0 0.036 3 -1 1 0 0.033 Tables 7 and 8 show the analytical results. Table 6. Also the run order of the experiment has been randomized.018 10 0 0 0 0.030 13 1 -1 1 0.

002500 0.22 0.047 A*C 0.000788 7.000965 4. Analysis of variance for Y (coded units) Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P Regression 5 0.000004 Total 12 0.000133 31.095 Interaction 1 0.000 A -0.00192918.000013 0.000090 0.001 Linear 2 0.000029 0.404 0.000004 Error Lack-of-Fit 3 0.001073 2. Estimated regression coefficients for Y (coded units) Term Coef SE Coef T P Constant 0.004750 0.368 0.000385 0.05.833 0.006167 0.03 0.004750 0.026862 0.006167 0.000077 18.000842 7.001031 4.001241 -0.000013 0.000017 0.05. and the corresponding term is significant S4-127 .000090 21.22% Note: * means that the p-value is less than 0.002 Residual 7 0.606 0.36 0.830 0.324 0.68% Note: * means that the p-value is less than 0.000856 31.000266 0. Estimated regression coefficients for Y (coded units) Term Coef SE Coef T P Constant 0.08 0.989 C*C 0.00206235.000029 0.014 0. and the corresponding term is significant Table 8.021 C 0.773 0.000788 -3.000014 3. and the corresponding term is significant Table 9.000030 0.000 A -0.81%.000017 0.002983 0.001241 2.969 0.000017 0.000385 0. R-Sq = 92.002976 0.024 A*C 0.026857 0.81%.000 A*A -0.000414 Note: * means that the p-value is less than 0.000729 36.000266 0. R-Sq(adj)=89.000004 1.174 0.000090 0.001 S = 0. R-Sq = 92.000842 -2.000 C*C 0.000 Square 2 0.002 S = 0.23 0. R-Sq(adj)=87.Table 7.924 0.05.469 Pure Error 4 0.013 C 0.002500 0.000030 0.

040 Residual Fitted Values Histogram of the Residuals Residuals Versus Observation Order 4 0.000004 Error Lack-of-Fit 4 0.000385 0.030 0.002 0 -0.002 0.000 50 10 -0.003 -0.000029 7.0025 A 0.024 Interaction 1 0.000385 0. S4-128 . Analysis of variance for Y (coded units) Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P Regression 4 0.000004 Total 12 0.69 0.002 -0.000030 0.000 2 1 -0.00298C 2 0.000414 Note: * means that the p-value is less than 0.025 0.000017 0.77 0.001 0.004 0. To check the validity of the fitted model we also conducted residual analysis (see Figure 4).000 Square 1 0.020 0.0269 0.83 0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.000013 0.22%. and the corresponding term is significant Residual Plot for Y Normal Probablity Plot of the Residuals Residual Versus the Fitted Values 99 0.81% and R-Sq(adj)=89.000266 0.001 0.000266 0.000090 0.000029 0.000017 0.002 90 Residual Percent 0.000013 0.00617C 0.000003 0.001 Residual 8 0.035 0.000 Linear 2 0.69 0.002 3 Frequency Residual 0.25 0.05.000030 0.000133 35.002 1 -0.000096 25.Table 10.000090 0.000090 24.596 Pure Error 4 0.000029 0.000 0.002 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Residual Observation Order Figure 4 Four-in-One residual plots for response Y The second-order model fit to the coded variables is yˆ 0.00475 A C (1) The model is fit well since R-Sq=92.

0 C -0.024 0.0 -1.5 1. A 1.0] 0.035 0.036 > 0.0 -1.0 曲线 [1.0 A Surface Plot of Y vs C.030 Y 0.028 0.0] [-1. and equal variance and independence hold true.67167 低 -1.67167 Figure 6 Response optimizer output We can obtain the minimum point from model (1) directly.036 0.028 – 0. the minimum point is not at the region of operability. Contour Plot of Y vs C. Hence we use computer to search the optimal point using S4-129 .5 0.032 0.67167 Y 望小 y = 0.0 1.5 -1. A 0.0 复合 合意性 0.5 0.024 – 0. unfortunately.0 -0.Results show that the residual is normally distributed.025 1 0.020 0 C -1 0 -1 A 1 Figure 5 Contour plot and response surface 优化 A C D 高 1.032 – 0.0164 d = 0.020 – 0.0 Y < 0.0 0.020 0.

K. D. we estimate that at the optimal point the prediction confidence interval at =0. 5.0.107 -113. C.(2005). W. V. Experiments planning. By designing experiments and analyzing experimental data. analysis and optimization (2nd edition). 8. New York:Wiley. pp. The coplanarity had a mean 0. Ya-Juan. 6. Mukherjee. pp. A.77. Response surface methodology: process and product optimization using designed experiments. 71225006). Computers & Industrial Engineering. Michael S. Construction and Building Materials.1. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence.0975 mm with a standard deviation 0.0203). M.. It is obvious that the coplanarity has been significantly improved. Box. while it is 0. Yadava. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The research was sponsored by National Natural Science foundation of China (NSFC 70931004. S4-130 . et al (2003). and the coplanarity has been improved.(2013).. Zhao. pp.E.. “Modelling and optimization of cut quality during pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of thin Al-alloy sheet for curved profile” . 40. Vol. I. “Application of response surface methodology for studying the quality characteristics of cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize”.763–774. F. No. innovation. Myers. R. J.G.). Vol. Shuang and Park. and discovery (2nd ed.4. the optimum technical condition has been found. 77–88.C. Hunter. Sefa-Dedeh.012-0. Montgomery. 423–428.. pp. J. 0. As shown in Figure 6. “Response surfaces for compressive strength of concrete”. 9.01mm before optimization. Vol.(2013). “A review of optimization techniques in metal cutting processes”.“response optimizer” of Minitab automatically.H. Yüzer N. Vol. T. the optimal point is at A=1. CONCLUSION The article presents a solution to optimize the coplanarity of the terminal of earphone. He.20. Ray. G. Han. A. 7.05 is (0. New York: Wiley. New York:Wiley. 3.0203 mm after optimization. P. Vuchkov. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. Koleva. using designed experiments and response surface methodology..15–34. pp. Optics and Lasers in Engineering.S.. (2005). At the same time. &Hunter.(2009). The experimental result is confirmed by confirmation runs. REFERENCES 1. Wu. “Model-based approach for quality improvement of electron beam welding applications in mass production”. (2009). S.. 2. E. Statistics for experiments: design. Sung H. (1995).50.. Sharma.. Vol.0164.(2006).51. I. H. with the response Y=0. “Product and process optimization design through Design of Experiments: A case study”. Vol. Güner.0126.P.109–119. Vacuum. Cihan. Zhen. C=-1. pp.

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