AB01

SILICON, ZENER, LED
DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

Analog Lab
Experiment Board
Ver. 1.0

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AB01

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Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 2

AB01

Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 3

AB01 SILICON. Experiment 1 11 To study the V-I characteristics of Silicon diode b. ZENER. 4 . LED DIODE CHARACTERISTICS AB01 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.Warranty 20 5.Introduction 4 2.List of Service Centers 21 6. Ltd. Experiment 3 17 To study the V-I characteristics of Light Emitting Diode (LED) 4.List of Accessories with AB01 22 7. Experiment 2 14 To study the V-I characteristics of Zener diode c.Experiments a. Theory 6 3. Notes 23 Scientech Technologies Pvt.

and potentiometer. continuity tester. It can be used as stand alone unit with external DC power supply or can be used with SCIENTECH ANALOG LAB ST2612 which has built in DC power supply. and light Emitting Diode in forward as well as in reverse bias region of operation. 5 . List of Boards : Model Name AB02 Transistor characteristics (CB NPN) AB03 Transistor characteristics (CB PNP) AB04 Transistor characteristics (CE NPN) AB05 Transistor characteristics (CE PNP) AB06 Transistor characteristics (CC NPN) AB07 Transistor characteristics (CC PNP) AB08 FET characteristics AB09 Rectifier Circuits AB10 Wheatstone Bridge AB11 Maxwell’s Bridge AB12 De Sauty’s Bridge AB13 Schering Bridge AB14 Darlington Pair AB15 Common Emitter Amplifier AB16 Common Collector Amplifier AB17 Common Base Amplifier AB18 Cascode Amplifier AB19 RC-Coupled Amplifier AB20 Direct Coupled Amplifier AB21 Class A Amplifier AB22 Class B Amplifier (push pull emitter follower) AB23 Class C Tuned Amplifier AB28 Multivibrator ( Mono stable / Astable) AB29 F-V and V-F Converter AB30 V-I and I-V Converter AB31 Zener Voltage Regulator AB32 Transistor Series Voltage Regulator AB33 Transistor Shunt Voltage Regulator Scientech Technologies Pvt. ready to use DIODE CHARACTERISTICS experiment board. toggle switches. function generator. Ltd. This is useful for students to plot V-I characteristics of Si Diode.AB01 INTRODUCTION AB0l is a compact. Zener Diode. modulation generator. AC power supply.

AB01 AB35 DC Ammeter AB39 Instrumentation Amplifier AB41 Differential Amplifier (Transistorized) AB43 Operational Amplifier (Adder/Scalar) AB44 Operational Amplifier (Integrator/ Differentiator) AB45 Schmitt Trigger and Comparator AB49 K Derived Filter AB51 Active filters (Low Pass and High Pass) AB52 Active Band Pass Filter AB53 Notch Filter AB54 Tschebyscheff Filter AB56 Fiber Optic Analog Link AB57 Owen’s Bridge AB58 Anderson’s Bridge AB59 Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge AB64 RC – Coupled Amplifier with Feedback AB65 Phase Shift Oscillator AB66 Wien Bridge Oscillators AB67 Colpitt Oscillator AB68 Hartley Oscillator AB80 RLC Series and RLC Parallel Resonance AB82 Thevenin’s and Maximum power Transfer Theorem AB83 Reciprocity and Superposition Theorem AB84 Tellegen’s Theorem AB85 Norton’s theorem AB88 Diode Clipper AB89 Diode Clampers AB90 Two port network parameter AB91 Optical Transducer (Photovoltaic cell) AB92 Optical Transducer (Photoconductive cell/LDR) AB93 Optical Transducer (Phototransistor) AB96 Temperature Transducer (RTD & IC335) AB97 Temperature Transducer (Thermocouple) AB101 DSB Modulator and Demodulator AB102 SSB Modulator and Demodulator AB106 FM Modulator and Demodulator AB110 Log and Antilog Amplifier AB111 Crystal Oscillator (1 MHz) AB112 Peak Detector AB113 Voltage Follower & Precision Rectifier Scientech Technologies Pvt. 6 . Ltd.

7 .AB01 ………… and many more Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

when the battery is "backward" and the diode blocks current. 8 . the diode will either allow or prevent current through the lamp. the diode is said to be reverse biased. Conversely. although other diode technologies exist. 2 When the polarity of the battery is such that electrons are allowed to flow through the diode. 1 When placed in a simple battery-lamp circuit. The most common type of diode in modem circuit design is the semiconductor diode.AB01 THEORY Introduction : A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it in one direction with far greater ease than in the other. Ltd. Semiconductor diodes are symbolized in schematic diagrams as shown below Fig. depending on the polarity of the applied voltage: Fig. Scientech Technologies Pvt. the diode is said to be forward-biased. A diode may be thought of as a kind of switch: "closed" when forward-biased and "open" when reverse-biased.

3 V for Ge.0 V produces a forward current of about 50mA. It is found that as little a voltage as 1. It is so because the external voltage is being opposed by the internal barrier voltage VB whose value is 0. As the reverse voltage is increased from zero. the leakage current suddenly and sharply increases. As soon as V B is neutralized. 3 Forward Characteristic : When the diode is in forward-biased and the applied voltage is increased from zero. Scientech Technologies Pvt. the curve indicating zero resistance at this point. It is of the order of nanoamperes (nA) and microamperes (µA) for Ge. 9 .AB01 V-I Characteristic : The static voltage-current characteristics for a P-N Junction diode are shown in Fig 3. As seen from Fig. current through the diode increases rapidly with increasing applied supply voltage. Reverse Characteristic : When the diode is reverse-biased. majority carrier are blocked and only a small current (due to minority carrier) flows through the diode. Ltd. the reverse current very quickly reaches its maximum or saturation value Io which is also known as leakage current. hardly any current flows through the device in the beginning.3. Fig. when reverse voltage exceeds a certain value called breakdown voltage VBR.7 V for Si and 0.

AB01 Zener Diode : It is the reverse-biased heavily-dopped silicon (or germanium) P-N Junction diode which is operated in the breakdown region where current is limited by both external resistance and power dissipation of the diode. Iz min = Minimum current to sustain breakdown Izmax = Maximum Zener current limited by. maximum power dissipation. It produces an extremely large number of electrons and holes. Since its reverse characteristic is not exactly vertical. gives their power dissipation. 4 Scientech Technologies Pvt. The product Vz. Ltd. Silicon is preferred to diode because of its higher temperature and current capability. Its value is given by Zz = ∆Vz / ∆Iz. The forward characteristic is simply that of an ordinary forward-biased junction diode. V-I Characteristic : Fig 4 shows typical characteristics in the negative quadrant. the diode possesses some resistance called Zener dynamic impedance. The important points of the reverse characteristic are Vz = Zener breakdown voltage. Fig. Iz. which constitute the reverse saturation current (called zener current Iz) whose value is limited only by the external resistance in the circuit. This voltage is temperature dependent.4V to 200V. 10 . Maximum ratings vary from 150mV to 50W. Zener breakdown occurs due to breaking of covalent bonds by the strong electric field set up in the depletion region by the reverse voltage. Zener diode are available having zener voltage of 2.

blue. The schematic symbol for an LED is a regular diode shape inside of a circle. 11 . Light-emitting Diodes : Diodes. be reverse-biased. 2. Scientech Technologies Pvt. A diode intentionally designed to glow like a lamp is called a light-emitting diode. have voltage across it greater than Vz. be in a circuit where current is less than Izmax. 3. Some of the currently available colors other than red are green. This property can be gainfully applied in a variety of light-sensing circuits. then the symbol will have two small arrows pointing toward it. or LED. 5 This notation of having two small arrows pointing away from the device is common to the schematic symbols of all light-emitting semiconductor devices. and infra-red (invisible light at a frequency lower than red). that LEDs are capable of acting as light-sensing devices: they will generate a small voltage when exposed to light. if a device is light-activated (meaning that incoming light stimulates it). and are some of the most common LEDs manufactured. arsenic. Ltd. are governed by the principles described in quantum physics. different colors may be obtained. and phosphorus (called gallium-arsenide-phosphide) glow bright red. By altering the chemical constituency of the PN junction. like all semiconductor devices. Diodes made from a combination of the elements gallium. though. One of these principles is the emission of specific-frequency radiant energy whenever electrons fall from a higher energy level to a lower energy level. with two small arrows pointing away (indicating emitted light) Fig. It is interesting to note. green. and blue).AB01 For proper working of a Zener diode in any circuit. it is essential that it must 1. Conversely. much like a solar cell on a small scale. Other colors may be obtained by combining two or more primary-color (red.

Characteristics of LED Fig. a series-connected "dropping" resistor must be included to prevent full source voltage from damaging the LED. their forward voltage drops will be different. Typical operating current for a standard-sized LED is around 20 mA. When operating an LED from a DC voltage source greater than the LED's forward voltage. LED starts emitting light as its forward voltage reaches at a particular level and its intensity will increase further with the increase in applied forward voltage. depending on the color. In fact. operating LEDs in reverse direction will quickly destroy them if the applied voltage is quite large. LEDs emit no light when reverse biased. Typically. anywhere from about 1. Ltd. LEDs V-I characteristic curve is shown in Fig 5.6 volts to over 3 volts. 6 Scientech Technologies Pvt. 12 .AB01 Because LEDs are made of different chemical substances than normal rectifying diodes. LEDs have much larger forward voltage drops than rectifying diodes.

Analog board of AB01. Ltd. 3. 7 Scientech Technologies Pvt. 2. Circuit diagram : Circuit used to plot different characteristics of Si diode is shown in Fig 7.AB01 EXPERIMENT 1 Object : To study the characteristics of Silicon diode in : 1. Forward bias 2. Digital Multimeter (2 numbers). 13 . DC power supplies +12V from external source or ST2612 Analog Lab. Reverse bias Apparatus required : 1. Fig.

AB01 Procedure : • Connect +12V dc power supplies at their indicated position from external source or ST2612 Analog Lab. 0.1V 3. 0. 0.4V 6. Observation Table 1 : Diode Diode current S. 0. 6.6V 8.3V 5. 3 (First quadrant) using suitable scale with the help of observation Table 1. Plot a curve between diode voltage VD and diode current ID as shown in Fig. Rotate potentiometer P1 fully in CCW (counter clockwise direction).7V 9. 0. 3. Ltd. Connect Ammeter between test point 2 and 8 to measure diode current ID (mA). Switch ON the power supply.8V 10. This curve is the required forward characteristics of Si diode.no. 5. Voltage (VD) ID (mA) 1. Connect one voltmeter between test point 1 and 9 to measure voltage VD diode 4. 0. 0. 14 . Vary the potentiometer P1 so as to increase the value of diode voltage VD from zero to 1V in step and measure the corresponding values of diode current ID in an observation Table 1.2V 4. 0.9V Scientech Technologies Pvt. 2. 0. • To plot forward characteristics proceed as follows 1.5V 7. 0.0V 2.

7.0V 6. 1.0V 4. 5. 4.0V Scientech Technologies Pvt.0V 10. 3 (third quadrant) using suitable scale with the help of observation Table 2. Plot a curve between diode voltage VD and diode current ID as shown in Fig. 15 .0V 8. 5. 1.0V 5. 6. 2. Switch ON the power supply. Connect Ammeter between test point 3 and 8 to measure diode current ID(nA). Rotate potentiometer P1 fully in CCW (counter clockwise direction). 6. 3. 8. 3. Observation Table 2 : Diode S.0V 7. Diode current ID (nA) Voltage (VD) 1.no.0V 2. Vary the potentiometer P1 so as to increase the value of diode voltage VD from zero to 10V in step and measure the corresponding values of diode current ID in an observation Table 2.0V 9. This curve is the required forward characteristics of Si diode. Ltd. 2.0V 3. 0. Connect one voltmeter between test point 1 and 9 to measure voltage VD diode 4.AB01 11.0V • To plot Reverse characteristics of a Si diode proceed as follows 1. 9.

Ltd. 10. 16 .0V Scientech Technologies Pvt.AB01 11.

Reverse bias Apparatus required : 1. Digital Multimeter (2 numbers). Analog board of AB01 2. Ltd.AB01 EXPERIMENT 2 Object : To study the characteristics of Zener diode in 1. DC power supplies +12V from external source or ST2612 Analog Lab. 17 . Circuit diagram : Circuit used to plot different characteristics of Zener diode is shown in Fig7 Fig. Forward bias 2.7 Scientech Technologies Pvt. 3.

Plot a curve between diode voltage Vz and diode current Iz as shown in Fig.AB01 Procedure : • Connect +12V dc power supplies at their indicated position from external source or ST2612 Analog Lab. Ltd. 0. 5. 18 .0V 2.lV 3. Rotate potentiometer P1 fully in CCW (counter clockwise direction).8V Scientech Technologies Pvt.6V 8. 0. 0. 0.3V 5. • To plot Forward characteristics proceed as follows: 1.5V 7. 2. 0.2V 4. Diode current Iz(mA) Voltage (Vz) 1.no. Vary the potentiometer P1 so as to increase the value of Zener voltage Vz from zero to 0. 4 (First quadrant) using suitable scale with the help of observation Table l. Connect Ammeter between test point 6 and 8 to measure diode current Iz(mA). 0. Connect one voltmeter between test point 1 and 9 to measure voltage V z diode. This curve is the required forward characteristics of zener diode.7V 9. 6. 3. 0. Observation Table 1 : Diode S. 0.8 in step and measure the corresponding values of diode current Iz in an observation Table 1. Switch ON the power supply. 4. 0.4V 6.

no. 11. Vary the potentiometer P1 so as to increase the value of diode voltage VD from zero to 12V in step and measure the corresponding values of diode current Iz in an observation Table 2. Switch ON the power supply. 2. 3. 19 . 6. 8.AB01 • To plot Reverse characteristics of a Zener diode proceed as follows 1. 5. Plot a curve between diode voltage Vz and diode current Iz as shown in Fig 4 (third quadrant) using suitable scale with the help of observation Table 2. 7. Connect one voltmeter between test point 1 and 9 to measure voltage Vz diode 4. 4. Connect Ammeter between test point 7 and 8 to measure diode current Iz(mA). Rotate potentiometer P1 fully in CCW (counter clockwise direction). Scientech Technologies Pvt. 10. Diode current Iz (mA) Voltage (Vz) 1. Observation Table 2 : Diode S. 3. 5. 6. This curve is the required Reverse characteristics of Zener diode. Ltd. 2. 9.

20 . Ltd.AB01 Scientech Technologies Pvt.

DC power supplies +12V from external source or ST2612 Analog Lab. Digital Multimeter (2 numbers). 3. Ltd. Circuit diagram : Circuit used to plot different characteristics of Light Emitting Diode (LED) is shown in Fig 7. Forward bias 2. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Analog board of AB01 2. 21 . Reverse bias Apparatus required : 1.AB01 EXPERIMENT 3 Object : To study the characteristics of Light emitting diode (LED) in 1.

6. 2. 7. 5 using suitable scale with the help of observation Table 1. Connect Ammeter between test point 4 and 8 to measure diode current ID(mA). Also consider the effect on light intensity with the change in diode voltage and diode current. • To plot forward characteristics proceed as follows: 1. Connect one voltmeter between test point 1 and 9 to measure voltage VD diode 4. 6. Ltd.7 Procedure : • Connect +12V dc power supplies at their indicated position from external source or ST2612 Analog Lab. Observation Table 1 : Diode S. 2. Switch ON the power supply. 5.AB01 Fig. 7. 22 .no. Vary the potentiometer P1 so as to increase the value of diode voltage VD from zero to maximum in steps and measure the corresponding values of diode current ID in an observation Table 1. 4. This curve is the required forward characteristics of Light emitting diode. 5. 3. Diode current ID (mA) Voltage(VD) 1. 3. Plot a curve between diode voltage VD and diode current ID as shown in Fig. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Rotate potentiometer P1 fully in CCW (counter clockwise direction).

9. Scientech Technologies Pvt.AB01 8. Ltd. 23 . 10.

Ltd. 4. 24 .no. 2. 11. Connect Ammeter between test point 5 and 8 to measure diode current ID(uA) 3. 7. 5. 9. 5. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 4. 6. Observation Table 2 : Diode S. 6.AB01 • To plot Reverse characteristics proceed as follows: 1. 2. 8. Switch ON the power supply. 10. Vary the potentiometer P1 so as to increase the value of diode voltage VD from zero to maximum in steps and measure the corresponding values of diode current 1D in an observation Table 2. This curve is the required forward characteristics of Light emitting diode. Connect one voltmeter between test point 1 and 9 to measure voltage VD diode. Diode current ID (uA) Voltage(VD) 1. Rotate potentiometer P1 fully in CCW (counter clockwise direction). 5 (Third quadrant) using suitable scale with the help of observation Table 2. 3. Plot a curve between diode voltage VD and diode current 1D as shown in Fig.

25 .AB01 Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

4. of the instrument. DISPATCH PROCEDURE FOR SERVICE Should it become necessary to send back the instrument to factory please observe the following procedure: 1) Before dispatching the instrument please write to us giving full details of the fault noticed.AB01 WARRANTY 1. To and fro charges will be to the account of the customer. The guarantee covers manufacturing defects in respect of indigenous components and material limited to the warranty extended to us by the original manufacturer and defect will be rectified as far as lies within our control. The repair work will be carried out. 5. a)If the instrument is not operated as per instruction given in the instruction manual. b)If the agreed payment terms and other conditions of sale are not followed. date of purchase etc. provided the instrument is dispatched securely packed and insured with the railways. c)If the customer resells the instrument to another party. Ltd. Dispatch the instrument (only on the receipt of our advice) securely packed in original packing duly insured and freight paid along with accessories and a copy of the details noticed to us at our factory address. will advise you whether it is necessary to send the instrument back to us for repairs or the adjustment is possible in your premises. 26 . no. The guarantee will become INVALID. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 3. 2) After receipt of your letter our repairs dept. 2. The non-working of the instrument is to be communicated to us immediately giving full details of the complaints and defects noticed specifically mentioning the type and sr. We guarantee the instrument against all manufacturing defects during 24 months from the date of sale by us or through our dealers. d)Provided no attempt have been made to service and modify the instrument.

Scientech Technologies Pvt.bz INDORE – 452010 2. 202/19. Email: info@scientech. Ltd. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Himaytnagar.bz Behind Jaiswal Hospital.: (020) 24461673 Gyan Prabodhini Lane. 988. Ltd.10. Liluah.AB01 LIST OF SERVICE CENTERS 1. 2nd Floor. 90. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 27 . Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Fax: (022) 24168767 Dada Saheb Phalke road. Scientech Technologies Pvt.bz 7.: (040) 55465643 Flat No. Scientech Technologies Pvt. HYDERABAD. Fax: (080) 51285022 BANGALORE.1st floor.: (011) 26513912. 123-Hariram Mansion. 26864943 First Floor.bz 5. New no. Sadashiv Peth. 14. 4th main street Ph.bz 4. Ltd SPS Apartment.2.bz 3. 17. Ltd. Electronic Complex Ph: (0731) 5202959 Pardesipura. Ph. Fax: (020) 24482403 PUNE – 411030 Email: pune@scientech. 4th street Ph. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Fax: (011) 26864943. Street No.bz Lakshminarayana Apartments ‘C’ wing.: (022) 56299457 8.: +913355266800 2. 42187549 Venkateswara nagar. HOWRAH-711204 W. NEW DELHI – 110049 Email: ndel@scientech.500029 Scientech Technologies Pvt.: (080) 51285011 Ganganagar. Ahmed Mamoji Street. 1st Floor Ph. Old no. Adyar Fax: (044) 42187549 CHENNAI – 600025 Email: chennai@scientech. 8. MUMBAI –400014 6. Email: kolkata@scientech. Ph. Email: stplmum@vsnl. Ltd.: (044) 42187548.net Dadar (East). Ltd Ph. Ltd. Uday Park.B. Ph.560032 Email: bangalore@scientech. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Email: hyd@scientech. 205.

............ 3.....AB01 LIST OF ACCESSORIES 1............................1 Nos...... 28 ............ 2......... 2mm Patch cord (blue) .........................1 Nos.... 2mm Patch cord (red) . 2mm Patch cord (black) ........................................ Ltd..............1 Nos......................... Scientech Technologies Pvt................

Ltd. 29 .AB01 NOTES Scientech Technologies Pvt.

30 . Ltd.AB01 NOTES Scientech Technologies Pvt.