Arrhythmia Monitor

ST2362
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An ISO 9001:2008 company

ST2362

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Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 2

ST2362

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Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 3

ST2362 Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362 Table of Contents 1 Safety Instructions 6 2 Introduction 7 3 Features 8 4 Technical Specifications 9 5 Controls and indicators 11 6 Arrhythmia Monitor 12 7 Types of Arrhythmia 14 8 Operating Instructions 24 9 Experiments • Experiment 1 25 ww Study of Bradycardia • Experiment 2 26 w. 4 .pl • Experiment 8 32 /ed Study of Sick Sinus Syndrome • Experiment 9 33 Study of Sinus Tachycardia u • Experiment 10 34 Study of Premature Ventricular Contraction • Experiment 11 35 Study of Accelerated Idioventricular Rhythm • Experiment 12 36 Study of Ventricular Tachycardia • Experiment 13 37 Study of Ventricular Fibrillation • Experiment 14 38 Study of Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Study of Tachycardia • hik Experiment 3 27 Study of Atrial Fibrillation • -co Experiment 4 28 Study of Atrial Flutter • ns Experiment 5 29 Study of Premature Atrial Contraction ult • Experiment 6 30 Study of Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia ing • Experiment 7 31 Study of Paroxysmal Supra Ventricular Tachycardia .

5 . Frequently Asked Questions 47 hik 11.ST2362 • Experiment 15 39 Study of Atrio-Ventricular Nodal Re-entrant Tachycardia • Experiment 16 40 Study of Wolf Parkinson Syndrome • Experiment 17 41 Study of Long QT Syndrome • Experiment 18 42 Study of Junctional Rhythm • Experiment 19 43 Study of Junctional Tachycardia • Experiment 20 44 st Study of I Degree AV Block • Experiment 21 45 nd Study of II Degree AV Block ww • Experiment 22 46 rd Study of III Degree AV Block w. 10.pl /ed u Scientech Technologies Pvt. Glossary of Human Cardiovascular System Terms 60 12. Warranty 61 -co 13. Ltd. List of Accessories 61 ns ult ing .

The instrument should be serviced by qualified personnel only. Use in proper Atmosphere : Please refer to operating conditions given in the ns manual. . Do not operate in an explosive atmosphere. For your safety: Use proper Mains cord : Use only the mains cord designed for this instrument. Do not operate in wet / damp conditions. ult 2. clean and dry. Observe Terminal Ratings : To avoid fire or shock hazards. Keep the product dust free. To avoid any personal injury or damage to the instrument or any product connected to it. ensure that the instrument is properly grounded. ing 3. 6 . Ensure that the mains cord is suitable for your country. Ground the Instrument : This instrument is grounded through the protective earth conductor of the mains cord. Before making connections to the input terminals. w. Use only the proper Fuse : Use the fuse type and rating specified for this -co instrument. 1. observe all ratings and hik marks on the instrument. To avoid electric shock the grounding conductor must be connected to ww the earth ground. Ltd.ST2362 Safety Instructions Read the following safety instructions carefully before operating the instrument. Do not operate the instrument if suspect any damage to it.pl /ed u Scientech Technologies Pvt.

pl /ed u Scientech Technologies Pvt. In adults the normal resting heart rate ranges from 60 beats per minute to 100 beats per minute. ww w. Ltd. Some arrhythmias are life- threatening medical emergencies that can cause cardiac arrest and sudden death. which can be annoying. The normal heart beat is controlled by a small area in the upper chamber of the heart called the sinoatrial node or sinus node. Some are quite minor and can be regarded as normal. such as an awareness of a different heart beat.ST2362 Introduction Arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. 7 . or palpitation. Sinus arrhythmia is the mild acceleration followed by slowing of the normal rhythm that occurs with breathing. The sinus node contains specialized cells that have spontaneous electrical activity that starts each normal heart beat. Others cause aggravating symptoms. hik -co ns ult ing .

ST2362 Features • The Arrhythmia is divided into the 5 groups viz. Cd. It is mandatory that service engineers use lead free solder wire and use the soldering irons upto (25 W) that reach a temperature of 450°C at the tip as the melting temperature of the unleaded solder is higher than the leaded solder. Ventricular Arrhythmia. Junctional Arrhythmia. hik -co ns ult ing . 8 . Ltd. Cr.pl /ed RoHS Compliance u Scientech Products are RoHS Complied. Br compounds) in electric and electronic equipments. Scientech products are “Lead Free” and “Environment Friendly”. Atrio-Ventricular Arrhythmia. Atrial Arrhythmia. Hg. Scientech Technologies Pvt. RoHS Directive concerns with the restrictive use of Hazardous substances (Pb. Heart Blocks • Provides information about 22 abnormal (Diseased) waves which indicates particular abnormality in heart • Every Systolic action of heart is indicated by LED (visible) and audible (Buzzer) sound controls ww w.

Ltd. 9 .pl /ed u Scientech Technologies Pvt.ST2362 Technical Specifications Heartbeat Indication : Both visible (LED) and Audible (Buzzer) controls Output wave amplitude range : 1-5 Volts Power Supply : 220/110V ±10%. hik -co ns ult ing . 50Hz / 60Hz Dimensions (mm) : W 336 × D 266 × H 54 Weight : 1 Kg (approximately) ww w.

hik -co ns ult ing . Ltd.pl Figure 1 /ed u Scientech Technologies Pvt. 10 .ST2362 ww w.

Ltd.pl /ed u Scientech Technologies Pvt. 11 . hik -co ns ult ing .ST2362 Controls and Indicators • Power On/Off: Rocker mains switch for supplying power to the instrument • On-board buzzer: Audio indication for each heartbeat event executed by heart of human body • On-board LED: Visible indication for each systole of human Heart • Selection Switch: A rotary switch is provided to select particular diseased wave ww w.

The algorithm processes the ECG signals for both paced and non-paced patients performs several actions on the incoming ECG waveform. more due to patient movement. 12 . is premature QRS complexes. indentifying ectopic events and rhythms and generating alarms. These include the use of digital filters. Since the ECG of each patient is different. is derived from the ECG complex of a ing patient under normal circumstances. Alternatively.ST2362 Arrhythmia Monitor An Arrhythmia Monitor is basically a sophisticated alarm system. A popular ult approach in the detection of arrhythmia is based on template matching. It constantly scans the ECG rhythm patterns and issue alarms to events that may be premonitory or life threatening. Ltd. when necessary. The complex computerised system is useful for multi patient set-ups and can help detect arrhythmia of a wide variety at graded alarm level. it must be atleast 1/32 of the R wave height and the P-R interval must be close to the Scientech Technologies Pvt. the instruments generally base their determination of abnormal or ectopic beats upon a reference obtained from patient himself. This area is 200ms wide and ends 120ms before the R wave peak. • u ST/AR Arrhythmia Algorithm The ST/AR (ST and Arrhythmia) algorithm is a multi-lead ECG algorithm designed for both arrhythmias and ST segment monitoring. To be accepted as a P wave. when ectopic beats are detected. waveform. The Arrhythmia. A model of the normal QRS complex is called a template. non-linear ns transformation. generating heart rate. • Gives alarm light signals whenever the premature or widened ectopic beats exist ww up to the rate of 6/min or 12/min. • Detects and triggers alarm when artifacts are present at the source. Therefore. which the instruments are designed to detect. detecting and classifying the QRS. and further suspected /ed QRS complexes are compared with it. including filtering the signal. e. If a waveform does not match the available template but it is suspected abnormal QRS complex it is treated as a separated template. After the QRS complex is identified a search is made on each lead independently in the area prior to the R wave to determine if there is an associated P wave. QRS Detection -co There are several methods and computer programs in existence for the automatic detection of QRS complexes. muscle w. It is not an ECG interpretation system. decision processors and template matching.g. algorithm has been developed based on digital filters to separate out normal and abnormal QRS complexes. This template is stored and compared with the subsequent incoming real-time ECG to look for a possible match.pl criterion. any Arrhythmia Monitoring instrument will operate in the following sequence: • Stores a normal QRS for reference particularly QRS width and R-R interval. widened QRS complexes and runs of widened complexes. Generally two or more of these techniques are used in combination in a QRS detector algorithm. • Initiates an alarm automatically. base line shift and improperly connected hik electrodes. using mathematical .either the ventricular premature or widened varieties.

Labelling means that the algorithm ventricular ectopic (V). paced (P). in both single lead and multi lead. hik -co ns ult ing . questionable (?) and learning (L). If the signal quality is not good.pl /ed u Scientech Technologies Pvt. Once the QRS is detected and measured. Data bases are available for the testing of arrhythmia detection algorithm. 13 . ww w. P wave detection is used to differentiate between a Sinus Rhythm and a Supraventricular Rhythm. The performance of the ST/AR arrhythmia algorithm are shown to be giving very high accuracy and reliability (above 95%). together with a set of annotation files in which each beat is labelled by an expert cardiologist. These data bases consist of records of patient ECG waveform. the beat is labelled. Any computerised arrhythmia algorithm would not make 100% accurate analysis os all patients. Ltd. the algorithm assigns the label “inoperative (I)” and “artefact (A)”.ST2362 average P-R interval.

re-entry or triggered activity. Tachycardia may result in palpitation. Other things that ns increase sympathetic nervous system activity in the heart include ingested or injected substances such as caffeine or amphetamines. a pause in the normal activity of the sinus node.Any heart rate faster than 100beats/minute is labelled Tachycardia.pl /ed u Tachycardia Scientech Technologies Pvt. ww Bradycardia w. and is called sinus tachycardia. It may be caused by reversible poisoning of the AV node (with drugs that impair conduction) or by irreversible damage to the node. Ltd. is labelled Bradycardia. tachycardia is not -co necessarily an arrhythmia. This is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system on the sinus node. Heart block comes in varying degrees and severity.ST2362 Types of Arrhythmias 1. hik 2. and an overactive thyroid ult gland (hyperthyroidism). or by blocking of the electrical impulse on its way from the atria to the ventricles. Tachycardia. however. . Increased heart rate is a normal response to physical exercise or emotional stress. Abnormal impulses can begin by one of three mechanisms: automaticity. Bradycardia. This may be caused by a slowed signal from the sinus node. 14 .A slow rhythm (less than 60 beats/min).Tachycardia that is not sinus tachycardia usually results ing from the addition of abnormal impulses to the normal cardiac cycle.

While w.pl /ed Atrial Flutter u 5. ns ult ing . Ltd. and frequently degenerates into atrial fibrillation. and cardiomyopathy). When it first occurs. it is usually associated with a fast heart rate or tachycardia.: hypertension. it does -co rarely persist for months to years.g. It is typically not a stable rhythm. PAC is also sometimes called heart palpitations.Atrial flutter is an abnormal heart rhythm that occurs in the atria ww of the heart. 15 .ST2362 3. and falls into the category of supra-ventricular tachycardia. this rhythm occurs most often in individuals with cardiovascular disease (e. irregular heart beat or benign arrhythmia which start in the upper two chambers of the heart. it may occur hik spontaneously in people with otherwise normal hearts. Atrial Fibrillation.Atrial fibrillation is the quivering. Premature Atrial Contraction (PAC). coronary artery disease. Atrial Fibrillation 4. These aren't as serious as a premature ventricular contraction (PVC) and usually require no medical care. It is not typically a medical emergency. Atrial Flutter. However. Scientech Technologies Pvt. known as the atria. and should be evaluated by a physician. Individuals with the condition may report feeling that his or her heart "stops" after a symptom. also called atria. chaotic motion in the upper chambers of the heart. Atrial fibrillation is often due to serious underlying medical conditions.Premature atrial contractions (PAC) are a type of premature heart beat.

It is more common in the elderly. WAP is positive once the heart generates -co at least three different P-wave formations from the same ECG lead. plus w.pl /ed u Scientech Technologies Pvt.ST2362 Premature Atrial Contraction 6. specifically a type of Supraventricular tachycardia. The electrical impulse is generated at a different focus within the atria of the heart each time. It is mostly common in patients with lung disorders. 16 . but it can be occur after acute MI. It is sometimes associated with digitalis toxicity in patients with heart disease.Multifocal atrial tachycardia is a cardiac arrhythmia. the phenomenon is called multifocal ns atrial tachycardia. which is a heart rate exceeding 100 beats per minute. Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia (MAT) . The P-waves and P-R intervals are variable due to a phenomenon called wandering atrial hik pacemaker (WAP). Then. ult ing . tachycardia. hyperaemia. if the heart rate exceeds 100 beats per minute. and ww hypomagnesaemia. Ltd. It is characterized by an electrocardiogram (ECG) strip with 3 or more P-waves of variable morphology and varying P-R intervals.

especially to the atria. Sinus Tachycardia. Cardiac surgery. where the cause is often a non-specific. sinus node exit block. defined as a rate greater than 100beats/min in an average adult. 17 . -co ns ult ing Sick Sinus Syndrome . Sick sinus syndrome is a relatively ww uncommon syndrome. including sinus arrest. who have slower normal. The normal heart rate in the average adult ranges from 60–100 beats/min. It can result in many abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). and other types of bradycardia (slow heart rate). Ltd.Sinus tachycardia (also colloquially known as sinus tach or sinus tachy) is a rhythm with elevated rate of impulses originating from the u sinoatrial node. common in elderly adults. Sick Sinus Syndrome (SSS) . Note that the normal heart rate varies with age.Sick sinus syndrome is more w. Paroxysmal Supra Ventricular Tachycardia (PSVT)- Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia 8. Bradycardia- tachycardia syndrome is a variant of sick sinus syndrome in which slow arrhythmias and fast arrhythmias alternate. sinus bradycardia. Scientech Technologies Pvt.Sick sinus syndrome.pl /ed 9. also called sinus node dysfunction.ST2362 7. scar-like hik degeneration of the cardiac conduction system. is a group of abnormal heart rhythms presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node. is a common cause of sick sinus syndrome in children. with infants having normal heart rate of 110–150 bpm to the elderly. the heart's primary pacemaker.

the sinoatrial node. Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC) . This most commonly occurs in the setting of a sinus Bradycardia. It can be present at birth. Accelerated Idioventricular Tachycardia Scientech Technologies Pvt. PVCs can be a useful natural probe. Accelerated Idioventricular Tachycardia (AIR) . w. since they induce ww Heart rate turbulence whose characteristics can be measured. is a form of irregular heartbeat in which the ventricle contracts prematurely. Ltd. The depolarization of cardiac myocytes begins in the ventricle instead of the usual place. also known as ventricular premature beat (VPB) or extra systole. 18 .The accelerated . hik -co ns ult Premature Ventricular Contraction ing 11.ST2362 Sinus Tachycardia 10.Premature ventricular contraction (PVC). This may be perceived as a "skipped beat" or as palpitations.pl idioventricular rhythm occurs when depolarisation rate of a normally suppressed focus increases to above that of the "higher order" focuses (the sinoatrial node /ed and the atrioventricular node). and used to evaluate cardiac function. the rate of cardiac contraction is determined by the intrinsic rate of depolarisation of the cardiac u cells. In accelerated idioventricular rhythm.

Scientech Technologies Pvt. especially in young individuals.Polymorphic (or polymorphous) u ventricular tachycardia (VT) is defined as an unstable rhythm with a continuously varying QRS complex morphology in any recorded electrocardiography (ECG) lead. some forms of this arrhythmia appear benign. or fast heart rhythm that originates in one of the ventricles of the heart. A rate of at least 200beats/min is the commonly accepted minimum for polymorphic VT.pl /ed Ventricular Fibrillation 14. blood circulation will cease. many episodes terminate spontaneously. however. Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia. and death may occur in a matter of -co minutes. 19 . Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia associated with a prolonged QT interval. which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles hik in the heart. Ventricular Fibrillation. If the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds. The simultaneous recording of more than one ECG lead is often necessary to detect these changes. Some episodes of polymorphic VT cause hemodynamic collapse and some degenerate into ventricular fibrillation (VF). ww Ventricular Tachycardia 13. which has a different etymology and mechanism. Ventricular Tachycardia.Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a tachycardia. Ventricular fibrillation is a medical emergency.Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is a condition in w. but an absolute number has not been established and VT at a slower rate can manifest changing QRS morphology. This is a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia because it may lead to ventricular fibrillation and sudden death. Although less common. is known as torsade de pointes ("twisting of points"). Ltd. making them tremble rather than contract properly. ns ult ing .ST2362 12.

6%). The incidence of WPW syndrome is between 0. While the vast majority of individuals with a bundle of Kent remain asymptomatic throughout their entire lives.AV nodal re- entrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of tachycardia (fast rhythm) of the heart. Frequent attacks hik may require radio frequency ablation. The main symptom is palpitations.ST2362 Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia 15. Ltd. medication.pl /ed Atrio-Ventricular Nodal Re-entrant Tachycardia u 16. Wolf Parkinson Syndrome (WPS) .9 and 3% of the general population. Treatment may be with specific physical manoeuvres. -co ns ult ing . in which the abnormally conducting tissue in the heart is destroyed. It is more common in women than men (approximately 75% of cases occurring in w.Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is a syndrome of pre-excitation of the ventricles of the heart due to an accessory pathway known as the bundle of Kent. 20 . AV nodal re-entrant ww tachycardia is the most common regular Supraventricular tachycardia. or rarely DC cardio version. Atrio-Ventricular Nodal Re-entrant Tachycardia (AVNRT) . Sudden death due to WPW syndrome is rare (incidence of less than 0. and is due to the effect of the accessory pathway on tachyarrhythmia in these individuals. meaning that it originates from a location within the heart above the bundle of His. Scientech Technologies Pvt. females). This accessory pathway is an abnormal electrical communication from the atria to the ventricles. there is a risk of sudden death associated with the syndrome. It is a type of Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).

the heart's sinoatrial node determines the rate by which the organ beats . the heart's atrioventricular node takes over as the pacemaker. Under normal conditions.The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare congenital heart condition with delayed repolarization following depolarization (excitation) of the heart. Arrhythmia in individuals ww with LQTS is often associated with exercise or excitement.pl /ed Long QT Syndrome u 18. While many individuals with LQTS have persistent prolongation of the QT interval. Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) . In Scientech Technologies Pvt. which can deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation and ultimately sudden death. The QRS complex corresponds to ventricular depolarization while the T wave corresponds to w. When this happens. the sinoatrial node does not control the heart's rhythm . however. associated with syncope (fainting) due to ventricular arrhythmias.ST2362 Wolf Parkinson Syndrome 17. Individuals with LQTS have a prolongation of the QT interval on the ECG. ventricular repolarization. In junctional rhythm. Ltd. Junctional Rhythm. it is the heart's "pacemaker. The QT interval is measured from the Q point to the hik end of the T wave. in these individuals. 21 .this can happen in the case of a block in conduction somewhere along the pathway described above. Current then passes from the atria through the bundle of His. This sinus rhythm is important because it ensures that the heart's atria reliably contract before the ventricles." The electrical activity of sinus rhythm originates in the sinoatrial node and depolarizes the atria. ns ult ing .in other words. possibly of type torsade de pointes.Junctional rhythm describes abnormal heart rhythm. from which it travels along Purkinje fibres to reach and depolarize the ventricles. the QT interval may prolong with the -co administration of certain medications. some individuals do not always show the QT prolongation.

Junctional Tachycardia. Ist Degree AV Block. 22 . the disease is u almost always at the level of the atrioventricular node (AV node). Junctional Rhythm 19.ST2362 the case of a junctional rhythm. hik -co ns ult ing Junctional Tachycardia . similar to atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia. It can be contrasted to atrial tachycardia. the atria will actually still contract before the ventricles.pl 20. Ltd.65-1.Junctional tachycardia is a form of Supraventricular ww tachycardia characterized by involvement of the AV node. In first degree heart block. One form is junctional ectopic tachycardia.First degree AV block or PR prolongation is a disease of /ed the electrical conduction system of the heart in which the PR interval is lengthened beyond 0. Scientech Technologies Pvt. this does not happen by the normal pathway and instead is due to retrograde conduction.13 per 1000 persons. It has prevalence in the normal (young adult) population of 0. Junctional rhythm can be diagnosed by looking at an EKG: an EKG exhibiting it usually presents without a P wave. It can be associated with digitalis toxicity.20 seconds.1% and the incidence is 0. It can appear w. however.

also known as complete heart ing block. hik -co ns IInd Degree AV Block ult 22.Second degree AV block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ww w. It refers to a conduction block between the atria and ventricles.ST2362 st I Degree AV Block 21. The presence of second degree AV block is diagnosed when one or more (but not all) of the atrial impulses fail to conduct to the ventricles due to impaired conduction.pl propagate to the ventricles. is a defect of the electrical system of the heart. Ltd. IInd Degree AV Block. IIIrd Degree AV Block.Third degrees AV block. in which the impulse generated in the atria (typically the SA node on top of the right atrium) does not . 23 . /ed u IIIrd Degree AV Block Scientech Technologies Pvt.

Next five waves are related to the Ventricular Arrhythmia 5.ST2362 Operating Instructions 1. Next two waves are related to the Junctional Arrhythmia 7. Ltd.pl /ed u Scientech Technologies Pvt. 24 . lead selection switch should be on correct position to get the desired wave shape. While studying different wave’s configuration. hik -co ns ult ing . Last three waves are related to the Heart Blocks ww w. Initial nine waves are related to the Atrial Arrhythmia 4. 3. Next three waves are related to the Atrio-Ventricular Arrhythmia 6. While analyzing upper selection switch the toggle switch should in ON position and for bottom selection switch the toggle switch should be in OFF position. 2.

What is sinus Bradycardia? 2. while other end to mains power supply 2. 25 . Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4. Ltd. Observe the Bradycardia Waveform at output terminal hik 2. Select “Bradycardia” Using Selection Switch Observation: w.pl /ed u Bradycardia Figure 1. Compare the “Bradycardia” with the standard shape given in the manual ns ult ing . 3. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. Put the toggle switch on the ON position ww 5. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. then ST2362 trainer 3.ST2362 Experiment 1 Objective: Study of Bradycardia Equipments Needed: 1.1 Conclusion: 1. What is Bradycardia? Scientech Technologies Pvt. Presence of very long delay between two successive R waves giving the indication of Bradycardia Questions: 1. Switch ON the Mains power supply. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. Bradycardia wave is observed with appropriate shape 2. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication -co 3. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362 2. 1.

Ltd. 1. Presence of very short delay between two successive R waves giving the indication of Tachycardia. What is sinus tachycardia? 2. 3. Observe the Tachycardia wave at output terminal hik 2.ST2362 Experiment 2 Objective: Study of Tachycardia (Faster Heart Rate > 100) Equipments Needed: 1. then ST2362 trainer 3 Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4 Put the toggle switch on the ON position ww 5 Select “Tachycardia” Using Selection Switch Observation: w. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication 3. 2. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz.1 Conclusion: u 1. while other end to mains power supply 2 Switch ON the Mains power supply. Arrhythmia ST2362 2. Compare the Tachycardia with the Standard shape given in the manual -co ns ult ing .pl Tachycardia /ed Figure 2. Tachycardia wave is observed with appropriate shape. What is tachycardia? Scientech Technologies Pvt. Questions: 1. 3. P wave appears just after the appearance of T wave conform Tachycardia. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1 Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. 26 .

2. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. Switch ON the Mains power supply. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. Compare the Atrial Fibrillation with the Standard shape given in the manual ns ult ing . 2. Observe the Atrial Fibrillation wave at output terminal. then ST2362 trainer 3.1 Conclusion: 1 Atrial Fibrillation wave is observed with appropriate shape 2 Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no synchronization between two successive P or T wave. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Put the toggle switch on the ON position 5. random pathways in atria). while other end to mains power supply 2. Observation: hik 1. Select “Atrial Fibrillation” Using Selection Switch w. Equipments Needed: 1. Due to what reason atrial fibrillation occurs? Scientech Technologies Pvt. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication.ST2362 Experiment 3 Objective: Study of Atrial Fibrillation (Impulses have chaotic. Ltd.pl /ed Atrial Fibrillation u Figure 3. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port ww 4. indication of Atrial Fibrillation 3 Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct sequence and strength Questions: 1. 27 . 3. -co 3.

-co ns ult ing . 3. Ltd. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. Switch ON the Mains power supply. 3. then ST2362 trainer 3. Questions: 1. Atrial Flutter wave is observed with appropriate shape. 1. hik 2. 28 . 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. Put the toggle switch on the ON position ww 5. What do you understand by atrial flutter? 2. Compare the Atrial Flutter with the standard shape given in the manual. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. 3. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4.1 u Conclusion: 1. 2. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1.pl /ed Atrial Flutter Figure 4. while other end to mains power supply 2. Select “Atrial Flutter” Using Selection Switch.ST2362 Experiment 4 Objective: Study of Atrial Flutter (Impulse Travels in Circular course in atria) Equipments Needed: 1. What is frequency range of atrial flutter? Scientech Technologies Pvt. Observation: w. 2. Presence of negative polarity of T wave confirms the atrial flutter. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves giving the indication of Atrial Flutter. Observe the Atrial Flutter wave at output terminal.

Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. while other end to mains power supply 2. 2. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. then ST2362 trainer 3.1 u Conclusion: 1. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. 3. Switch ON the Mains power supply. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4.ST2362 Experiment 5 Objective: Study of Premature Atrial Contraction Equipments Needed: 1.pl /ed Premature Atrial Contraction Figure 5. Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct sequence and strength. Put the toggle switch on the ON position ww 5. Questions: 1. What is PAC? 2. Premature Atrial contraction wave is observedwith appropriate shape. Ltd. 1. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication 3. Compare the Premature Atrial contraction with the Standard shape given in the -co manual ns ult ing . Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. Observe the Premature Atrial contraction wave at OUTPUT terminal hik 2. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. What is the function of PAC? Scientech Technologies Pvt. 29 . 2. indication of Atrial Fibrillation. 3. Select “Premature Atrial contraction” Using Selection Switch Observation: w. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no synchronization between two successive P or T wave.

Switch ON the Mains power supply.1 u Conclusion: 1. while other end to mains power supply 2. 30 . 400MSa/s) or Equivalent.pl Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia /ed Figure 6. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. 3. ns ult ing . then ST2362 trainer 3. Observe the Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia wave at OUTPUT terminal hik 2. Ltd. 1. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia wave is observedwith appropriate shape. What is Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia? Scientech Technologies Pvt. 2.ST2362 Experiment 6 Objective: Study of Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia Equipments Needed: 1 Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. indication of Atrial Fibrillation. Put the toggle switch on the ON position ww 5. Select “Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia” Using Selection Switch Observation: w. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4. 3 Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct sequence and strength. 2 Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no synchronization between two successive P or T wave. Compare the Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia with the Standard shape given in -co the manual. Questions: 1. 3.

Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. Observation: w. What indicates abnormal ventricular activation? Scientech Technologies Pvt.1 Conclusion: u 1.ST2362 Experiment 7 Objective: Study of Paroxysmal Ventricular Tachycardia Equipments Needed: 1. 3. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4. Compare the Paroxysmal Supra Ventricular Tachycardia with the Standard shape given in the manual. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. 2. indication of Atrial Fibrillation. Ltd. Switch ON the Mains power supply. Paroxysmal Supra Ventricular Tachycardia wave is observedwith appropriate shape. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no synchronization between two successive P or T wave. 2. while other end to mains power supply 2. 2. -co 3.pl Paroxysmal Supra Ventricular Tachycardia /ed Figure 7. 3. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. 31 . 1. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. Observe the Paroxysmal Supra Ventricular Tachycardia wave at OUTPUT hik terminal. Questions: 1. ns ult ing . What is Paroxysmal Supra Ventricular Tachycardia? 2. Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct sequence and strength. Put the toggle switch on the ON position ww 5. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. then ST2362 trainer 3. Select “Paroxysmal Supra Ventricular Tachycardia” Using Selection Switch.

Switch ON the Mains power supply. 3. indication of Atrial Fibrillation. Compare the Sick Sinus Syndrome with the Standard shape given in the manual. then ST2362 trainer 3. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no synchronization between two successive P or T wave. 2 Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Select “Sick Sinus Syndrome” Using Selection Switch.1 Conclusion: u 1. hik 2.pl Sick Sinus Syndrome /ed Figure 8. while other end to mains power supply 2.’QRS’ and ‘T’ wave? Scientech Technologies Pvt. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. Which type of activity is held during ‘P’. Ltd. Sick Sinus Syndrome wave is observedwith appropriate shape 2. Observe the Sick Sinus Syndrome wave at OUTPUT terminal. 1. 32 . -co ns ult ing . Observation: w. Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not have the Correct sequence and strength Questions: 1. 3. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent.ST2362 Experiment 8 Objective: Study of Sick Sinus Syndrome Equipments Needed: 1 Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. Put the toggle switch on the ON position ww 5. What do you understand by Sick Sinus Syndrome? 2. 3 Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1.

Switch ‘On’ the Power switch. 3. 2. 33 . Observation: ww 1. Connect the USB Port Cable from Trainer to PC USB Port 4. What is the standard value of one complete cycle for ‘T’ wave? Scientech Technologies Pvt.pl Sinus Tachycardia /ed Figure 9. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. indication of Atrial Fibrillation. Ltd. 2. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. Questions: 1. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. hik -co ns ult ing . 2. 3. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. 3. Sinus Tachycardia wave is observedwith appropriate shape. Select “Sinus Tachycardia” Using Selection Switch. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no synchronization between two successive P or T wave. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent.ST2362 Experiment 9 Objective: Study of Sinus Tachycardia Equipments Needed: 1.1 Conclusion: u 1. Compare the Sinus Tachycardia with the Standard shape given in the manual. Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct sequence and strength. w. Observe the Sinus Tachycardia wave at OUTPUT terminal. 3. What is sinus tachycardia? 2. 2. Connect the Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362 to AC mains.

1 u Conclusion: 1. then ST2362 trainer 3. Equipments Needed: 1 Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. 2. Ltd. Observation: hik 1.ST2362 Experiment 10 Objective: Study of Premature Ventricular Contraction (A Single Impulse Originate at Right Ventricle). 3 Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. Questions: 1. Compare the Premature Ventricular Contraction with the shape given in the manual. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. Put the toggle switch on the ON position 5. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. Switch ON the Mains power supply. What is the function of PVC? Experiment 11 Scientech Technologies Pvt. Because of Presence of this additional wave there is an increase of time duration between two successive R waves. Select “Premature Ventricular Contraction” Using Selection Switch. w. What is PVC stands for? 2. while other end to mains power supply 2. 2.pl Premature Ventricular Contraction /ed Figure 10. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. -co 3. Observe the Premature Ventricular Contraction wave at OUTPUT terminal. Premature Ventricular Contraction wave is observedwith appropriate shape. 3. 2 Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port ww 4. Presence of additional large waves after the ventricular repolarization giving the indication of Premature Ventricular Contraction. ns ult ing . 34 .

Select “Proximal Supra Ventricular Tachycardia” Using Selection Switch. -co ns ult ing Accelerated idioventricular Rhythm . Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. indication of Atrial Fibrillation. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. Compare the Accelerated idioventricular Rhythm with the Standard shape given in the manual. Observe the Accelerated idioventricular Rhythm wave at OUTPUT terminal. Questions: 1. then ST2362 trainer 3. 2. 2. Which situation is called accelerated idioventricular rhythm? Scientech Technologies Pvt.pl Figure 11. while other end to mains power supply 2.ST2362 Objective: Study of Accelerated idioventricular Rhythm Equipments Needed: 1. 3. Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct sequence and strength. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no u synchronization between two successive P or T wave. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. Accelerated idioventricular Rhythm wave is observedwith appropriate shape. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. What is idioventricular rhythm? 2. w. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. ww Observation: 1. 2. Put the toggle switch on the ON position 5. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4. Ltd. 35 . hik 3. 3. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. Switch ON the Mains power supply.1 Conclusion: /ed 1.

w.pl /ed Ventricular Tachycardia u Figure 12. Questions: 1. 2. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. Switch ON the Mains power supply. Presence of incomplete QRS Complex and negative T wave projections giving the indication of Ventricular Tachycardia. Compare the Ventricular Tachycardia with the standards shape given in the manual. 2. What is ventricular tachycardia? 2. What is the amplitude of ‘QRS’ Complex? Scientech Technologies Pvt. 3. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Ltd. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port ww 4. ns ult ing . Arrhythmia ST2362. Select “Ventricular Tachycardia” Using Selection Switch. Observe the Ventricular Tachycardia wave at OUTPUT terminal.ST2362 Experiment 12 Objective: Study of Ventricular Tachycardia (Impulse Originated at Ventricular Pacemaker) Equipments Needed: 1. Put the toggle switch on the OFF position 5. Ventricular Tachycardia wave is observedwith appropriate shape. while other end to mains power supply 2. then ST2362 trainer 3. 2. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. -co 3. Observation: hik 1. 36 . Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1.1 Conclusion: 1. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication.

1. Select “Ventricular Fibrillation” Using Selection Switch. Ventricular Fibrillation wave is observedwith appropriate shape. Put the toggle switch on the OFF position ww 5. then ST2362 trainer 3. 2. while other end to mains power supply 2. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. Observe the Ventricular Fibrillation wave at TP 2 terminal.1 u Conclusion: 1. Ltd. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Questions: 1. hik 2. Because of chaotic ventricular depolarization atrial depolarization and repolarization are also disturbed. Compare the Ventricular Fibrillation with the standard shape given in the -co manual. 37 . 3. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. Total absence of auricular and ventricular synchronization giving the indication of Ventricular Fibrillation. 3. Switch ON the Mains power supply. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4. 2.ST2362 Experiment 13 Objective: Study of Ventricular Fibrillation (Chaotic Ventricular depolarization) Equipments Needed: 1. What is ventricular fibrillation? Scientech Technologies Pvt. ns ult ing . Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362.pl /ed Ventricular Fibrillation Figure 13. 3. Observation: w. What is the cause of ventricular fibrillation? 2.

hik 2. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent 3. Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct sequence and strength. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Ltd. Observation: w. Compare the Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia with the Standard shape -co given in the manual. while other end to mains power supply 2. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362 2. Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia wave is observedwith appropriate shape. 1.ST2362 Experiment 14 Objective: Study of Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia Equipments Needed: 1. then ST2362 trainer 3. 2. indication of Atrial Fibrillation. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. Observe the Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia wave at OUTPUT terminal. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4. 3.1 Conclusion: u 1. 38 . 3. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no synchronization between two successive P or T wave.pl Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia /ed Figure 14. What is the cause of ventricular fibrillation? Scientech Technologies Pvt. ns ult ing . Questions: 1. Select “Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia” Using Selection Switch. Switch ON the Mains power supply. Put the toggle switch on the OFF position ww 5. What is ventricular tachycardia? 2.

ST2362

Experiment 15
Objective: Study of Atrio-Ventricular Nodal Re-entrant Tachycardia
Equipments Needed:
1. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362.
2. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz, 400MSa/s) or Equivalent.
3. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system
Procedure:
1. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362, while
other end to mains power supply
2. Switch ON the Mains power supply, then ST2362 trainer
3. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port
4. Put the toggle switch on the OFF position
ww

5. Select “Atrio-Ventricular Nodal Re-entrant Tachycardia” Using Selection
Switch.
w.

Observation:
hik

1. Observe the Atrio-Ventricular Nodal Re-entrant Tachycardia wave at OUTPUT
terminal.
-co

2. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication.
3. Compare the Atrio-Ventricular Nodal Re-entrant Tachycardia with the Standard
ns

shape given in the manual.
ult
ing
.pl

Atrio-Ventricular Nodal Re-entrant Tachycardia
/ed

Figure 15.1
Conclusion:
u

1. Atrio-Ventricular Nodal Re-entrant Tachycardia wave is observedwith
appropriate shape.
2. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no
synchronization between two successive P or T wave, indication of Atrial
Fibrillation.
3. Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct
sequence and strength.
Questions:
1. What is Tachycardia?
2. What is ventricular tachycardia?

Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 39

ST2362

Experiment 16
Objective: Study of Wolf Parkinson Syndrome
Equipments Needed:
1 Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362.
2 Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz, 400MSa/s) or Equivalent.
3 Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system
Procedure:
1. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362, while
other end to mains power supply
2. Switch ON the Mains power supply, then ST2362 trainer
3. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port
4. Put the toggle switch on the OFF position
ww

5. Select “Wolf Parkinson Syndrome” Using Selection Switch.
Observation:
w.

1. Observe the Wolf Parskinsom Syndrome wave at OUTPUT terminal.
hik

2. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication.
3. Compare the Wolf Parskinsom Syndrome with the Standard shape given in the
-co

manual.
ns
ult
ing
.pl

Wolf Parskinsom Syndrome
/ed

Figure 16.1
u

Conclusion:
1. Atrial Fibrillation wave is observedwith appropriate shape.
2. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no
synchronization between two successive P or T wave, indication of Atrial
Fibrillation.
3. Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct
sequence and strength.

Questions:
1. What P wave represents?
2. What T wave represents?

Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 40

ST2362

Experiment 17
Objective: Study of Long QT Syndrome
Equipments Needed:
1. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362.
2. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz, 400MSa/s) or Equivalent.
3. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system
Procedure:
1. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362, while
other end to mains power supply
2. Switch ON the Mains power supply, then ST2362 trainer
3. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port
4. Put the toggle switch on the OFF position
ww

5. Select “Long QT Syndrome” Using Selection Switch.
Observation:
w.

1. Observe the Long QT Syndrome wave at OUTPUT terminal.
hik

2. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication.
3. Compare the Long QT Syndrome with the Standard shape given in the
-co

manual.
ns
ult
ing
.pl
/ed

Long QT Syndrome
Figure 17.1
Conclusion:
u

1. Long QT Syndrome wave is observedwith appropriate shape.
2. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no
synchronization between two successive P or T wave, indication of Atrial
Fibrillation.
3. Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct
sequence and strength.
Questions:
1. What is the amplitude of ‘P’ wave?
2. What is the duration of ‘T’ wave?

Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 41

pl /ed Junctional Rhythm Figure 18. 3. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Junction Rhythm wave is observedwith appropriate shape. 2. Ltd. What is the phenomenon of junctional rhythm? 2. 2 Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. Questions: 1. 2.1 u Conclusion: 1. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. 42 . Junction Rhythms are the indication of the diverse direction of electrical voltages at the AV node. Absence of P wave along with large delay between two successive R waves giving the indication of Junction Rhythms. w. ns ult ing . 3. What are the characteristics of ‘P’ wave? Scientech Technologies Pvt. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1 Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. -co 3 Compare the Junction Rhythm with the standard shape given in the manual.ST2362 Experiment 18 Objective: Study of Junction rhythm (Impulses originated at AV node with retrograde and ante grade direction) Equipments Needed: 1. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. Observation: hik 1 Observe the Junction Rhythm wave at OUTPUT terminal. then ST2362 trainer 3 Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port ww 4 Put the toggle switch on the OFF position 5 Select “Junction Rhythm” Using Selection Switch. while other end to mains power supply 2 Switch ON the Mains power supply.

ns ult ing .ST2362 Experiment 19 Objective: Study of Junctional Tachycardia Equipments Needed: 1. What is Tachycardia? Scientech Technologies Pvt. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no synchronization between two successive P or T wave. 3. 2. 43 . 2. while other end to mains power supply 2. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. Ltd. Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct sequence and strength. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. then ST2362 trainer 3. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. Compare the Junctional Tachycardia with the Standard shape given in the -co manual. Observe the Junctional Tachycardia wave at OUTPUT terminal. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4. Observation: w. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. Put the toggle switch on the OFF position ww 5. 3. 1. 3. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1.pl /ed Junctional Tachycardia Figure 19. Junctional Tachycardia wave is observedwith appropriate shape. hik 2. Select “Junctional Tachycardia” Using Selection Switch. What is sinus tachycardia? 2. indication of Atrial Fibrillation. Questions: 1. Switch ON the Mains power supply.1 u Conclusion: 1.

Atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization are not having the correct sequence and strength. st I Degree AV Block ns ult ing . then ST2362 trainer 3. Due to what reason atrial fibrillation occurs? 2. 1. while other end to mains power supply 2.pl Figure 20. indication of Atrial Fibrillation. Observation: w. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Ist Degree AV Block wave is observedwith appropriate shape. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. hik 2. What do you mean by atrial fibrillation? Scientech Technologies Pvt. Presence of abnormal up-word and down-word in P waves and T wave and no synchronization between two successive P or T wave. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. 44 . 2. -co 3. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication.1 /ed Conclusion: u 1. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. 3. Observe the Ist Degree AV Block wave at OUTPUT terminal.ST2362 Experiment 20 st Objective: Study of I Degree AV Block Equipments Needed: 1. Select Ist Degree AV Block” Using Selection Switch. Put the toggle switch on the OFF position ww 5. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. Ltd. Switch ON the Mains power supply. 2. Questions: 1. 3. Compare the Ist Degree AV Block with the Standard shape given in the manual.

-co 3. hik 2. Ltd. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. What is the duration of ‘QRS’ wave? Scientech Technologies Pvt.pl II Degree AV Block /ed Figure 21. while other end to mains power supply 2. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Questions: 1. Observation: w. 1. Switch ON the Mains power supply. Compare the II Degree AV Block with the shape given in the manual. Why QRS-complex is of relatively short duration? 2. Total absence of QRS complex giving the indication of II Degree AV Block. Select “II Degree AV Block” Using Selection Switch. II Degree AV Block wave is observedwith appropriate shape. 3. Put the toggle switch on the OFF position ww 5. 45 . ns ult ing .ST2362 Experiment 21 Objective: Study of II nd Degree AV Block (Sudden drop of QRS Complex) Equipments Needed: 1. Observe the II Degree AV Block wave at OUTPUT terminal.1 u Conclusion: 1. then ST2362 trainer 3. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. 2. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. 2. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port 4.

Observe the III degree AV Block wave at OUTPUT terminal. 2. Observation: hik 1. ns ult ing . III degree AV Block wave is observedwith appropriate shape. Compare the III degree AV Block with the shape given in the manual. No synchronization between atrial and ventricle depolarization is the indication of III degree AV Block. What is the function of AV block? Scientech Technologies Pvt. -co 3. What is the AV stands for? 2. then ST2362 trainer 3.1 u Conclusion: 1. Put the toggle switch on the OFF position 5. 400MSa/s) or Equivalent. Computer with Windows 98/2000/Me/Xp operating system Procedure: 1. Select “III degree AV Block” Using Selection Switch. Ltd. 2. Switch ON the Mains power supply. Connect one end of USB Cable to Trainer while other end to PC USB Port ww 4. Oscilloscope (DS1102C 100 MHz. Connect one end of the power supply to Arrhythmia monitor ST2362. Observe the each Systolic action of the Heart by LED/Buzzer indication. 46 . 2.pl /ed III degree AV Block Figure 22. Questions: 1. while other end to mains power supply 2.ST2362 Experiment 22 rd Objective: Study of III degree AV Block (Impulses originate at AV node and proceed to ventricles Atrial and ventricular activities are not synchronous) Equipments Needed: 1. 3. Arrhythmia Monitor ST2362. w.

In how many layers heart wall is divided. How chamber is sub divided? w. u Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. /ed 4. Left ventricle has the thickest walls of all. It is located between the lungs and slightly to the left of centre. The halves are in hik turn divided into chambers. name them? The heart wall is divided into three layers: • Pericardium • Myocardium ww • Endocardium 4. Right atrium is the thin-walled area that receives the venous or "used" ult blood returning to the body by the veins. The upper two chambers of the heart are called atria and the lower two chambers are called ventricles. The heart is divided by a partition or septum into two halves. The atrium ing dumps the blood into the ventricle where it is then pumped out the pulmonary arteries and to the lungs. How many contractions heart have? The heart is an involuntary muscle that has approximately seventy to ninety contractions per minute during a restful state. . 2. It is from this chamber the blood is pumped out of the heart. 3.pl 3. which pushes the blood through out the body via the blood vessels. -co 5. Left atrium receives the oxygenated blood returning from the lungs. ns 1. What is the Anatomy of the human heart? The heart is basically a hollow muscular pump.ST2362 Frequently Asked Questions 1. 47 . 2. How many chambers does heart have? The heart has four distinct chambers. Right ventricle is the "pump" area of the heart's right side. It begins to pump early in the life of a fetus and will continue unceasingly until death. into the aorta and out to the rest of the body.

It prevents the blood from washing back into the right atrium. as its name would imply. -co 9. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Sino atrial node (SA node) ult ii. d. Tricuspid valve: is the one located at the entrance of the right ventricle. What is systole and diastole? hik Systole occurs when the ventricles contract. Mitral valve: is made of very heavy cusps and is located at the entrance of the left ventricle. w. 48 . node gets propagated in all directions along the surface of both atria and u atrioventricular node. Pulmonary semi lunar valve: is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.pl 10. 8. Inter-nodal fibre bundles ing iii. What is the function of natural pacemaker? /ed A natural pacemaker generates electrical impulses at regular rate. How many components heart conduction system have? There are four basic components to the heart's conduction system. 7. How right ventricle and left ventricle works? ww As the right ventricle contracts and sends blood to the lungs. 11. ns i. To initiate the heartbeat the action potentials generated by the natural pacemaker or S. c. and diastole when they relax. This is a powerful valve that closes as the left ventricle begins each of its contractions to ensure the oxygenated blood doesn't re-enter the left atrium. Aortic valve: is located. the left ventricle contracts and squeezes blood out to the body.A.ST2362 6. Atrioventricular bundle . between the left ventricle's exit and the aorta itself. What is the full form of ECG? Electrocardiogram 12. Ltd. How many types of heart valves are there? There are four types of heart valves which are as follows: a. Atrioventricular node (AV node) iv. How the electrical activity of heart can be sensed? This electrical activity generated by the heart can be measured by an array of electrodes placed on the body surface. One complete contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle makes up one heartbeat. b.

the electrical currents that are generated and spread not only within the heart. the slower the heart rate. Ltd.06 to 0. 23. ult But doctors consider resting rates from 60 to 100 beats per minute within the normal range. ing 20.08 to 0. 49 . 14. 18 How the heart rate is controlled? hik It is controlled by the frequency at which the natural pacemaker generates -co electrical pulses. 22. The typical rate for adults is 72 beats per minute. and is usually 0. 17. 16. The Heart-rate is a rate at which the heart beats per minute. but also through out the body. A newborn baby's heart beats about 120 times per minute. How the electrical current is measured from the heart? The electrical activity generated by the heart can be measured by an array of electrodes placed on the body surface. How different waves are generated? The different waves that comprise the ECG represent the sequence of depolarization and repolarization of the atria and ventricles. conduction of the repolarization wave is slower than the wave of depolarization).e. This relatively short duration indicates that ventricular depolarization normally occurs very rapidly. To measure the ECG signals where the electrodes are placed on human body? . How electrical signals are generated through the heart? As the heart undergoes depolarization and repolarization.6 second. What is the heart rate for various human beings? ns The bigger a person is. Define heart rate? w.1 seconds. How much time period is required to complete one cycle by the heart? The total time required for one complete cycle of the heart electrical activity ww ranges from approximately 0. 15.4 to 0.. and six electrodes are placed at defined locations on the chest.ST2362 13. What QRS complex represents? The QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization. Scientech Technologies Pvt. on each arm and leg. u 21.1 seconds (80-100 ms) in duration.pl To record the ECG pattern of a subject (human body) it is necessary to apply /ed ECG metal electrodes to the patient's limbs in special formats called leads. The duration of the QRS complex is normally 0. What P wave represents? The P wave represents the wave of depolarization that spreads from the SA node throughout the atria. 19. What T wave represents? The T wave represents ventricular repolarization and is longer in duration than depolarization (i.

33. 35.1 seconds. What the electric axis of the heart usually denotes? The concept of the electric axis of the heart usually denotes the average direction of the electric activity throughout ventricular (or sometimes atrial) activation. and the ventricles contract second (around the time of the QRS /ed complex). What ‘P’ wave represent? The ‘P’ wave represents the wave of depolarization that spreads from the SA node throughout the atria.08 to 0. What is the duration of ‘T’ wave? hik Typically the total time required for one complete cycle of the heart electrical -co activity ranges from approximately 0. What is the duration of ‘QRS’ wave? The duration of the QRS complex is normally 0.4 to 0. the atria are contracting first (around the time of the P wave). which corresponds to the left inferior quadrant of the hex axial reference system. Which type of activity is held during ‘P’. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 31. Ltd.ST2362 24. What is the duration of ‘P’ wave? The duration is usually of 0. What ‘T’ wave represents? ult This U wave represents the state of heart when all four chambers of heart ing receive the blood generally this wave is not present in the normal ECG graph.’QRS’ and ‘T’ wave? .6 second. depolarization 30.1 seconds (80-100 ms). What heart's electrical axis refers? u The heart's electrical axis refers to the general direction of the heart's depolarization wave front (or mean electrical vector) in the frontal plane.06 to 0. 36. What short duration indicates in ‘QRS’ wave? The relative short duration indicates that ventricular depolarization normally occurs very rapidly. although -30o to +90o is considered to be normal. ww 29. 32. 26.8 seconds is the standard value of one complete heart cycle. What ‘T’ wave represents? The T wave represents ventricular repolarization and is longer in duration than w. What ‘QRS’ complex represents? The QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization. Ventricular relaxation occurs around the time of the T wave.pl During a normal sinus rhythm. What is the orientation of heart's electrical axis? It is usually oriented in a right shoulder to left Leg direction. 50 . 25. 34. 27. What is the standard value of one complete cycle for ‘T’ wave? ns 0. 28.

Scientech Technologies Pvt. ischemic heart ns disease. Due to which types of diseases the deviation of the electric axis to the right occurs? This is usually a consequence of chronic obstructive lung disease. 45. What is the range of electric axis? The normal range of the electric axis lies between +30° and -110° in the frontal plane and between +30° and -30° in the transverse plane. What is PR-segment? It is the distance from end of the P wave and beginning of Q wave. Deviation of the electric axis to the left is an indication of increased electric hik activity in the left ventricle due to increased left ventricular mass. /ed 44. 41. If it . It’s a period from the beginning of atria depolarization to the beginning of ventricular depolarization. pulmonary emboli. What should be the dimensions of ‘P’ wave? The P wave in general should not be more than 1 box wide or 1 box tall. where the QRS-complex has largest positive deflection. aortic Stenosis. 38. or other disorders causing ww severe pulmonary hypertension and corpulmonale. What is the duration of PR-Interval? Duration: 180-220 m sec The distance from the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of Q wave is PR interval. Due to which types of diseases the deviation of the electric axis to the left -co occurs? This is usually a consequence of hypertension. What the deviation of the electric axis to the left indicates? w.25mV ing 43. The direction of the electric axis is in the direction of this Lead vector. The direction of the electric axis may be approximated from the 12-Lead ECG by finding the Lead in the frontal plane. The result can be checked by observing that the QRS-complex is symmetrically biphasic in the Lead that is normal to the electric axis. certain types of congenital heart disease. 40. 42. Ltd. it generally means that either or both atria is enlarged (hypertrophied). 39.ST2362 37. 51 . What are the characteristics of ‘P’ wave? u Positive deflection of P wave greater than 1 box wide or 1 box in height indicates right atrial hypertrophy Negative deflection of P wave greater than 1 box wide or 1 box in depth indicates left atrial hypertrophy.pl exceeds these. 46. What is the amplitude of ‘P’ wave? ult Amplitude : 0. What the deviation of the electric axis to the right indicates? Deviation of the electric axis to the right is an indication of increased electric activity in the right ventricle due to increased right ventricular mass. or some interventricular conduction defect.

instead of the middle. When Q wave Develops? Pathological Q waves usually develop when ST segments are elevated and appear several hours or days after the clinical manifestations of the Myocardial Infarction. What is the amplitude of Q wave? Amplitude : 0. What abnormal Q wave represents? Abnormal Q must be one Small Square (0.5 mV /ed 55. 51. wave is asymmetrical and it peaks toward the end.01 sec (approximately) 48.04 sec) wide and greater than one- ww third of QRS height in Lead III.0. . The age of the infection can be w. 57. What is the amplitude of ‘S’ Wave? Amplitude : 0. What normal Q wave represents? Normal Q waves are small. What is the amplitude of ‘T’ Wave? Amplitude : 0. No such thing as a "negative R-wave" exists. determined. What is the amplitude of ‘R’ Wave? ns Amplitude : 1mV ult 53. Myocardial infarction causes pathological Q waves over the affected area of the ventricle. What ‘R’ wave represents? ing R wave is the largest wave of the ECG graph and it is always above is electric line. 50. Ltd. less than 1 mm deep or wide and one fourth the height of their R wave.0.ST2362 47.pl 54.5 m sec 58.5 mV 56. What is the amplitude of ‘QRS’ Complex? u Amplitude : 1. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Q waves with inverted T waves may indicate -co undetermined age.07 sec. What normal ‘T’ waves represents? Normal T waves are in the same direction as their complex.1 .4 . What is the duration of PR-segment? Duration: 0. 52 . What is the duration of ST-Segment? Short segment from end of S wave to beginning of T wave and has duration of about 0. If only Q wave is present without elevated ST segment then it indicates old hik infarction while if ST segment is there (with or without T wave inversion) then it indicates acute infraction. 52. Normal T wave in frontal plan is about 5 mm and in precordial plane 10 mm tall.2 mV 49.

Ltd. Scientech Technologies Pvt. What is the amplitude of ‘U’ Wave? Amplitude : 0. P-QRS-T. ing 67. u 69. What QT-Interval represents? It is the interval from beginning of Q wave to end of T wave.0.20 - 0. the situation is called sinus arrhythmia. or we can say this is the period from beginning of ventricular depolarization to the end of repolarization. Ventricular rhythms. but may also result from congestive heart failure. 63. It occurs most often as a physiological response to physical exercise or psychical stress. 61.or RR-interval exceeds the shortest interval by 0. Classify Cardiac Rhythm Diagnosis? w. What is the duration of ST-Interval? Period from end of S wave to end of T wave and has the duration of about 0.27 m sec.49 m sec. Give the frequency range of sinus rhythm? . What is sinus Bradycardia? /ed Sinus rhythm having frequency less than 60/Min is called sinus Bradycardia. 70.15 mV ww 64. What is the duration of QT-Interval? It has the duration of about 0.16 s. This may be a consequence of increased vagal or parasympathetic tone. What is sinus arrhythmia? If the sinus rhythm is irregular such that the longest PP. Which node triggers the cardiac activation? The sinus node triggers the cardiac activation. -co 65. 62. What RR-Interval represents? This is the distance between QRS-complexes.26 . Supraventricular (above the ventricles) hik 2. Cardiac rhythms may be divided into two categories: 1. 60.pl The sinus rhythm is normal if its frequency is between 60 and 100/Min. ns 66. What is sinus tachycardia? The rhythm having frequency greater than 100/Min is called sinus tachycardia.ST2362 59. How the cardiac activation is diagnosed? ult This is easily diagnosed by noting that the three deflections. 53 . follow in this order and are differentiable. 68.

72. What is the phenomenon of junctional rhythm? hik If the heart rate is slow (40-55/Min.pl relatively short duration. this is called junctional rhythm. the QRS-complex is normal. 54 .) w. and pericarditis (It may also occur in healthy subjects as a result of strong sympathetic activation. Which situation is called accelerated idioventricular rhythm? The ventricular activity may also be formed from short (less than 20 s) bursts of ventricular activity at higher rates (between 40 and 120/Min). the rhythm is called idioventricular rhythm. the inner walls of the ing ventricles are activated almost simultaneously and the activation front proceeds mainly radically toward the outer walls. atherosclerotic disease. What is frequency range of atrial flutter? The frequency of these fluctuations is between 220 and 300/min. the P-waves are possibly not seen. the arrhythmia is called atrial flutter.ST2362 71. Scientech Technologies Pvt. When the heart rate increase or decrease? The nerve is active during respiration and.1 s indicates abnormal ventricular u activation. causes an increase in heart rate during inspiration and a decrease during expiration. 74. and then the origin of the cardiac rhythm is in the AV -co node. 73. What do you understand by atrial flutter? When the heart rate is sufficiently elevated so that the iso-electric interval between the end of T and beginning of P disappears. As a result. ns 76. Why QRS-complex is of relatively short duration? In ventricular arrhythmias ventricular activation does not originate from the AV ult node and/or does not proceed in the ventricles in a normal way. Because the origin is in the junction between atria and ventricles. hyperthyroidism. the QRS-complex is of . 79. thereafter. Ltd. The AV-node and. What indicates abnormal ventricular activation? A QRS-interval lasting longer than 0. /ed 77. What is idioventricular rhythm? If the ventricles are continuously activated by a ventricular focus whose rhythm is under 40/Min. Due to what reason atrial fibrillation occurs? ww Atrial fibrillation occurs as a consequence of rheumatic disease.). The effect is particularly pronounced in children. through its effect on the sinus node. The origin is also believed to involve a re-entrant atrial pathway. If the activation proceeds to the ventricles along the conduction system. 75. the ventricles are generally activated by every second or every third atrial impulse (2:1 or 3:1 heart block). This situation is called accelerated idioventricular rhythm. 78.

12-0. The ventricular fibrillation may be stopped with an external defibrillator pulse and appropriate medication. either the origin of the impulse is closer to the ventricles or the atrioventricular conduction is utilizing an (abnormal) .). In this arrhythmia the contraction of the ventricular muscle is also irregular and is ineffective at pumping blood. The PR-interval may /ed also be variable. causing rapid. The lack of blood circulation leads to almost immediate loss of consciousness and death ww within minutes. w. 82. and wide QRS-complexes.2 s. ns 84. If the PR- interval progressively lengthens. What is the cause of ventricular fibrillation? The cause of fibrillation is the establishment of multiple re-entry loops usually involving diseased heart muscle. 86. 83. Ltd. Scientech Technologies Pvt. What is ventricular fibrillation? When ventricular depolarization occurs chaotically. What are pacer rhythm and its frequency? hik A ventricular rhythm originating from a cardiac pacemaker is associated with wide QRS-complexes because the pacing electrode is (usually) located in the right ventricle and activation does not involve the conduction system. How first-degree atrioventricular block is diagnosed? When the P-wave always precedes the QRS-complex but the PR-interval is prolonged over 0. The result is activation of the ventricular muscle at a high rate (over 120/Min. In pacer -co rhythm the ventricular contraction is usually preceded by a clearly visible pacer impulse spike. the situation is called ventricular fibrillation. The pacer rhythm is usually set to 72/min. the arrhythmia is called ventricular tachycardia. The latter is called the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and is discussed below. the second degree block is called a Wenkebach phenomenon. If the PR- ing interval is fixed but shorter than normal. What is ventricular tachycardia? A rhythm of ventricular origin may also be a consequence of a slower conduction in ischemic ventricular muscle that leads to circular activation (re- entry). 55 . such as in a wandering atrial pacemaker and multifocal atrial tachycardia. u 85. On what basis sinus rhythm is diagnosed? ult If the P-waves always precede the QRS-complex with a PR-interval of 0.pl bypass tract leading to pre-excitation of the ventricles. the AV conduction is normal and a sinus rhythm is diagnosed.2 s. leading finally to the drop out of a QRS- complex.ST2362 80. What is Wenkebach phenomenon? If the PQ-interval is longer than normal and the QRS-complex sometimes does not follow the P-wave. As noted. bizarre. first-degree atrioventricular block is diagnosed. 81. ventricular tachycardia is often a consequence of ischemia and myocardial infarction. the atrioventricular block is of second-degree.

of course. The electrical signal produced by pacemaker properly provide a regular electrical stimulus. Ltd. it senses the patient’s own rhythm using a sensing circuit and it sends out electrical signals using an output circuit. w.branch block (LBBB) is >0. in situation where short term pacing is considered. 92.1 s. In what situation external pacemaker is used? u External pacemakers are employed to restart the normal rhythm of the heart in case of cardiac standstill. which are as follows: . 88. It then travels through the septal and right ventricular muscle mass. this is regarded as third-degree atrioventricular block. What pulse rate is used for pacemaker? ns The wave form used for pacing is round-topped rectangular pulses of 1-7 ms ult duration with rates adjustable from 50-150 pulses/min.pl 1. Give the types of pacemaker? ing There are two types of pacemaker. External Pacemaker 2. If the patient’s intrinsic rhythm becomes too slow or goes away completely. the electronic pacemaker senses that and starts sending out signals along the wires hik leading from the control box to the heart muscle. Explain the working of pacemaker? ww The pacemaker essentially does two things.12 s. Usually the duration criterion for the QRS-complex in right bundle-branch block (RBBB) as well as for the left bundle. 90. What is third-degree atrioventricular block? Bundle-branch block denotes a conduction defect in either of the bundle- branches or in either fascicle of the left bundle-branch. Frequently external pacemakers are used for patients recovering from cardiac surgery to correct temporary conduction disturbances resulting from the surgery. 89. 93. the progress of activation from the atria to the ventricles is completely inhibited. slower than that through the conduction system and leads to a QRS-complex wider than 0. 56 . What is duration criterion for the QRS-complex bundle-branch block? If the right bundle-branch is defective so that the electrical impulse cannot travel through it to the right ventricle. In what situation internal pacemaker is used? Internal Pacemakers are used in cases requiring long term pacing because of permanent damage that prevents normal self triggering of the heart. 88. What is the full form of NASPE? North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology Scientech Technologies Pvt. If the two bundle- branches exhibit a block simultaneously. making the heart -co contract at a rate fast enough to maintain the patient’s blood pressure. This progress is.ST2362 87. Internal Pacemaker /ed 91. activation reaches the right ventricle by proceeding from the left ventricle.

Scientech Technologies Pvt. and the wire is passed through it until it makes contact with the inner wall of the RV. The circuit is so designed that the batteries supply sufficient power for a long time. What is implantable pacemaker? The implantable pacemaker. like any central neck IV ns line. 57 . What is the function of rate hysteresis? Rate hysteresis allows the pacemaker to be inhibited at rate lower than programmed basic rate. 97. What is AV delay? The AV Delay is the time interval between an atrial output pulses and the corresponding ventricular output pulses in the absence of intrinsic activity. 100. Ltd. ing 98. 4. 101. w. Small u wires that fit on the outer wall of the heart pericardium. The power source should be in position to supply sufficient power to the circuit over prolonged periods of a time. is designed to be entirely implanted beneath the skin. Its output leads are connected directly to the heart muscle. Since the pacemaker is located just beneath the skin. The pacemaker is a miniaturized pulse generator and is powered by small batteries. thus encouraging negative rhythm and possible prolonging device life. ww 3. The introducer is put in first. What Trans-Cutaneous pacing means? Trans-Cutaneous pacing means using external pacing pads connected to a device . The circuit should be covered with a biological inert material so that implant is not rejected by the body.pl like the Zoll machine or one of the defibrillators that has external pacing ability. 2. What Trans-Venous pacing means? -co Trans-Venous means that the pacing wire is threaded down the jugular vein through an introducer. 96 What are the basic requirements of implanted circuit? 1. Wires that lead out of the chest to a control box or doing manoeuvres that involves pushing a pacing wire into the RV up through the chest wall subxiphoid during a code. The component used in the circuit should be highly reliable. the replacement of the pacemaker unit involving relatively minor surgery has become a routine procedure. along with its electrodes. The should be covered in such a way that the body fluids do not find a way inside the circuit and thus short-circuit the batteries or result in other hik malfunctioning of the circuit. What is the full form of BPEG? British Pacing and Electrophysiology Group 95. What Trans-Thoracic pacing means? Trans-Thoracic pacing means using wires inserted during cardiac surgery.ST2362 94. /ed 99. Then the wire is attached to a generator box and the heart is paced ult using the wire.

ST2362 102. What is PV delay? While PV Delay is the interval between an intrinsic atrial event and the corresponding ventricular pulse in the absence in intrinsic ventricular activity. . preferably the jugular vein and pushed directly into the heart. pulse width and pulse amplitude. 110. so that the current flows between the electrodes. ult electrical material. 104. This method offers an advantage in that open heart surgery is not necessary for the replacement of the myocardial ww electrode. Give the types of Pacemaker Electrode System? Two types of electrode systems are commonly used bipolar and unipolar system. 105. Which types of vein are used for Endocardiac electrodes? Endocardiac electrodes are inserted through suitable vein. 103. Where myocardial electrode is connected? Electrode connected to the outer wall of the heart muscle are called myocardial electrode. Ltd. ing 108. It provides a high stability lead for the endocardiac method of pacemaker implant.pl 109. The indifferent electrode is much larger in size than the pacing electrode. What are the characteristics of Steroid-eluting Electrodes? -co These electrodes have evolved fro large surface area (30-40mm2) than other electrodes. What are the characteristics of Porous Tip Electrode? w. 107. amount of fibrotic encapsulation. The batteries are so arranged that the pacing electrode is negative (cathode) and indifferent electrode is positive. 58 . 106. Give functional details of bipolar electrode system? In the bipolar electrode system. both electrodes are approximately of the same size and both are placed inside or on the heart. Where endocardiac electrode is connected? Electrodes which are connected to the inner side of the heart chamber are known as endocardiac electrodes. one electrode (indifferent electrode) is usually a large metal plate attached to the pulse generator. The porous lead has an 85-90 % porous platinum-iridium tip that hik stabilizes the porous quickly with little endocardiac irritation. The current in this case flows between u the pacing electrode in the heart and indifferent electrode via the body tissue. Give functional details of unipolar electrode system? /ed In the Unipolar system. In order to stimulate the heart an important consideration is density ns of the current at the electrode tissue interface and this is influenced by several factors such as surface area of electrode. Scientech Technologies Pvt.

either the ventricular premature or widened varieties. Ltd. • Detects and triggers alarm when artefacts are present at the source.pl /ed u Scientech Technologies Pvt.ST2362 111. when ectopic beats are detected. • Initiates an alarm automatically. hik -co ns ult ing . e. 59 . What is operating sequence of Arrhythmia monitoring instrument? Arrhythmia monitoring instrument will operate in the following sequence: • Stores a normal QRS for reference particularly QRS width and R-R interval. base line shift and improperly connected ww w.g. • Gives alarm light signals whenever the premature or widened ectopic beats exist up to the rate of 6/min or 12/min. muscle more due to patient movement.

blood vessels. is the period of heart activity when the ventricles relax. /ed u Scientech Technologies Pvt. Diastolic Pressure: The decreased pressure due to the relaxation of the ventricles is called diastolic pressure.ST2362 Glossary of Human Cardiovascular System Terms Artery: A muscular blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. 60 . ult Systolic Pressure: The increased pressure due to the contraction of the ventricles is called systolic pressure. Arrhythmia: Is an abnormal heart rhythm. Ltd. Bradycardia: When the heart-rate less than the normal heart-rate rhythm. ns Systole: Is the period of heart activity when the ventricles contract. Ventricle: One of the muscular chambers of the heart that is responsible for pumping . Diastole: Pronounced dy AS tuh lee. hik Normal Sinus Rhythm: Normal pumping action of heart generates 60 -100 -co heartbeats per minute. Heart: The muscular organ composed of cardiac muscle that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. and the blood Cardiology: Is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart. Septum: The wall dividing the two ventricles. Atrium: One of the chambers of the heart that receives blood directly from a vein. lymph. ww Electrocardiograph (ECG): Is an instrument used to detect heart damage or diagnose heart disorders. w. lymphatic vessels. Circulatory System: The system of the body responsible for internal transport. Composed of the heart.pl blood from the heart into the arteries. ing Tachycardia: When the heart-rate exceeds than the normal heart-rate rhythm.

...................... Power Supply... w...... ww 4.... The guarantee will become void.. 61 .... are not covered under warranty...... The non-working of the product is to be communicated to us immediately giving full details of the complaints and defects noticed specifically mentioning the type.. 2...... c) The customer resells the instrument to another party.......................... b) The agreed payment terms and other conditions of sale are not followed.. Consumables like dry cell etc......................ST2362 Warranty 1. Ltd.....1 No.......... 2....... Learning Material (CD)............ serial number of the product and date of purchase etc..... hik -co ns ult ing ............ 3......... The repair work will be carried out............1 No.... d) Any attempt is made to service and modify the instrument... The transportation charges shall be borne by the customer........1 No................ if a) The product is not operated as per the instruction given in the Learning Material. provided the product is dispatched securely packed and insured. 3.................... USB Cable (Male to Male) A Type)...........pl /ed u List of Accessories 1.. Scientech Technologies Pvt.. We guarantee this product against all manufacturing defects for 24 months from the date of sale by us or through our dealers.......