mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

CHAPTER 8
SALTS

A salt is an ionic
The salt consists of two
substance produced
parts, cation from base
when the hydrogen
and anion from acid.
ion of the acid is
replaced by metal NaCl
ion or an ammonium
ion. NaOH HCl
(Base) (Acid)

148

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8

Table of Salts
Complete the table below.

Sulphate salt Chloride salt Nitrate salt Carbonate salt
Metal ion
(SO42-) (Cl-) (NO3-) (CO32-)

K+ K2SO4 KCl KNO3 K2CO3

Na+

Ca2+

Mg2+

Al3+

Zn2+

Fe2+

Sn2+

Pb2+

Cu2+

Ag+

NH4+

Ba2+

Based on the table above, mark the insoluble salt.

149

(NH4)2CO3 Sodium oxide.) Lead (II) chloride. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 SOLUBLE & INSOLUBLE SALTS SALT SOLUBLE INSOLUBLE K+ . HgCl Lead (II) sulphate Sulphate salts All sulphate salts Calcium sulphate (SO42-) Barium sulphate Sodium carbonate. Na2O Oxide salts Potassium oxide. CaO (slightly soluble) Sodium hydroxide. NaOH Potassium hydroxide. AgCl (Cl-) Mercury chloride. Na+ . All hydroxide salts (OH-) Ca(OH)2 (slightly soluble) 150 . PbCl2 Chloride salts All chloride salts Silver chloride. All others carbonate salts (CO32-) K2CO3 salts Ammonium carbonate. K2O All oxide salts (O2-) Calcium oxide. NH4+ All soluble none Nitrate salts All nitrate salts none (NO3. Na2CO3 Carbonate Potassium carbonate. KOH Hydroxide salts Calcium hydroxide.

potassium and ammonium salts only. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Preparation and Purification of Soluble Salts Soluble salt can be prepared by the following ways: 1. Eg: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) [write the step of preparation of the salts on the diagram] Burette Evaporating dish NaCl solution HCl solution NaOH solution NaCl crystal salt NaCl salt crystal 151 . Reaction between acid and alkali .preparation for sodium.

Reaction between acid and metal Eg: H2SO4(aq) + Zn (s) ZnSO4(aq) + H2 (g) 3. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Preparation and Purification of Soluble Salts Soluble salt can be prepared by the following ways: 1. Reaction between acid and metal oxide Eg: HNO3(aq) + MgO(s) Mg(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O(l) 2. Reaction between acid and metal carbonate Eg: HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) [write the step of preparation of the salts on the diagram] Copper(II) nitrate Solution + excess CuO heat heat Evaporating Dish Copper(II) nitrate solution Copper(II) nitrate solution & crystal salt Cu(NO3)2 crystal salt 152 .

153 . straight edges order to get pure and and sharp angles. Recrystallization rhombic or prism process will carried out in Flat surface. more defined crystal Same shapes for same substance but differ in sizes Fixes angle between two neighbouring surfaces. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Physical characteristic of Crystallization crystals is a process to crystallize Fixed geometrical shapes the soluble salts. such as a cuboids.

[write the balance chemical equation] Double Decomposition 154 . Two solutions contain ions that make up the insoluble salts. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Preparation of insoluble salts An insoluble salt is prepared through precipitation method. Eg: Preparation of lead(II) iodide salt by using lead(II) nitrate solution and potassium iodide solution. Aqueous solution of two soluble salts are mixed to form insoluble and soluble salt: [write the general equation of preparation insoluble salt] The reaction is called double decomposition.

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Chemical and Ionic Equation Chemical and ionic equation can be written for all reaction That used to prepare salts. Chemical Equation: BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl (aq) 2. 1. b) Silver nitrate + potassium iodide silver iodide + potassium nitrate c) Nitric acid + chromium(III) hydroxide chromium(III) nitrate + water 155 . BaSO4. Change each of the following word equations to a balanced chemical equation. a) Sulphuric acid + zinc zinc sulphate + hydrogen gas. Example: Formation of precipitate Barium Sulphate. Exercise 1. Ionic Equation: Ionic equation shows the ions take part in the reaction.

Write an ionic equation for each reaction between the following pairs of substances. NH4Cl solution and silver nitrate. Fe2O3 and hydrochloric acid. d) Iron(III) oxide. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 2. a) Sulphuric acid. Ba(OH)2 solution b) Ammonium chloride. c) Lead(II) nitrate. AgNO3 solution. Complete the following equations. Pb(NO3)2 solution and copper(II) sulphate. a) HCl (aq) + NiO (s) b) HNO3 (aq) + Ca(OH)2 (aq) c) H2SO4 (aq) + MgCO3 (s) 3. CuSO4 solution. HCl. 156 . H2SO4 and barium hydroxide.

than the empirical formula for insoluble salt is A x B y.(aq) Fe2(CO3)3 (s) 157 . Example: 2Fe3+ (aq) + 3CO32. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Constructing Ionic Equation using the Continuous Variation Method 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Continuous variation method can be used to construct ionic equation for the formation of insoluble salts. Fixed volume of a reactant A is react with varying volumes of a reactant B to determine the mole ratio of reactant A that react completely with reactant B. If x mol of reactant A with y mole of reactant B.

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 158 .

18.1 mol dm-3 solution of Qy.ions to form a salt PyQx. 6.0 cm3 of 0. 159 . Write the ionic equation and hence determine the empirical formula of the salt in this reaction.2 mol dm-3 Xn+ solution reacts completely with 4.solution to form a salt XmYn.1 mol dm-3 solution of Px+ ions reacts completely with 9. 2.0 cm3 of 0. Write the ionic equation and hence determine the empirical formula of the salt reaction.0 cm3 of 0. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Example 1.0 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 Ym.

Exercise 1. S. 2. [0. What is the mass of sodium sulphate produces [RAM: H.55 g] 160 .32] [ 3.0 g of sodium hydroxide reacts with excess sulphuric acid.23 .1 . Calculate the number of moles of aluminium sulphate produced by the reaction of 0.16 .2 mole of sulphuric acid with excess aluminium oxide. Na.067 mole] 2. mass and number of particles) must be converted to moles in calculation regarding quantities of reactant and products. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Solving Problem Involving Calculation of Quantities of Reactants or Product in Stoichiometric Reactions Since the quantities of chemicals involved in a reaction are in term of moles. O. the quantities of chemicals (volume.

] [ 0. [ RAM: C.24 .0 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid to produce 120 cm3 of hydrogen at temperature? [RAM: Mg.t. What is the mass of magnesium required to react with 20 cm3 of 2. s.4 dm3] [ 560 cm3] 4.Mg.1 g of magnesium carbonate reacts with excess nitric acid.12.24.p when 2. 1 mol = 24 dm3 at room temp.t.O.p = 22. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 3.12 g] 161 .16. What the volume of carbon dioxide gas evolved at s.

CuSO4  Copper(II) Oxide. Fe2O3  Copper(II) Carbonate. Fe(NO3)2  Iron(III) Nitrate. CuO  Copper(II) Nitrate. FeSO4  Iron(III) Sulphate. Cu(NO3)2  Copper(II) Chloride. Fe2(SO4)3  Iron(II) Nitrate. CuCl2 162 . FeCl2  Iron(III) Chloride. CuCO3 BLUE BLUE BLACK INSOLUBLE  Copper(II) Sulphate. FeCl3 REDDISH-BROWN INSOLUBLE GREEN INSOLUBLE  Iron(III) Oxide. Fe(NO3)3  Iron(II) Chloride. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Qualitative Analysis of Salts General procedure of qualitative analysis Observations on the physical Tests for cations and Confirmatory tests for Action of heat on salts properties of salts anions cations and anions Colour & Solubility of the Salt GREEN PALE GREEN BROWN YELLOW/BROWN [depend on concentration]  Iron(II) Sulphate.

PbO 163 . MgO  Sodium Oxide. Na2O  Aluminium Oxide. K2O  Magnesium Oxide. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Colour & Solubility of the Salt WHITE COLOURLESS WHITE INSOLUBLE  Potassium Oxide. ZnO  Lead(II) Oxide. CaO WHITE [cold] YELLOW [cold] INSOLUBLE INSOLUBLE YELLOW [hot] BROWN [hot]  Zinc Oxide. Al2O3  Calcium Oxide.

Cl2 Ammonia gas. O2 Carbon dioxide gas sulphur dioxide gas Carbon dioxide Sulphur dioxide HCl acid HCl acid Sodium Sulphite. H2 Oxygen gas. NH3 164 . Na2SO3 Sodium Carbonate. Na2CO3 chlorine gas ammonia gas Glass rod dipped into Red litmus paper concentrated HCl acid White fumes Chlorine gas. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Gas test Oxygen gas hydrogen gas Wooden splinter Hydrogen gas.

Heating Carbonate Salt Metal Oxide + Carbon dioxide Heating Carbonate salts residue [ white ] [ white ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. Magnesium carbonate 3. They do not decompose on heating. Calcium carbonate 2. Zinc carbonate 165 . Aluminium carbonate Heating Carbonate salts residue [ white ] [ yellow – hot ] [ white – cold ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 EFFECT OF HEAT ON SALTS Carbonate salts Sodium carbonate & potassium carbonate are very stable.

Lead(II) carbonate 166 . Iron(III) carbonate Heating Carbonate salts residue [ green ] [ black ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. Copper(II) carbonate Heating Carbonate salts residue [ white ] [ brown – hot ] [ yellow – cold ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Heating Carbonate Salt Metal Oxide + Carbon dioxide Heating Carbonate salts residue [ brown ] [ brown ] Salts Chemical Equation 1.

Aurum(II) carbonate 167 . mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Heating Carbonate Salt Metal + Carbon dioxide + Oxygen gas Heating Carbonate salts residue [ white ] [ grey ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. Silver carbonate Heating Carbonate salts residue [ white ] [ golden yellow ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. Mercury(II) carbonate Heating Carbonate salts residue [ white ] [ shiny grey ] Salts Chemical Equation 1.

Calcium nitrate 2. Zinc nitrate 168 . mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 nitrate salts Heating Nitrate Salt Metal Oxide + Oxygen gas + Nitrogen dioxide Heating nitrate salts residue [ white ] [ white ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. Magnesium nitrate 3. Aluminium nitrate Heating nitrate salts residue [ white ] [ yellow – hot ] [ white – cold ] Salts Chemical Equation 1.

Lead(II) nitrate 169 . Copper(II) nitrate Heating nitrate salts residue [ white ] [ brown – hot ] [ yellow – cold ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. Iron(III) nitrate Heating nitrate salts residue [ blue ] [ black ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Heating Nitrate Salt Metal Oxide + Oxygen gas + Nitrogen dioxide Heating nitrate salts residue [ brown ] [ brown ] Salts Chemical Equation 1.

Sodium nitrate 170 . Silver nitrate Nitrate Salt Heating Metal nitrite + Oxygen gas Heating nitrate salts residue [ white ] [ white ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. Mercury(II) nitrate Heating nitrate salts residue [ white ] [ shiny grey ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Nitrate Salt Heating Metal + Nitrogen dioxide + Oxygen gas Heating nitrate salts residue [ white ] [ grey ] Salts Chemical Equation 1. Potassium nitrate 2.

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 TEST FOR ANIONS Salt needed to be dissolved into water first to produce Unknown aqueous salt solution aqueous salt solution. [ state the procedure ] [ state the procedure ] [ state the procedure ] [ state the procedure ] OBSERVATION OBSERVATION OBSERVATION OBSERVATION [ label the diagram ] [ label the diagram ] [ label the diagram ] [ label the diagram ] Ionic Equation Ionic Equation Ionic Equation Ionic Equation CONCLUSION CONCLUSION CONCLUSION CONCLUSION [ state the anion ] [ state the anion ] [ state the anion ] [ state the anion ] 171 .

Add NaOH drop by drop No precipitate White precipitate Coloured precipitate Green Brown Add NaOH drop by drop until excess Dissolve in excess NaOH Insoluble in excess NaOH Blue * All coloured ions insoluble in excess NaOH 172 . mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 TEST FOR CATIONS Salt needed to be dissolved into water (soluble salts) or in dilute acid then Unknown aqueous salt solution filtered (insoluble salts) first to produce aqueous salt solution.

Add NH3 drop by drop No precipitate White precipitate Coloured precipitate Green Brown Add NH3 drop by drop until excess Dissolve in excess NH3 Insoluble in excess NH3 Blue Dissolved in excess NH3 Dark blue solution * Fe2+ & Fe3+ ions insoluble in excess NH3 173 . mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 TEST FOR CATIONS Salt needed to be dissolved into water (soluble salts) or in dilute acid then Unknown aqueous salt solution filtered (insoluble salts) first to produce aqueous salt solution.

iron(II) sulphate solution and Brown ring formed. Potassium thiocyanate. concentrated sulphuric acid is added. KI. Blood red solution formed. NH3. Potassium iodide. Identify the aqueous solutions based on the test and observation given. f. formed. K2 CO3 ZnCl2 PbCl2 CuSO4 NaNO3 FeCl3 174 . is Blue precipitate dissolve to added until excess. A little hydrochloric acid is Effervescene occur and added. solution Yellow precipitate is is added. dissolved. lime water turn into chalky. KSCN. mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 8 Confirmatory Test for Cation Cation Procedure Observation Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Pb 2+ NH4 + Exercise 1. A sulphuric acid. solution is added. Ammonia solution. Ammonia solution is added White precipitate until excess. b. Type Observation Answer a. e. d. c. form dark blue solution.