CH231 CHEMISTRY 2A PRACTICAL #2.

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SEMESTER ONE (1), 2017

TITTLE: PHYSICAL
ANALYSIS OF DRINKING
WATER

Name: WAREA Erickson
ID #: 2016311699
Program: Bachelor of Science (PS2)
C/Code: CH231 Chemistry 2A
Lecturer: Mr. S. B. Ani
Tutor: Mr. S. B. Ani
Due Date: Wednesday 31st/05/2017

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CH231 CHEMISTRY
2A

PHYSICAL
ANALYSIS OF
DRINKING WATER

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CONTENT (Report Format)
Introduction…………………………………………………..4

Background…………………………………………………..4-7

Purpose ………………………………………………………7

Significance…………………………………………………..7

Hypothesis……………………………………………………8

Variable……………………………………………………....8-9

Scope………………………………………………………….9

Glossary………………………………………………………9

Method……………………………………………………….10

Apparatus……………………………………………………10-11

Sample……………………………………………………….10-11

Experiment Procedure……………………………………..10-11

Data Recording……………………………………………..11

Data Preparation……………………………………………12

Result and Data Analysis…………………………………12-15

Discussion………………………………………………....15-16

Conclusion…………………………………………..………16

Recommendation……………………………………………17

Appendix…………………………………………………….17

Reference………………………………………………….18-19

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1.0 Introduction
Water plays an important role in human life. It is necessary for industry, agriculture and
human existence. The healthy water ecosystem is depended on the physico-chemical and
biological characteristics. Due to increase in industrialization, urbanization, agriculture
activity and various human activities has increase the pollution of surface water and ground
water. Water is the most widely circulated and abundant substances found in nature. In total,
there is 1400 million billion liters of water, but most of this water is not used for drinking
purpose, because 97% is sea water and only 3% is fresh water, out of which 2% is lidged in
the polar ice caps and glaciers, only 1% water is available for portable use. Use of ground
water for human being depends upon ambient water quality. Ground water plays important
role in human life. The effect of industrialization and urbanization leads to spoil the water for
agricultural purposes ground water is explored in rural especially in those areas where other
sources of water like river, dam or a canal is not substantial. During past two decades, it is
observed that ground water get polluted significantly due to human activities. Hence, it is
necessary to check the quality of well and bore well water at regular time interval, because due
to use of infected drinking water, human population suffers from wide-ranging of water borne
diseases. It is complicated to comprehend the biological phenomena fully because the
chemistry of water revels much about the metabolism of the ecosystem and explain the
general hydro -biological relationship.
In this context, paper aims to analyze the physico-chemical and biological properties of well and bore
well water collected from different places of Kadegaon Tahsil. This water is basically for drinking
agriculture and domestic purpose.

1.1 Literature review (Background)

1.2 Water resources and supply
Papua New Guinea receives a high annual rainfall, on average 3000 mm per annum. There are
fluctuations in this average from region to region and even province to province. The lowest
rainfall measured is 1000 mm for Port Moresby city and the highest at 5000 mm in the Star
Mountains of the Western Province while all other regions fall between these two extremes. The
mountainous topography and abundant rainfall leaves the country reliant on surface,
underground and rainwater catchments as its principal water resource.

When considering access to drinking water, the coverage in Papua New Guinea is estimated at
near 60% for urban areas and 30% for rural communities, indicating a low overall coverage with
the urban population being better served than the rural. This relates directly to the high mortality
and morbidity of diarrhoeal disease in rural health facilities in contrast to those recorded at
hospitals, which are located in towns.
In general, water supply systems are not developed throughout the country, except some urban
areas and the systems are unreliable in rural communities and many urban centres for a number
of reasons, including drought, damage to the supply system, land compensation demands, and water
capacity.
Many villages and institutions do not have a drought-proof water supply but there are plans to
increase the proportion of rural communities having easy access to safe water from 30% to 50%
by 2010.
In PNG, both ground and surface water resources are utilized for domestic purposes. Urban water
supplies are usually from surface waters such as rivers.
In the greater number of cases however the lack of safe water supply is not a lack of water resources,
but rather unhealthy water supply systems and very low levels of public awareness and community

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support for safe water supplies particularly where local governments and communities are not
responsible for the operation of water supply systems.

In rural areas the Ministry of Health is responsible for the construction, operation and
maintenance of supply systems whereas in urban areas the PNG Water Board is responsible.
In the capital, Port Moresby, a private water company, Eda Ranu is the responsible body and
both
Eda Ranu and the Water Board perform quality control and monitoring activities for their
systems.

There is no regulatory body for quality monitoring and surveillance activities and no
surveillance activities are practiced by an independent authority. In rural areas, the Ministry of
Health is responsible for monitoring, but there is little or no regular monitoring.

In some urban areas there are sewerage systems and where there are no such systems septic
tanks or pit latrines are used. However, there is insufficient control and auditing over those
systems.

Port Moresby and some other town centres have sewerage systems. Eda Ranu is responsible
for operation and maintenance of the sewerage system in Port Moresby but it does not cover
the squatter areas, Wastewater is disposed to the sea after pre-treatment by means of a lagoon
to a marine outfall. In the other urban areas, the Water Board is responsible for construction,
operation and maintenance of sewerage and other sanitation systems. The standards for
construction of sewerage systems and septic tanks are provided by legislation, however there
is insufficient control over the construction and operation of the tanks. Diseases and is
endemic in a number of provinces. It is stated that cholera will also remain as a real threat if
no improvements are made to the current state of water supply and sanitation.

In rural areas, toilet facilities and sanitation systems are not developed and the disposal of
solid wastes by irregular dumping is the normal practice.

The main source of contamination of drinking water is bacteriological originating from human
and animal wastes, particularly in rural areas where the proportion of rural households having
access to safe human waste disposal systems, such as some form of pit latrine, is estimated as
to be as low as 15%.

Agriculture is not sufficiently sophisticated that fertilizers and pesticides are used in any great
amounts, however their usage has increased in recent years. At some mining sites there is a
growing risk of contamination of water resources by heavy metals and although the volume of
wastes are higher than any other South Pacific country there is little or no information on the
types and quantity of waste.

In urban centres the industrial waste and sewage use the same system and are disposed directly
into the sea or rivers without proper treatment. Likewise most mining, agriculture and logging
wastes are discharged directly in to the environment usually into a river system or to the sea.

All urban local level governments manage the disposal of solid waste with some undertaking
the collection and disposal, while others engage local contractors. Fees are levied on
individual residents and businesses and the rates differ from province to province.

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Most urban authorities dispose of solid waste in sanitary landfill, however the dumpsites are
not maintained and site conditions are poor, with the possibility of seepage into the water
sources.
Effluent wastes are linked directly into sewage systems and are disposed of with minimal
treatment into the sea or rivers. For those provinces that do not have a sewage system, wastes
are discharged via septic tanks or soakage pits. In rural communities, wastes are
indiscriminately disposed of into the environment. The management of waste generally in the
country is poor, and there is a high possibility of underground and surface water
contamination from pollutants.

1.3 Water quality surveillance and monitoring
The 1984 Public Health (Drinking Water) Regulation was revised following four regional
workshops and a consultative meeting with all the technical agencies involved with water
quality monitoring. However, due to the number of agencies involved and differences in
policies and visions, there remains no clear policy for drinking water quality and safety. The
Department of Health has a policy on rural water supplies based on the Healthy Island concept
, whereby provinces are responsible for the design, costing and monitoring, while the
communities themselves provide labour, site selection, construction and maintenance. The
National Health Department facilitates the monitoring process, develops provincial capacity to
identify suitable water sources, and develops monitoring guidelines and standards.

Almost all agencies except the National Health Department undertake some form of water
quality monitoring; however there is no official exchange of information and results are usualy
treated as confidential within each respective agency. There are a number of laboratories in the
country that undertake water analysis of samples received from various Government agencies
and industries and most have the capacity to undertake physical, bacteriological and chemical
analysis.
The provinces test for E.coli and total coliform on an ad-hoc basis, and for chemical and
physical parameters only on request or by complaint.
Eda Ranu samples and tests for biological contamination daily from points in nine suburbs of
Port Moresby and takes monthly samples from 60 points in the city, and from five reservoir
tanks samples are taken for chemical and physical analysis.
The Water Board samples for physical analysis daily, and takes eight samples for biological
testing every two weeks from major urban centres, and three samples every two weeks from
smaller centers.
The Goroka LLG takes 10 samples per month from selected sampling points in the town for
biological analysis, and five samples every three months for physical analysis. Samples for
chemical analysis are done on an ad-hoc basis upon complaints from town residents.

1.4 Needs analysis
Statistics clearly shows that water related diseases, in particular diarrhoeal disease is the
commonest cause of mortality and morbidity in all provinces and therefore testing for E.Coli,
total and faecal coliform are essential for monitoring water quality.

Given largescale development in the country, particularly in mining, forestry, agriculture and a
number of big industries with large volumes of untreated effluent entering the environment,the
monitoring of physical and chemical parameters such as alkalinity, pH, pesticides, BOD, TSS,
TDS, mercury, copper, arsenic and heavy metals are becoming increasingly necessary and
important.

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Laboratories do not undertake analysis for all types of parameters, as this would require a maj
or improvement in laboratory capacity and in the effective collection of data and analysis.
The provinces do not have the financial capacity to undertake water quality monitoring on
regular basis, including the costs for water sampling, transportation and laboratory costs.

Although the country has 350 Environmental Health Officers employed in urban towns and
provinces there is insufficient capacity to monitor rural water supplies. Many communities are
not linked by road and are isolated, resulting in the difficulties of transportation of samples, an
d of high costs.
There needs to be a central coordinating mechanism established for monitoring purposes, sinc
e there are a number of agencies involved and information is not shared for planning purposes.
A water quality standard was developed in 1984 and revised in 2000, but is not yet fully
implemented.
Data needs to be centrally processed and analysed for good decision-making, and a central
agency made responsible for collating this information. Currently the sharing of information
between relevant agencies is poor.
Treatment with chlorine is used only in urban areas, and public awareness on the benefits of
purification tablets, boiling, and filtration needs to be strengthened, particularly in rural areas.

1.5 Purpose
1.5.0 Is to improve drinking water source
Improved drinking water source is a drinking water source or delivery point that, by how it is
designed and constructed, is likely to protect the water from outside contamination, in
particular from feces. Improved drinking water sources include piped water, public/stand pipe
tube well/borehole, protected dug well, protected spring, collected rainwater and bottled water
(only when another improved source is used for cooking and personal hygiene).
1.5.1 Significance
Because of the population of PNG is predominantly rural (84.6%). For the census, urban areas
were defined as those which had a minimum population of 500 persons and a minimum
population density of 195 persons per km2, Using this definition, the NCD was 100% urban
with other provinces having high urban concentrations including Morobe and Manus. The
provinces with the lowest urban populations were Enga, Southern Highlands and Chimbu.
Since 1966, urban populations have grown more rapidly than the rural population, however,
unlike many other Pacific Island countries, emigration to overseas countries is relatively low,
but internal migration between provinces is considerable, particularly to the capital Port
Moresby.
Economic activity is mainly based on agricultural products including fruits, and cash crops
such as coffee or cocoa, followed by fishing and forestry. The country is well endowed with
mineral deposits and the mining of gold, silver and copper are important activities. Tourism
and industry plays only minor role in the economy at this time.
The burden of disease in PNG is predominantly from infectious diseases with significant
morbidity and mortality from water-borne diseases due to a lack of proper water supply
systems, inadequate amounts of safe water, poor sanitation and unhygienic conditions and
practices especially in rural areas.
The common water-borne infectious diseases of public health importance include typhoid,
dysentery and rotavirus-caused diarrhoeal diseases. These diarrhoeal diseases are responsible
of one third of childhood deaths, and considerable malnutrition (the death rate from diarrhoea
in children under 5 is 10.8/100,000 population). Typhoid is by far the most serious of these

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diseases and is endemic in a number of provinces. It is stated that cholera will also remain as a
real threat if no improvements are made to the current state of water supply and sanitation.

1.6 Hypothesis
1. What Does Improved and Safe Drinking Water Mean?
1. Why do you need to do water quality testing?
2. What are your objectives for testing the water quality? (Develop your objectives)
3. What water quality parameters are you going to test for? (Identify the test parameters)
4. How are you going to do the testing? (Identify the test methods)
5. How many water samples do you need? Where do you take them from? (Design your
sampling plan)
6. What achievements need to be reached in order to meet the final goal? (Determine your key
milestones)
7. What specific tasks need to be done? (Identify your activities)
8. Who is going to do what? Set out responsibilities)
9. What are the time and costs to complete each activity? (Develop time and cost estimates)
11. Why do we need to collect a water sample?
12. What is meant by water quality?
13. Substances must be analyses to determine the water quality?
14. Why is it important to know how to collect water samples?
15. What is a representative water sample?
16. Where must water samples be collected?
17. How often must water samples be taken?
18. How do the differences between ground and surface water sources affect sampling?

1.7 Variable
 1.7.0 Rainwater
Rainwater, or atmospheric water, is a product of water vapor that has risen due to evaporation
and accumulated in the atmosphere, which condenses and falls on the
Earth's surface. As the water vapor that has accumulated in cloud formations condenses, it
forms drops of rain that fall to the Earth. The rain water was collected from the boy’s
dormitory.
 1.7.1 Groundwater
Groundwater is that portion of rainwater which has percolated beneath the ground surface to
form underground deposits called aquifers. The upper surface of groundwater is the water
table. Groundwater is often clear, free from organic matter and bacteria due to the filtering
effect of soil on water percolating through it. However, groundwater almost always contains
minerals dissolved from the soil. It was collected beside the dormitory.
Groundwater is generally preferred as a water source. The types and extraction methods are as
follows:
• Spring – is a point where groundwater flows out of the ground, and is thus where the aquifer
surface meets the ground surface. A spring may be ephemeral (intermittent) or perennial
(continuous). Springs can be developed by enlarging the water outlet and constructing an
intake structure for water catchment and storage.
• Well – is a hole constructed by any method such as digging, driving, boring, or drilling for
the purpose of withdrawing water from underground aquifers. Wells can vary greatly in depth,
water volume and water quality. Well water typically contains more minerals in solution than
surface water and may require treatment to soften the water by removing minerals such as
arsenic, iron and manganese.

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 1.7.2 Tape Water
Tap water temperature is important because temperature influences the contaminant volatility.
Volatilized compounds can contribute to resident chemical exposure and off‐odors.
 1.7.3 Manufactured water
Manufactured water is more quality to drink for the good health of the people. All the testing
and all necessary things have been done so it is good for drink. Manufactured water was
collected from the shop.
 1.7.4 Distilled Water
Distilled water is also good to drink because distillation processed has been done in the lab.
Distilled water was collected from the UOG chemistry laboratory.

1.8 Scope
Understanding how water moves in the subsurface requires knowledge of the physical
properties of both water and the materials that it moves through. The physical properties of
water along with the size and distribution of pore spaces determine how much water is stored
in a given volume and how easily water moves through the material. In all water sample test,
investigations, understanding the distribution of these material properties is key to
understanding the patterns of the movement.
Water has a number of unique properties that are essential to life, and that determine its
environmental chemical behavior. Many of these properties are due to water’s polar molecular
structure and its ability to form hydrogen bonds.

1.9 Glossary
 Conductivity is the ability of a solution, a metal or a gas - in brief all materials - to
pass an electric current.
 Tanks - are nodes with storage capacity, where the volume of stored water can vary
with time during simulation.
 Manufactured Water is the water that processed in the factory involving necessary
processes.
 Distilled water is the water processed in the lab by distillation and other processes.
 Rain Water is the water vapor that has risen due to evaporation and accumulated in
the atmosphere, which condenses and falls on the Earth's surface
 Ground Water is the Groundwater is that portion of rainwater which has percolated
beneath the ground surface to form underground deposits called aquifers.
 Temperature how hot or cold something is.
 A beaker is the cup used to measure the water or other things in the lab.
 Support stand is the instrument used to hold the other instrument.
 Thermometer is the tool used to measure the temperature.
 pH meter is the device used the measure the acidic.
 Conductometer is the device used to measure the conductivity, pH, temperature,
turbidity in the lab.

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2. Methods
2.1 Apparatus used
2.1 Chemicals Used; Tape water (Akovehia) from the public water supply, Drinking water
from the ground source, Distilled water from the science laboratory, manufactured drinking
water from the store and Rain water . All the above chemicals were collected from the
different source as mentioned above. Tape water from the public water supply were uog
residential boys used to drink. Drinking water from the ground source were used by North
Goroka community used for drinking and other purpose. Distilled water was collected from
the science laboratory (uog), which uog students used the do lab experiment. Manufactured
water was collected from the shop which they used to sell to get money and the Rain water
was also collected from the boy’s dormitory.

2.2 Materials; Beakers, graduated cylinder, watch glass, support stand, thermometer, pH
meter, conduct meter. All of the above equipments were used to carry out the water sample
test in the lab. Beaker is the cup used to measure the water or other things in the lab. Support
stand is the instrument used to hold the other instrument. Thermometer is the tool used to
measure the temperature. pH meter is the device used the measure the acidic and Conduct
meter is the device used to measure the conductivity, pH, temperature, turbidity in the lab.

2.3 Procedures
2.4 (A) Assessment of water by sensual tests
Taste of unboiled water is determined after the microbiological examination. Samples of
drinking water must be microbiologically safe. Water must have temperature of 15-20 ° C
when we taste it. It should not have any taste or flavor.
Turbidity - drinking water must be clear. We find out the turbidity in a cylinder from
colorless glass. We observe it in daylight against a white and black pad.

Firstly, all the chemicals and materials were put on the bench, a particular student were
appointed to measure the chemicals (water) in a different beaker of 100mL and was placed on
the bench. After that same students measure the different water sample and record the
readings.
2.5 (B) The pH of drinking water
For the pH, 100 ml of drinking water were put into the beaker and, using pH paper, determine
approximately the pH of the sample and write it down. We repeat the same using the pH
meter. Each student carried out the different testing of the water sample.
2.6 (C) Water conductivity
For the conductivity same thing has done like above. 100 ml of drinking water into the beaker
and, using a conductometer, we determine the conductivity of water and write it down.

2.7 (D) Water temperatures
Also for the temperature, 100 ml of water into the beaker and measure the temperature. We
write down the values.
All the above procedures were carried out same time by the appointed particular students.
After that we all write down the readings which they recorded.

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Assessment of water by sensual test(T)
Var Turgidity (TUN) Conductivity Power of Hydrogen (PH.) Temperature (℃)
iabl (us/cm)
es
Sampl Trail 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
es s
Distill 6.9 6.8 5.5 6.2 6.6 11.48 1 2 3 2 1 1 8.62 8.29 7.94 8.67 8.34 8.85 20.14 23.15 23.37 23.07 23.42 23.95

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ed
water
Rain 4.7 43. 43. 60. 16.5 31.1 5 5 4 4 5 5 8.45 8.18 8.23 8.6 8.84 8.45 22.21 22.38 21.56 22.42 23.33 23.51
water 2 2 8
Grou 4.3 3.4 4 4.5 2.3 7.8 2 3 2 2 2 2 7.45 7.56 7.56 7.37 7.44 7.49 22.75 22.23 23.65 20.09 23.79 23.78
nd
water
Tap 16. 16. 23. 17. 8.1 9 5 4 4 5 3 4 7.8 8.25 8.35 8.48 8.05 8.8 22.92 22.03 22.89 22.72 23.97 23.55
water 3 7 2 5
Manu 7.8 6.3 10. 8.8 6.5 10.4 8 7 7 7 6 6 8.7 8.45 8.82 8.49 8.62 8.66 20.46 20.46 21.4 20.39 23.01 32.2
factur 7
ed
water
Figure1.2.The average of data collected from the sensual test

Results
3.0 Data Presentation

samples Assessment of water by sensual test(T)
Turgidity Conductivity Power of Temperature
(TUN (us/cm) Hydrogen (℃)
(pH.)
Distilled water 5.33 1.67 8.45 22.85
Rain water 26.05 4.67 8.46 22.57
Ground water 4.4 2.2 6.22 22.715
Tap water 15.2 4.2 6.98 23.01
Manufactured 8.42 6.83 8.62 22.45
water

3.1 Data Analysis

Figure 1.1. Assessment of Water by sensual test (T)

Bar graph of the Distilled water sample Test

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Rates of Variables

20

15

10

5

0
1 2 3 4

Variables

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Figure 1.2 Assessment of Water by sensual test (T)

Bar Graph shows the Rain Water sample test

Rates of Variables

Variables

Figure 1.3 Assessment of Water by sensual test (T)

Bar Graph Ground water sample Test
25
Rates of Variables

20

15

10

5

0
1 2 3 4

Variables

13
Figure 1.4 Assessment of Water by sensual test (T)

Bar Graph Tape water sample Test
Rates of Variables

25

20

15

10

5

0
1 2 3 4

Variables

Figure 1.4Assessment of Water by sensual test (T)

Bar Graph Manufactured water sample Test
Rates of Variables

25

20

15

10

5

0
1 2 3 4

Variables

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3.2 Discussion
The measurements of Distilled water summarized in figure 1.1. The readings of the distilled
water are; the turbidity of the water range of 5.33 NTU. The conductivity of the distilled water
range of 1.67, pH reading of the water range of 8.45ppm and the temperature of the water range
of 22.85°C.
For the rain water measurement, it is summarized in figure 1.2 and the readings are; turbidity
range of 26.05 NTU, conductivity range of 4.64, pH range of 8.46ppm and the temperature
reading range of 22.57°C.
Also for the ground water measurement, figure 1.3. The readings are turbidity range of 4.4
NTU, conductivity range of 2.2, pH range of 6.22ppm and the temperature reading range of
22.715°C.
On‐site measurements of tap water quality are summarized in figure 1.4. Tap water temperature
is important because temperature influences the contaminant volatility. Volatilized compounds
can contribute to resident chemical exposure and off‐odors. Cold tap water temperatures ranged
of 23.01°C. Water pH values were within the US EPA Secondary Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) of 6.98. As expected, both total and free chlorine concentrations were greater for
cold water than hot water within homes. Tap water turbidity levels were in the expected rang
15.2 NTU. Conductivity, or specific conductance, is a measure of the ability of water to
conduct an electric current. It is sensitive to variations in dissolved solids and conductivity
ranged of 4.2.
And the measurement for the manufactured water summarized in figure 1.4 are; turbidity
range of 8.42 NTU, conductivity range of 6.83, pH range of 8.62pH and the temperature range
of 22.45°C.

3.2.1 Temperature
Most individuals find water at temperatures of 10 to 15°C most palatable. But ground waters,
Rain waters, distilled waters; tape waters and manufactured water are now beyond this range.
The temperature of water affects the efficiency of treatment units. For example, from the
above results, when the sample was collected, the range of temperature is from 22.45 to
23.o1°C in data presentation table with high temperatures, the viscosity decreases. This, in
turn, fall the efficiency of settling of the solids that the water may contain because of the
resistance that the high viscosity offers to the downward motion of the particles as they settle.
Pressure drops also increase in the operation of filtration units, again, because of the resistance
that the higher viscosity offers.

3.2.2 pH determination
The pH of natural waters on land is controlled mainly by the bicarbonate–carbonate system.
The pH of the upper regions of the sea is controlled by the carbonate as well as the borate
systems. In the lower regions of the sea, pH appears to be controlled by the precipitation and
solution of various minerals. The bicarbonate alkalinity of natural waters has the following
typical ranges: rainwater 0 to 2.5 ppm (mg/L), groundwater 6 to 600 ppm, and pH is a
measure of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. Solutions range from very acidic (having a
high concentration of H+ ions) to very basic (having a high concentration of OH-ions). The
pH scale ranges from zero to 14, with 7 being the neutral value. The pH of water is important
to the chemical reactions that take place within water, and pH values that are not high or low
which cannot inhibit the growth of microorganisms. With high and low pH values, high pH
values are considered basic and low pH values are considered acidic. Stated in another way,
low pH values indicate a high level of H+ concentration, while high pH values indicate a low
H+ concentration. Because of this inverse logarithmic relationship, there is a ten-fold

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difference in H+ concentration. Natural water varies in pH depending on its source. Pure water
has a neutral pH, with an equal number H+ and OH–.

3.2.3 Turbidity determination (NTU)
Turbidity in water is caused by the presence of suspended matter, resulting in the scattering
and absorption of light rays. The greater the amount of total suspended solids in the water, the
murkier it appears and the higher the measured turbidity. Thus, in plain English, turbidity is a
measure of the light-transmitting properties of water. Natural water that is very clear (low
turbidity) allows you to see images at considerable depths, while high turbidity water appears
cloudy. Keep in mind that water of low turbidity is not necessarily without dissolved solids.
Dissolved solids do not cause light to be scattered or absorbed, making the water look clear.
High turbidity causes problems for the components that cause high turbidity that can cause
taste and odor problems, and will reduce the effectiveness of disinfection.

3.2.4 Conductivity determination
Conductivity, or specific conductance, is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an
electric current. It is sensitive to variations in dissolved solids mostly mineral salts. The
degrees to which these dissociate into ions, the amount of electrical charge on each ion, ion
mobility and the temperature of the solution all have an influence on conductivity. The
conductivity of most freshwaters ranges from 10 to 1,000 μS cm-1 but now it exit from 1.67 to
6.83 μS cm-1, especially in polluted waters, or those receiving large quantities of land run-off.
In addition to being a rough indicator of mineral content when other methods cannot easily be
used,

3.2.5 Conclusion
According to the results from the analysis, things that would require further investigation and
clarifying based on the findings and the potential health. These all indicate that there is faecal
contamination in the water, and they also pose as a risk to human health. By making the
cleaning of the water harder.
It could be investigated, how the groundwater is moving and what kind of habits people have
in cleaning their wells and containers and how they treat the water before using, if at all. Also
a broader analysis of the bacteria in different water sources should be a following step.
The purpose of this work was to conduct a focused residential drinking water lab study that
included four (4) different water sample testing.
Upon arrival, tap water was characterized for pH, free and total chlorine concentration,
turbidity, and odor at the kitchen sink and bathroom tub faucets.
This finding is significant and underscores the importance of selecting laboratories that can
detect and quantify low concentrations of contaminants during a chemical contamination
incident.

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3.2.6 Recommendation
 The five (5) different water sample testing, the result shows that it needs more
investigation on the different water samples.
 It needs more time to conduct a survey to test the water sample because water is
essential to the living things. Its needs to an experiment again.

3.2.7 Appendix
The objective of sampling is to collect representative sample of the drinking water. The North
community and the students of the University of Goroka, the water that we used to drink and do
other purpose has tested in the laboratory of the University of Goroka. We found out that water we
used daily has some chemical in it and have effect our health and wellbeing so I strongly encourage us
to boiling before using like drinking.
According to the results provided we need to test the sample of the water again and confirm which
water to drink and so ford.

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References
 Country Report Papua New Guinea by Mr Masu William Muru, Principal
Adviser, Health Protection, Department of Health, Waigani and, Mr James
Teio, Acting Technical Adviser, Water Supply and Sanitation, Department
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