ST RAIGHT SOL Informe resumido

Proje ct ID: 285295
Financiado con arre glo a: FP7-TRANSPORT
País : Norway

Final Repo rt Summary - ST RAIGHT SOL (ST RAtegies and measures fo r smarter urban
freIGHT SOLutio ns)
Exe cutive Summary:
Urban are as re pre s e nt particular challe nge s for national and inte rnational fre ight trans port, both in te rms of logis tical
pe rformance and e nvironme ntal impacts . To s upport the cre ation of a ne w conce pt of Smart Urban Fre ight Sys te ms , the
STRAIGHTSOL proje ct, Strate gie s and me as ure s for s marte r urban fre ight s olutions , was launche d to (1) de ve lop a ne w
impact as s e s s me nt frame work for me as ure s applie d to urban-inte rurban fre ight trans port inte rface s ; (2) s upport a s e t
of innovative fie ld de mons trations , e ffe ctive ly s howcas ing improve d urban-inte rurban fre ight ope rations in Europe ; and
(3) applying the impact as s e s s me nt frame work to the live de mons trations and de ve loping s pe cific re comme ndations for
future fre ight policie s and me as ure s .

The s e ve n STRAIGHTSOL de mons trations we re :
• urban cons olidation ce ntre in L’Hos pitale t de Llobre gat (Barce lona, ES) by DHL;
• city logis tics mobile de pot in Brus s e ls (BE) by TNT Expre s s ;
• re mote ‘bring-s ite ’ monitoring ne ar London (UK) by Oxfam;
• rail tracking and ware hous e manage me nt in The s s aloniki (GR) by Kue hne +Nage l;
• re tail s upply manage me nt and las t mile dis tribution in Os lo (NO) by GS1 Norway;
• loading/unloading ope rations manage me nt and re gulations in Lis bon (PT) by EMEL;
• night-time de live rie s in Brus s e ls (BE) by Colruyt and De lhaiz e .

Ge ne rally, through the STRAIGHTSOL de mons tration analys e s , it was s hown that mos t of the te s te d conce pts have ve ry
pos itive impact for the s ocie ty as a whole , le ading to a pos itive impact both for the citiz e ns and the local authoritie s . We
have s e e n that local authoritie s te nd to focus on the crite ria that the y have in common with the citiz e ns , cons ide ring
the ir othe r crite ria as le s s important. As a cons e que nce , citiz e ns and local authoritie s us ually as s e s s the diffe re nt
s ce narios in the s ame way.

The s e me as ure s , howe ve r, te nd to come at a price for the private partne r that ope rate s the de mons tration and us ually
be ars mos t of the cos ts . In none of the STRAIGHTSOL de mons trations ne w price s we re ne gotiate d be twe e n the various
private s take holde rs me aning that e conomic cos ts or be ne fits we re not s hare d be twe e n the m. The y we re als o not
compe ns ate d for the e xte rnal be ne fits that we re cre ate d (re duction or e mis s ions , be tte r road s afe ty, improve d urban
acce s s ibility). The e valuation confirme d that it is ve ry difficult to imple me nt s us tainable city logis tics conce pts , be caus e
the y appe ar to be financially unviable for the private s take holde r unde rtaking the initiative . And e ve n if the re are
s cale d variations that are financially viable , the s olution re quire s adapte d be haviour of the main s take holde r which als o
is a major barrie r for roll-out. In the e valuation we have ide ntifie d the tre nd that the s ce narios that are s upporte d by
the citiz e ns and the authoritie s are us ually not s upporte d by the ope rator, re ce ive rs and s e nde rs and vice ve rs a.

Ove rall, the e valuations s how that the re is a big role to play by the (local) gove rnme nts . All conce pts are be ne ficial to
s ocie ty, e s pe cially whe n the y are s cale d. The y re quire , howe ve r, too much initial inve s tme nt of a private partne r or
cannot be ope rate d in a profitable way. In that s e ns e , the local gove rnme nt can play a crucial role in the take -up of
the s e conce pts whe n the y us e the ir re gulation powe r to s upport s us tainable conce pts .
Proje ct Conte xt and Obje ctive s :
Background
An e nvironme ntally and financially s us tainable urban fre ight trans port s ys te m is a pre re quis ite for live able citie s .
Howe ve r, goods , was te and s e rvice trips in urban are as do impos e ne gative traffic and e nvironme ntal impacts and take
place in s pace s hare d with many othe r actors including public trans port ope rators , private car us e rs , taxis , cyclis ts and
pe de s trians . Europe ’s urban population is e xpe cte d to incre as e from 74% today to 84% by 2050 (Unite d Nations , 2010),
adding furthe r challe nge s for urban fre ight. The de ve lopme nt of ne w cons ume rs ’ de mands and re tail formats (including
e -comme rce ) make s urban fre ight ope rations e ve n more challe nging.

The Europe an Commis s ion (2013) de fine s urban logis tics as “the move me nt of goods , e quipme nt and was te into, out
from, within or through an urban are a”. Urban fre ight and urban logis tics have be e n give n incre as ing atte ntion ove r the
las t de cade , and many citie s and companie s acros s Europe have unde rtake n various trials of re gulatory, te chnological,

P á gi na 1 de 18

Investigación
e Innovación

de mons trate the us e fulne s s of the ne w impact as s e s s me nt frame work. more e fficie nt and cle ane r ve hicle s . the re have als o be e n s e ve ral failure s . promoting incre as e d e ffe ctive ne s s and s us tainability of urban logis tics . and in many cas e s ins ufficie nt dialogue be twe e n city authoritie s and private actors who ope rate the re .SST. road s afe ty. WP4 – De mons trations we re de s igne d to te s t and validate a broad s e t of me as ure s and initiative s that are e xpe cte d to P á gi na 2 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . The re re mains howe ve r a lack of e mphas is on urban logis tics in city and trans port planning. with fe w citie s having an individual in authority re s pons ible for urban logis tics . WP2 – Re vie w: a targe te d s tate -of-the -art re vie w on pas t. while the gre e n pape r ‘Towards a ne w culture for urban mobility’ (Europe an Commis s ion. (3) a lack of data and information which make s it difficult to improve ope rational e fficie ncy and long-te rm planning. one goal was to “achie ve e s s e ntially CO2-fre e city logis tics in major urban ce ntre s by 2030”. including improving the links be twe e n long- dis tance . and is applicable to any me as ure within the urban-inte rurban conte xt and acros s re gions in Europe . re ce ive rs . re porting and adminis tration of the proje ct. inte r-urban and urban fre ight trans port.2011. gove rnme nt and adminis trative bodie s . The analytical frame work will be ge ne ric in the s e ns e that it could be applie d to any me as ure within the urban- inte rurban conte xt and acros s citie s and re gions in Europe .infras tructural and logis tical me as ure s with the inte ntion of making urban fre ight trans port more e fficie nt. which le ad to the promotion and imple me ntation of uns uitable s olutions to the local conte xt. Browne (2010) highlights the comple xity of urban fre ight trans port by the range of s take holde rs involve d. The Europe an Commis s ion (2013) s ugge s te d that this was due to: (1) a lack of focus and s trate gy on urban logis tics . Anothe r focus in the Action Plan is how to be tte r incorporate fre ight trans port in local policie s and plans . 2011). Organis ation of proje ct The proje ct cons is te d of e ight work package s (WPs ): WP1 – Adminis trative Manage me nt: all matte rs re lating to the financial and le gal manage me nt. Urban fre ight trans port als o has the challe nge s as s ociate d with e ne rgy us e . (2) a lack of co-ordination among actors involve d in urban logis tics . incre as ing road conge s tion. It was the re fore a ne e d for a more s ys te matic approach to impact as s e s s me nt and e valuation of urban fre ight trans port me as ure s . highlighte d the importance of the urban dime ns ion of fre ight trans port. But. te chnological and logis tical me as ure s to try and make urban de live rie s more e fficie nt and e ffe ctive . and how to be tte r manage and monitor trans port flows . and acce s s re s trictions combine d with a ge ne ral lack of loading and unloading s pace . logis tic s e rvice provide rs . The re s ults we re utilis e d in the de s ign of the impact as s e s s me nt frame work in WP3 and the imple me ntation of de mons trations in WP4. If e valuation has take n place . one major barrie r to the wide r take -up of s ome of the s e me as ure s is a ge ne ral lack of e valuation and s ys te matic as s e s s me nt of the e ffe cts of diffe re nt me as ure s . As re cognis e d by the various s take holde rs and as de s cribe d by the Europe an Commis s ion in the call te xt of topic GC. 83% did not agre e that “urban trans port planning give s s ufficie nt cons ide ration to urban fre ight logis tics ”. improve d load planning. the re was a cle ar ne e d to cre ate a compre he ns ive approach to urban fre ight s olutions linking urban logis tics to the ir inte r-urban inte rface s . cons olidate d dis tribution. 2009 (COM(2009)490 final)) the Commis s ion e xplains that it inte nds to provide he lp on how to optimiz e urban logis tics e fficie ncy. WP3 – Evaluation Frame work: de ve lopme nt of an impact as s e s s me nt frame work for urban– inte rurban fre ight trans port inte rface s able to capture the comple xity of the urban-inte rurban e nvironme nt e s tablis hing a thorough proce dure of analys is for trans pare nt de cis ion making re comme ndations . The proje ct wante d to achie ve s marte r s olutions for the de mons trators involve d. cons ume rs . and providing us e ful inputs for the future de ve lopme nt of s trate gie s and me as ure s for s marte r urban fre ight s olutions and urban-inte rurban fre ight trans fe r. In the Action Plan on Urban Mobility (Commis s ion of The Europe an Communitie s . it is not bas e d on a harmonis e d and s ys te matic approach. The main obje ctive s of STRAIGHTSOL we re to: 1) De ve lop a ne w impact as s e s s me nt frame work for me as ure s applie d to urban-inte rurban fre ight trans port inte rface s . STRAIGHTSOL obje ctive s STRAIGHTSOL is one of s e ve ral proje cts co-finance d by the Europe an Commis s ion that s tudy urban-inte rurban inte rface s and las t mile dis tribution. including s e nde rs .7-4 Urban-inte rurban s hipme nts . Many citie s and companie s acros s Europe have unde rtake n various trials of re gulatory. In the 2011 white pape r on trans port (Europe an Commis s ion. 2) Support a s e t of innovative fie ld de mons trations s howcas ing improve d urban-inte rurban fre ight ope rations in Europe . air quality (e nvironme nt). 3) Apply the impact as s e s s me nt frame work to the live de mons trations and de ve lop s pe cific re comme ndations for future fre ight policie s and me as ure s . and the ne e d for e fficie nt inte rface s be twe e n long and s hort-dis tance fre ight trans port. Of thos e who e xpre s s e d an opinion in a 2012 DG MOVE public s take holde r que s tionnaire . Pos s ible s olutions propos e d include the us e of s malle r. z one s with acce s s re gulations . and ins titutional re forms with incre as e d inte gration of multiple s take holde rs in local policy-making. dis turbance and nois e . 2007). which ofte n aris e whe n public s ubs idie s are progre s s ive ly phas e d out. re s ide nts . The re is a cle ar ne e d for more committe d initiative s with s trong involve me nt from citie s and re gions . The frame work include s multiple me thodologie s . The bas e line for STRAIGHTSOL was curre nt ope rations of the de mons trations involve d as we ll as curre nt me thodology applie d in analys e s of the urban fre ight trans port conte xt and urban-inte rurban fre ight trans fe r. De s pite many promis ing initiative s . aiming to e ns ure e fficie nt ‘las t mile ’ de live ry (Action 19). e xis ting and e me rging me as ure s and initiative s re le vant to the STRAIGHTSOL de mons trations taking place in WP4.

many innovative city dis tribution conce pts have faile d be caus e not all s take holde rs we re take n into account (Macharis and Me lo. The dive rs ifie d s cope s of the de mons trations e nable d us to cove r a multitude of challe nge s in urban fre ight and the urban-inte rurban s hipme nts conte xt. WP6 – Re comme ndations : de ve lopme nt of a s e t of tailore d re comme ndations to improve logis tics ope rations in urban- inte rurban conte xts . the s e re fe r to the firs t two obje ctive s of STRAIGHTSOL. within STRAIGHTSOL. (iii) pos s ible othe r ways of working and (iv) future s ce narios . The re comme ndations we re bas e d on a s ynthe s is of the re s ults obtaine d in the pre vious work package s . I. (ii) the ide ntification of s take holde rs . Stake holde rs Five ke y s take holde r groups for urban fre ight trans port we re ide ntifie d: • Shippe rs : Give orde r to s e nd the goods • Logis tic Se rvice Provide rs : As s ure and s upport the trans portation s e rvice • Re ce ive rs : Re ce ive the goods • Citiz e ns : Live and cons ume in the city • Local Authoritie s : Re gulation and infras tructure provide r Crite ria The s take holde rs involve d in a give n s ituation us ually work towards diffe re nt goals . In the pas t. WP8 – Scie ntific manage me nt of the proje ct. The cons ortium compos ition was de s igne d to fulfil the re s e arch ne e ds that the urban-inte rurban inte rface s re pre s e nt. initiative or me as ure . e ns ure d e fficie nt and e ffe ctive coordination of the proje ct. 2010). e ns re d continuous s cie ntific control of work and re s ults and cons is te ncy in the achie ve me nts of and workflow be twe e n diffe re nt work package s to s upport ove rall proje ct goals . The frame work can be applie d in diffe re nt s tage s of this de cis ion making proce s s . This work package thus e s tablis he d a bridge be twe e n STRAIGHTSOL re s ults and re al world ope rations . re s pe ctive ly. (ii) the ne w way of working. In orde r to prope rly e valuate a particular s olution. including de ve lopme nt of a roadmap for compliant urban-inte rurban trans port s ys te ms and logis tics bas e d on le s s ons le arnt and pos s ible ge ne ralis ations . That is why. Toge the r the chos e n de mons trations cove re d a range of promis ing me as ure s for promoting future s us tainable and s mart urban fre ight s ys te ms . The cons ortium cons is te d of e ight s cie ntific partne rs and nine de mons trations partne rs . and re comme ndations and challe nge s ahe ad. The de mons tration partne rs we re bringing actual e xpe rie nce s and actual s tate -of-the -art into the cons ortium. This e valuation frame work has be e n de ve lope d to allow a thorough e valuation of the STRAIGHTSOL de mons trations . de ve lope d ris k manage me nt and quality as s urance proce dure s . and (iv) the indicators that ope rationalis e the crite ria. WP7 – Dis s e mination and e xploitation activitie s . Proje ct Re s ults : The dis cus s ions of s cie ntific and te chnical re s ults is organis e d in four parts . be fore or afte r me as ure s are te s te d or imple me nte d. of which one was a local gove rnme nt. Any actor who is confronte d with a proble matic urban de live ry s ituation and thinks of s e ve ral s olutions to de al with it can turn to the STRAIGHTSOL frame work for s tructural and compre he ns ive s upport in de ciding on which s olution to choos e . the s e actors and the ir obje ctive s are cons ide re d as the primary focus of the e valuation frame work. The frame work is howe ve r ge ne ral and can be us e d for any me as ure s in las t mile dis tribution or urban-inte rurban fre ight trans port inte rface s . Se ve n de mons trations took place in the proje ct. Table 1 s hows the ide ntifie d crite ria for e ach of the five main s take holde r groups . The main aims and obje ctive s (crite ria) of the five s take holde r groups we re ide ntifie d through a lite rature re vie w and a thorough analys is of the input of the s take holde rs of the s e ve n STRAIGHTSOL de mons trations . s ome time s e ve n conflicting one s . we have to know and unde rs tand the crite ria by which e ach s take holde r group judge s it. Evaluation frame work Within STRAIGHTSOL a ne w as s e s s me nt frame work was de ve lope d for the e valuation of me as ure s applie d to urban- inte rurban trans port inte rface s . The las t two parts re late to the third STRAIGHTSOL obje ctive . Toge the r the s cie ntific partne rs and the de mons trator partne rs re pre s e nte d a group able to s tudy a multitude of face ts of the future s mart urban fre ight trans port conce pts . We firs t de s cribe the e valuation frame work and the n the individual de mons trations . including me as ure s for maximis ing the uptake of the STRAIGHTSOL outputs through e ngage me nt with s take holde rs and e ns ure that las t-mile fre ight manage me nt policy is influe nce d by the findings . Alte rnative s The alte rnative s can be : (i) the curre nt way of working.cons titute parts of future s us tainable s mart urban fre ight trans port s ys te ms . The s tructure of the STRAIGHTSOL proje ct and the linkage s be twe e n the s cie ntific work package s (WP 2 – WP 6) are pre s e nte d in Figure 1. (iii) the ir obje ctive s /crite ria and the importance the y attach to the s e obje ctive s (we ights ). and cove r main e valuation conclus ions . The Analytic Hie rarchy Proce s s (AHP) was us e d to P á gi na 3 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . Important conce pts in the e valuation frame work are (i) the ide ntification of alte rnative s . WP5 – Impact As s e s s me nt: e valuation of all the de mons trations us ing the frame work e s tablis he d in WP3. For e ach STRAIGHTSOL de mons tration it was analys e d to which of the s e crite ria the s take holde rs give priority by me ans of an inte rne t s urve y bas e d on pairwis e comparis ons .

s urve ys we re s pre ad among the s take holde rs of the diffe re nt de mons trations . a s e t of characte ris tics was de fine d in De live rable 3. Knowing the fixe d re gulations which are in force will he lp to de ve lop s ucce s s ful alte rnative s . The numbe r of re s ponde nts varie d from de mons tration to de mons tration and from s take holde r group to s take holde r group. initiative characte ris tics and product characte ris tics . A s e t of crite ria is de fine d to re pre s e nt the obje ctive s of e ach s take holde r group. the indicators re pre s e nt the crite ria by which the STRAIGHTSOL de mons trations will be e valuate d. Nor will it pre ve nt de mons trations from having the ir own additional indicators for e valuation at a more de taile d or local le ve l. This doe s not imply. It can be us e d by a private company who thinks of s e ve ral pos s ibilitie s to change its de live ry ope rations and ne e ds an obje ctive and compre he ns ive bas is to make a choice . • bus ine s s mode lling from the fie ld of marke ting. In orde r to de te rmine the we ights for the e valuation of the de mons trations . that all indicators will be re le vant for a particular me as ure . indicators for the e fficie ncy of the trans port s ys te m (thre e ) and s afe ty and s e curity indicators (four). Evaluation of alte rnative s . knowle dge of e xis ting urban and urban- inte rurban fre ight s olutions he lps to e laborate alte rnative city dis tribution conce pts . us e rs of the frame work: • s hould only s e le ct thos e indicators from the frame work that are re le vant and applicable for the de mons tration unde r e valuation. 2) as s e s s e s the financial viability for the ope rator. Due to the comple x inte raction be twe e n the many actors in the urban trans port. The impact are a trans port is divide d into indicators that re fle ct the quality of s e rvice (s ix). A dis tinction of impact are as is commonly us e d in s tudie s on s us tainability. aims to pe rform an ove rall e valuation of the curre nt s ituation and the various alte rnative s . A data colle ction te mplate is provide d as we ll. The s e focus on the e conomic pe rs pe ctive and marke t pote ntial of the inte nde d me as ure . The e valuation phas e is built upon thre e me thodologie s : • the Social Cos t-Be ne fit Analys is (SCBA) from the fie ld of we lfare the ory. The we ights attribute d to crite ria by the s take holde r groups vary from de mons tration to de mons tration as we ll. To de s cribe the conte xt. This re s ulte d in a frame work that re late s the s take holde rs . bas e d on the s take holde rs ’ pe rs pe ctive . • s hould de fine additional indicators whe n this is re quire d for an as s e s s me nt at a more de taile d. the s e cond part of this s tage de s cribe s the alte rnative s ituations us ing the knowle dge of alte rnative urban and urban-inte rurban fre ight conce pts . The STRAIGHTSOL proje ct dis tinguis he d five re le vant s take holde rs in the urban and urban-inte rurban fre ight trans port conte xt. howe ve r. The re fore . The STRAIGHTSOL frame work is s hown in Figure 2. The frame work can als o he lp local gove rnme nts to de s ign and/or fine tune the ir urban fre ight policy and to make s ure that the policy is in line with the goals the y want to re ach. the impact are a Trans port was adde d as a fourth. The re fore . The firs t s tage ‘De s cription and as s e s s me nt’ aims to firs t ide ntify the conte xt and the curre nt s ituation and s e condly to e xplore pos s ible alte rnative s to the curre nt s ituation. A firs t comparis on of the curre nt way of working and the various alte rnative s is finalis ing this firs t s tage . It is important to limit the core indicators to thos e factors that are e s s e ntial for re aching the obje ctive s of the inte nde d me as ure while be ing als o re liable me as ure me nts . The combination of thos e me thodologie s as s ure s that all e s s e ntial as pe cts for proje ct as s e s s me nt are include d in the P á gi na 4 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . The indicators all include a mone tary as pe ct. and 3) inte grate s all s take holde rs ’ opinions . as it 1) looks at be ne fits and cos ts to s ocie ty. Firs t of all. It as s e s s e s whe the r the conce pt will work.de te rmine the we ights of the crite ria of the various s take holde r groups . It us e s hie rarchical s tructure s to obje ctify a de cis ion proble m. including the attitude towards e nvironme ntal impact. Within the impact are a Environme nt. Economy and Socie ty (known as the thre e pillars of s us tainability). In addition to the impact are as Environme nt. Indicators and KPIs The crite ria are trans late d into indicators . s pe cific or local le ve l. s ocie ty and trans port. This me ans that. The e valuation cove rs diffe re nt pe rs pe ctive s . the mos t e s s e ntial input is a lis t of s take holde rs whos e s upport is s ignificant for the pote ntial s ucce s s of a s olution and the ir re s pe ctive obje ctive s to be take n into account. a good unde rs tanding of the curre nt way of working allows de fining the window of opportunitie s that e xplains why the initiative taking actor wants to find a be tte r alte rnative way of working. Not all indicators are . The indicators that are de fine d to me as ure the impacts mus t be us e d cons is te ntly acros s the STRAIGHTSOL de mons trations . The frame work include s thre e s tage s that are fe d by initial input.1. In orde r to be able to prope rly e valuate the diffe re nt options . Als o to de ve lop attainable alte rnative s the fixe d conte xt in which the y might be imple me nte d has to be cle ar. four indicators are de fine d that re fle ct local and global e mis s ions and nois e le ve ls . Se condly. It addre s s e s the que s tion: Will the conce pt give more be ne fits than cos ts for s ocie ty?. e nvironme nt. the attractive ne s s of the e nvironme nt and acce ptance le ve ls (for diffe re nt actors ). The s ocie tal impact are a include s a s e t of nine indicators . crite ria and impact are as to 31 indicators divide d acros s the four impact are as . ke y for the e valuation of the de mons trations . A s e le ction phas e is conducte d to ide ntify ke y pe rformance indicators (KPIs ). howe ve r. • the Multi Actor Multi-Crite ria Analys is (MAMCA) from the fie ld of s trate gic manage me nt. Five indicators are de fine d within the impact are a Economy. the s e are organis e d according to thre e topics : ge ographical are a. of the s take holde rs and the ir obje ctive s and of the curre nt s ituation and the conte xt. STRAIGHTSOL de ve lope d a s e t of indicators which is us e d to both characte riz e the curre nt s ituation and the alte rnative s . he re by cons ide ring financing and value is s ue s . The s e cond s tage of the frame work. The s e indicators are cate goriz e d according to the impact are a to allow a more e fficie nt e valuation proce s s with the dis tinction of four impact are as : e conomy. It focus e s on a comparis on of alte rnative s olutions from multiple s take holde rs ’ pe rs pe ctive s .

The outcome of s tage 3 will e nable de cis ion make rs to mutually compare s pe cific me as ure s or initiative s . as we ll as s e ve re conge s tion. in orde r to continue the de mons tration as a pe rmane nt s olution from a comme rcial pe rs pe ctive . but individually. It is cle ar that e ach of the s take holde rs that are be ne fitte d from the me as ure s hould abs orb at le as t part of the cos ts . • re tail s upply manage me nt and las t mile dis tribution in Os lo (NO) by GS1 Norway. re taile rs and the city council. ES). Ke y s take holde rs we re : • Se rvice Provide r-UCC Manage r (DHL Supply Chain Spain) • DHL s urrounding platforms /s upply chains • Re ce ive rs .Store s • Local adminis tration – L’Hos pitale t de Llobre gat City Council • Logis tics Se rvice Provide rs The de mons tration was able to re duce trans port cos ts around 25%. and the re is a lack of dis tribution re gulations . It is characte ris e d by a mix of re s ide ntial and comme rcial are as . Each of the de mons trations and main e valuation findings are s ummaris e d be low. Howe ve r. which can be compe ns ate d with the ir cos t re duction e xpe rie nce d. The e valuation phas e e nable s als o be nchmarking: by comparing the outcome of diffe re nt alte rnative s . Each one can do it through a channe l that fits the ge ne ral conte xt. DHL Supply Chain Spain ope rate d an urban cons olidation ce ntre (UCC) in orde r to re duce the numbe r of ve hicle s e nte ring the de fine d are a (las t mile dis tribution) while maintaining the s e rvice le ve ls . • rail tracking and ware hous e manage me nt in The s s aloniki (GR) by Kue hne +Nage l. DHL’s Urban Cons olidation Ce ntre in L’Hos pitale t de Llobre gat – Barce lona (Spain) During the las t ye ars . howe ve r. • city logis tics mobile de pot in Brus s e ls (BE) by TNT Expre s s . the conce pt e volve d to a Hybrid Cons olidation Ce ntre . a prioritiz ation of me as ure s and a roadmap towards indus trial roll-out. the logis tics infras tructure was optimis e d by the inte gration of s e ve ral s upply chain s iz e s . This re s ults in low ve hicle load factor. re s ults prove to be pos itive in e mis s ions and nois e . During the e volution of the proje ct. the be s t s olution for a give n s ituation can be ide ntifie d.e valuation. In the cas e of the re taile rs . this de pe nds on the s cope of e valuation and the que s tions addre s s e d. in the me tropolitan are a of Barce lona. De mons trations STRAIGTHSOL s upporte d s e ve n innovative fie ld de mons trations s howcas ing incre as e d e fficie ncy and s us tainability of urban fre ight trans port and improve d conne ctions be twe e n urban and inte rurban fre ight trans port. The de mons trations we re : • urban cons olidation ce ntre in L’Hos pitale t de Llobre gat (Barce lona. e xce s s ive GHG e mis s ions and nois e pollution. LSP could pay a fe e to the UCC manage r in orde r to us e the s e rvice . It will furthe rmore de s cribe the s te ps that are re quire d to move from de mons tration to large s cale imple me ntation and to re ach long-te rm obje ctive s . which is re ally s ignificant. For the proje ct unde r cons ide ration the re will be a policy impact as s e s s me nt. Howe ve r. II. Howe ve r. The de mons tration are a was the city ce nte r of L’Hos pitale t de Llobre gat. The dis tribution to the city ce ntre was combine d with othe r multi-cus tome r s upply chains alre ady manage d by DHL Supply Chain. The las t s tage of the frame work name d ‘Re comme ndations and le s s ons le arnt’ aims to give re comme ndations for large s cale imple me ntation throughout Europe . the handling cos ts of the te rminal we re high and difficult to compe ns ate . In L’Hos pitale t de Llobre gat. It is pos s ible to us e all me thods or only one or two. s urrounde d by a ring of re s ide ntial are as and a ring of ware hous e s . To improve the pe rformance of urban fre ight de live rie s in L’Hos pitale t de Llobre gat. the y might be willing to pay if the city council could re imbuds e part of the pay though tax re ductions . The n volume s we re cons olidate d and an ove rall optimis ation took place . by DHL. s ome re ve nue s have to be ge ne re ate d in orde r to facilitate a fe as ible bus ine s s mode l. the re is a lack of a cle ar and uniform re gulation to favour e fficie nt urban de live ry s trate gie s . • night-time de live rie s in Brus s e ls (BE) by Colruyt and De lhaiz e . In te rms of e ffe cts to the e nvironme nt. while be ne fits are s hare d among LSP. In ge ne ral. From the ge ne ral ove rvie w of cos ts and be ne fits for all s take holde rs it is cle ar that the UCC manage r as s ume s all the cos ts ge ne rate d. In orde r to continue the de mons tration on a large r s cale more s tore s have to be e ngage d in the s olution or alte rnative ly othe r P á gi na 5 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . Figure 3 s hows the link be twe e n the s take holde rs and the STRAIGHTSOL frame work. the big de mand attractor was the s um of s upply chains whe re the UCC ope rate d by DHL re ce ive d the goods and cons olidate d all. The s hipme nt cons olidation in the UCC cons olidate d the de live ry load of s e ve ral carrie rs to re taile rs locate d in a te rritorial e nclave in the city ce ntre . but during the de ve lopme nt the s e rvice was e xte nde d to a third ne ighbourhood (Santa Eulàlia). high ope rational cos ts in the las t mile dis tribution. an incre as ing numbe r of comme rcial ve hicle s have be e n e nte ring the city ce ntre of L’Hos pitale t de Llobre gat. one of the mos t critical is s ue s de te cte d is the involve me nt of the s tore s . This will e nable the diffe re nt actors to plan and coordinate the furthe r de ployme nt of me as ure s and to make the innovation happe n. • loading/unloading ope rations manage me nt and re gulations in Lis bon (PT) by EMEL. Re garding the le s s ons le arnt. whe re as acros s proje cts the trans fe rability to othe r citie s is addre s s e d. The n. • re mote ‘bring-s ite ’ monitoring ne ar London (UK) by Oxfam. The initial plan was to give s e rvice to two ce ntral ne ighbourhoods (Ce ntro and Sant Jos e p). e ve n though the re are be ne fits for the m. ille gal parking ope rations take place due to ove rs aturate d loading/unloading (L/U) place s . the city council had an inte re s t in s olving the is s ue s at hand. it is ve ry difficult to convince the m to purchas e the s e rvice . Dire ct or indire ct s ubs idie s may be provide d. The city council may contribute through diffe re nt options .

le s s hinde re d by conge s tion and e mis s ion fre e . and unive rs itie s have to be e ngage d. That is why the impact on the e mis s ion of pollutants was calculate d bas e d on the numbe r of kilome tre s drive n by P á gi na 6 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . Around 6 pm. The third s take holde r group are the re ce ive rs of the TNT Expre s s s hipme nts . That is why the y are ope n to te s ting innovative s olutions which are cos t-e fficie nt. The ir aim is to provide as much s e rvice as pos s ible for the lowe s t cos t pos s ible . 1040 and 1210. During the de mons tration. Curre ntly. It is the ir aim to provide as much s e rvice as pos s ible to TNT for the lowe s t cos t pos s ible . Furthe rmore . The s e cond barrie r re late s to municipalitie s /public s e ctor re adine s s to buy this s olution in the s hort te rm. the involve me nt and the le ade rs hip from local adminis trations will be crucial to attract the atte ntion of all the involve d s take holde rs . Ette rbe e k and Sint-Joos t-te n-Node . Die s e l trucks to do the palle t de live rie s and pick-ups and die s e l vans for parce ls and docume nts . For the duration of the de mons trations . The MD arrive d at the Parc du Cinquante naire around 9. This doe s not only affe ct individuals driving the ir cars .544 truck kilome tre s we re drive n. The s cale of the de mons tration was too s mall to be able to me as ure an impact on the air quality in the de mons tration are a.15 am. Drive rs in Brus s e ls face ave rage de lays of ove r 33% during pe ak hours . The y are the final addre s s e e s of the s hipme nts and the clie nts of the fourth s take holde r group. the de live rie s and pick-ups we re . This aim fits the obje ctive s of the fifth and s ixth s take holde r group ve ry we ll: the local authoritie s and the citiz e ns . Re gular TNT Expre s s de live rie s and pick-ups in Brus s e ls are carrie d out from the TNT de pot at the Brus s e ls fre ight airport Brucargo. adminis trations . The y want to be able to live the ir live s as the y want in a s afe and he althy e nvironme nt. It is an are a of jus t ove r 12 s quare kilome tre s which is de ns e ly populate d and highly urbaniz e d. the s e de live ry ve hicle s als o contribute to the traffic jams . TNT Expre s s was the initiator and owne r of this STRAIGHTSOL de mons tration.286 de live rie s we re done and 4. the traile r was loade d at the TNT hub with all de live rie s de s tine d for the de mons tration are a for that day and the n drive n to a pre de fine d ce ntral location in the Parc du Cinquante naire . launching public and private partne rs hips to e nable bus ine s s through cons olidation ce ntre s doe s not s e e m to be give n priority.534 cyclocargo kilome tre s and 2. On the othe r s ide . During the twe lve we e ks the MD was te s te d. The y de ve lope d a ne w conce pt: the Mobile De pot (MD). In this line . the vans s tart the ir milk round doing both pick-ups and de live rie s . Two type s of ve hicle s are us e d for that. The local adminis tration had to is s ue a local parking ban for the duration of the de mons tration. The MD was de s igne d in a way that TNT Expre s s could pe rform the de live rie s in the be s t pos s ible way. The parce ls and docume nts de s tine d for a particular part of the Brus s e ls - Capital Re gion are loade d onto the vans e ach morning. The parking location of the MD in the city-ce ntre was chos e n clos e to the de pot of the cyclocargo courie r.pote ntial cus tome rs like hos pitals . de pe nding on the volume of that day. As a global e xpre s s parce l s e rvice provide r. From the re . Brus s e ls is a conge s te d city in te rms of traffic jams . the palle t de live rie s we re not furthe r take n into account. Be caus e the cyclocargos that we re us e d in combination with the MD cannot trans port big volume s . the mos t important trans port company to take into account was the s ubcontractor carrying out the cyclocargo de live rie s . This is als o the cas e for TNT Expre s s . TNT Expre s s aims to de cre as e its carbon footprint and to contribute to more s us tainable city logis tics . It conce rns pos tal code are as 1030. The re is no comme rcial dominance in the are a.292 pick-ups and 5. Around 9 am. Howe ve r. Mobile De pot – TNT Expre s s As mos t large Europe an citie s . The y are a global e xpre s s parce l s e rvice provide r commis s ione d by the ir clie nts to trans port parce ls and docume nts from the ir pick-up point to the ir final de s tination. TNT Expre s s carrie d out the las t-mile de live rie s and firs t-mile pick-ups in the ce ntre of Brus s e ls from an MD. The citiz e ns are the pe ople living. which are re late d to the municipalitie s Schaarbe e k. the y re turn to the de pot from whe re the ne w parce ls and docume nts le ave for the ir final de s tination. during the de mons tration. It is a traile r fitte d with a loading dock and ware hous ing facilitie s that can be us e d to take the inne r-city de live rie s from a de pot outs ide the city to a ce ntral parking location. TNT Expre s s s ubcontracts (parts of) the actual trans port to local s ubcontractors . The re is als o room for improve me nt from the vie wpoint of the ope rator: having to de al with bus y traffic and conge s tion make s it e xpe ns ive to ke e p the inne r-city de live rie s and pick-ups re liable and fas t and make s it difficult to be cons ide rate of the e nvironme nt. With the Mobile De pot s olution. Each morning. 1. the final de live rie s are carrie d out by dis patch ride rs on e le ctrically drive n tricycle s and by s mall e le ctric cars . working and s pe nding the ir fre e time in Brus s e ls . The local authoritie s aim to provide a s ound living e nvironme nt as we ll as a good bus ine s s climate . the re are s ome Europe an and National coope ration proje cts working at de s igning IT s ys te ms which can give a prope r s yne rgy for all the actors . it als o hampe rs urban de live rie s as the s e are us ually carrie d out by van or by s mall truck. Thus . The combination of die s e l ve hicle s and a conge s te d urban are a make s urban de live rie s e nvironme ntally unfrie ndly. The MD was us e d by TNT Expre s s for a pe riod of thre e months (28 May 2013 – 22 Augus t 2013) to do the ir pick-ups and de live rie s in a part of the city-ce ntre of Brus s e ls . the local adminis tration provide d a s uitable parking location whe re the MD could be parke d during the day and whe re the loading and unloading ope rations could take place . TNT Expre s s de ve lope d the MD be caus e the y be lie ve d the s olution could both be cos t-e fficie nt as we ll as e nvironme ntally frie ndlie r than the ir normal way of working. From the re . carrie d out by four dis patch ride rs on e le ctrically drive n cyclocargos . the s hippe rs . The are a was chos e n by TNT Expre s s be caus e of its re lative ly high drop de ns ity of s mall s hipme nts . e ve n if the practical ope rations are change d. Both s take holde rs want to ke e p re ce iving the s ame s e rvice (at the s ame price ). but this is s till a goal to achie ve . many of the company’s ope rations take place in urban s e ttings . agre e me nts among diffe re nt private companie s s uch as re taile rs and logis tics partie s re pre s e nt a more re alis tic option for building fe as ible dis tribution mode ls . The s e trans port companie s are important s take holde rs . No additional me as ure s from the local authoritie s are ne e de d to imple me nt this me as ure .

e . The de mons trate d conce pt is more e xpe ns ive than the bus ine s s as us ual.97 -24% NOx (g/vkm) 1. In orde r to be compe titive with the van de live ry.56% was de live re d on time (wrong addre s s e s . This dile mma is caus e d by the fact that the conce pt is s ocie tally ve ry re le vant but in its curre nt form not financially viable . In addition. Smartbin. Infra-re d s e ns ors de s igne d for this type of application we re purchas e d from a third party e quipme nt provide r. although only daily re porting was actually re quire d.77 -22% De live ring through the MD has an impact on the punctuality of the de live rie s and pick-ups . the re fore the de mons tration conce pt was not cos t-e ffe ctive for Oxfam and the y have dis continue d the us e of re mote P á gi na 7 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . Re mote 'bring-s ite ' monitoring for more re active and s us tainable logis tics – Oxfam The de mons tration conce pt was to ins tall re mote monitoring s e ns ors in Oxfam donation banks to provide up-to-date information about bank fill le ve ls . A s cale d cos t-be ne fit analys is was pe rforme d (re porte d in De live rable 5. the lowe r punctuality can partly be attribute d to the fact that this was a de mons tration proje ct and both TNT Expre s s and its s ubcontractor had to adjus t the ir ope rations . Bus ine s s As Us ual Mobile De pot Impact MD CO2 (g/vkm) 340 258. 95. both as logis tics s e rvice provide r (i. The live de mo ran during the pe riod 9 May to 19 July. the mobile de pot re late d cos ts for TNT s hould be re duce d whe re pos s ible . 2013. Milton Ke yne s . by the time of the live de mons tration only 53% (40/75) of banks we re monitore d. in-hous e colle ctions ) and re ce ive r of the donate d goods . In doing s o. The analys is of the de mons tration re ults s howe d that more s hipme nts we re de live re d and picke d up be fore the lunch hour whe n de live rie s we re pe rforme d with die s e l vans . UK (around 90km north-we s t of London).25 1. The cos t-be ne fit analys is s howe d that whe n the mobile de pot is us e d at 90% capacity. the diffe re nce in cos t pe r s top s hould be in favour of ZE de live ry. The MAMCA cle arly re ve ale d that the s ce narios that are s upporte d by the citiz e ns and the authoritie s are not s upporte d by the ope rator. howe ve r. which follows from the fact that the cos t pe r s top of the z e ro e mis s ion (ZE) s ub-contractor is 9% highe r than in the initial s ituation. A data re porting le ve l of two re ports pe r day was provide d. Oxfam’s main aims we re to re duce the ir colle ction cos ts by re ducing ve hicle mile age and time s pe nt making colle ctions . The algorithm’s s ugge s te d route s we re che cke d for s uitability by Oxfam’s trans port manage r and modifie d as de s ire d be fore be ing imple me nte d the ne xt working day. as the de mons tration was not e xpe cte d to have any notice able e ffe ct on the m. due to te chnical proble ms . us ing an MD will not influe nce the ope rating re ve nue s as s e nde rs cannot choos e whe the r or not the ir s hipme nt will be de live re d through the MD. contribution to traffic conge s tion e tc. Daily ve hicle s che dule s we re de vis e d with the aid of a be s poke algorithm de ve lope d and run by the Unive rs ity of Southampton.5 +48% PM2. the total monthly cos ts are about 69% highe r than in the bas e line s ce nario.5 (mg/vkm) 145 59. According to TNT Expre s s .73 -59% PM10 (mg/vkm) 30. This can be e xplaine d by the MD trip be twe e n the airport and the parking location and by the additional handling ne e de d to load the cyclocargos . The s cope of the de mons tration are a was cons ide re d to be appropriate as : • The numbe r of ve hicle s gave opportunitie s for moving colle ctions be twe e n ve hicle s as re quire d • The ge ographical e xte nt and duration gave robus t and me aningful re s ults • The ve hicle s che duling and routing tas k was manage able The only ke y s take holde r was Oxfam.5 23. In the s hort run. all donation banks in the de mons tration are a we re e quippe d with s e ns ors . It was found that the time and dis tance s avings s e e n in the de mons tration (~3%) did not offs e t the additional time re quire d for managing the more comple x trans port ope rations (~2 hours /day e xtra). re ce ive rs and s e nde rs and vice ve rs a. howe ve r. who als o hos te d the we b inte rface to the s e ns or data.g. the y did not have any influe nce on the de mons tration de s ign.27% of the s hipme nts was de live re d on time whils t during the de mons tration only 87. This was motivate d by pe rce ive d ine fficie ncie s as s ociate d with e ithe r vis iting banks too e arly (whe n not containing much) or too late (ove rflowing banks ). move and ope rate the mobile de pot. Se condary s take holde rs we re the s ite owne rs (typically s upe rmarke ts who provide d s pace in car parks to hous e the donation banks ) and me mbe rs of the public donating goods . In the initial de s ign and trial imple me ntation. The s ame ne twork cove rage (53% of e quippe d banks ) was as s ume d for cons is te ncy. During the de mons tration. On top of that are the cos ts to purchas e .. The de mo was bas e d at Oxfam’s Southe rn Logis tics Ce ntre .com©. A ve hicle fle e t of up to 5 lorrie s (carrying capacity: 6T) and one van (carrying capacity 1. the re would be s ocie tal be ne fit through the as s ociate d re duce d ve hicle e mis s ions . In the be fore s ituation.a s pe cific type of ve hicle us ing the STREAM e mis s ion factors (De n Boe r e t al.4T) was available to be us e d e ach day. in five colle ction are as of a s imilar s iz e ). companie s that are clos e d or pe ople that are not at home are not take n into account he re ). doing the de live rie s and pick-ups through the MD was twice as e xpe ns ive compare d to the initial s ituation with vans . with a vie w to s che duling colle ction ve hicle s more e fficie ntly.3) bas e d on an imple me ntation five time s the s iz e of the de mons tration (e .5 -24% SO2 (mg/vkm) 2.6 1. with four or five ve hicle s typically be ing re quire d on any give n day. 2011). His torical bank data we re us e d to e s timate bank fill le ve ls in the abs e nce of any re mote monitoring data. In the e valuation we als o cons ide re d ups cale d ve rs ions of the de mons trate d s olutions .

during the firs t pe riod of de mons tration te s ts (5 months ). in orde r to be tte r coordinate the urban dis tribution. notification ale rts we re s e nt to K+N and the y. The de mons tration are a was approximate ly 1. but all s ys te ms and the ge ne ral conce pt are s till in full ope ration. Kue hne +Nage l . many of the cos ts and los s e s for K+N could be avoide d. Ins tallation of GPS-bas e d monitoring s ys te m for the tracking of rail wagons and the ir cargo during the inte rurban trans portation le g. towards the e limination of de lays that le ad to fals e truck as s ignme nts and as s ociate d cos ts . Focus ing on las t mile dis tribution. 3. afte r on-s ite re cording of cargo s tatus by the local rail ope rator's pe rs onne l. as cons ume rs of the trans porte d goods and als o be ing e xte rnally impacte d by the conce pt running. the truck ope rators as partne rs of K+N imple me nting the tas k of las t mile dis tribution and the public. cargo handling e tc. A modifie d ve rs ion of the s cale d cos t-be ne fit analys is was pe rforme d bas e d on a trans port of be ne fit of 15% rathe r than the 3% obtaine d in the de mons tration. the re was an urge nt ne e d for be tte r organiz ation bas e d on update d and re liable information on the rail cargo location and e s timate d time of arrival (ETA). Inte gration of the GPS-bas e d monitoring s ys te m into the e xis te nt K+N’s monitoring s ys te m archite cture . whe re the cons olidation and the las t mile de live ry of goods take s place . the national rail authoritie s of e ach one of the involve d countrie s as infras tructure and e quipme nt provide r. linke d to the ware hous e manage me nt s ys te m. The analyz e d fre ight route compris e s two dis cre te . s ys te ms s hould be de ve lope d to provide manage rs with the s ummary information the y ne e d. cut-off wagons . GPS-e nable d de vice s we re mounte d onto rail wagons us e d by K+N for trans porting goods and re al-time information was provide d to K+N on cargo location. Within STRAIGHTSOL proje ct’s de mons tration the focus was s e t on the cargo trans fe r from Sopron. The de mons tration aime d to ame liorate the s e proble ms through the tracking of rail wagons and cargo. Gaps in the inte rconne ction of the two s ucce s s ive trans portation le gs re s ulte d in the cre ation of a huge adminis trative burde n.89% of wagons we re de laye d for more than one day for various re as ons . Hungary to The s s aloniki. the de mons tration ran from Nove mbe r 2012 until March 2013.). This me ans that the re mote monitoring conce pt re mains a valid propos ition but only in applications whe re round s tructure s are fre e from too many re s trictions . Without s uch cons traints . as we ll as .5% re duction in total truck- P á gi na 8 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . it may be be tte r to vis it s hops in a more dynamic way.Shop s e rvicing re quire me nts are the main influe nce rs of the ve hicle rounds . 2. The de mons tration took place in the The s s aloniki Gre ate r Are a (including city ce ntre and inte rurban are a) and K+N's te rminal and ware hous e facilitie s in Sindos indus trial z one . Conce rning the colle ction of data. The re s ults we re e ncouraging and we re clos e to maximum e s timate s le ading to a 4. which give s an e s timate d payback time of around 15 months . dynamic bank vis its to obtain gre ate r be ne fits . giving limite d s cope for dynamic bank s che duling to re duce trans port cos ts . Inte rconne ction of the ne w monitoring s ys te m to K+N’s intrane t to provide re al time information on location to K+N. Ke y le s s ons le arnt we re : • Ne e d for more fle xibility in s hop s e rvicing . with 11.g.Rail tracking and ware hous e manage me nt Kue hne +Nage l S. The action plan is brie fe d be low: 1. This re s ulte d in improve me nts be ing made to the ir products . in turn. In cas e of s uch une xpe cte d incide nts . las t mile dis tribution). This als o had an adve rs e impact on te rminal activitie s (ware hous e manage me nt. but s ucce s s ive trans portation le gs : the inte rurban part from Sopron to The s s aloniki imple me nte d by train (rail wagons in block trains ) and the urban one pe rforme d by road (conve ntional e ngine trucks and vans ) incorporating the las t mile dis tribution. The s e colle ctions te nde d to dominate the round s tructure s and s e ve re ly limite d the opportunitie s for dynamic s che duling.monitoring s e ns ors . The main re as on for the re lative ly s mall trans port be ne fit was Oxfam’s cons traint of having fixe d colle ction days for s hops . The s take holde rs involve d in the de mons tration we re K+N as logis tics s e rvice provide r. According to K+N’s s tatis tics .500 km2 including the are a whe re the las t-mile ope rations of K+N and its cus tome rs took place . achie ving cons ide rable time and cos t s avings for K+N and othe r s take holde rs . dire ctly affe cting waiting time s of trucks and the planning of the ne xt le gs (e . s ix GPS de vice s we re purchas e d and e nable d the monitoring of 24 wagons pe r month (3% of the total). e tc. (K+N) in Gre e ce is an inte rnational logis tics s e rvice provide r. Bas e d on the cus tome r's de mand and inte re s t. dire ctly update d the ir cus tome rs or othe r involve d s take holde rs on e xpe cte d time de lays of the goods orde re d.5% of the s e be ing re move d (cut- off) from the block train.A. as s is ting in the ide ntification of de lays . trans port be ne fits of up to 25% we re e s timate d.Conce rn had be e n e xpre s s e d by Oxfam of data ove rload for Oxfam’s trans port and re tail te ams . Gre e ce . with e xce s s cos ts de grading the company's image as a logis tics s e rvice provide r. re s pons ible for the s upply chain manage me nt from Ce ntral Europe to the Balkan countrie s . s ome 30km from The s s aloniki city ce nte r. As s uch. to e ach s take holde r or partne r . une xpe cte d e ve nts .Us e of E-PoDs in las t mile dis tribution bas e d on live fe e d from the GPS-bas e d monitoring s ys te m. Information on cargo location was pre vious ly provide d manually. The conce pt was to optimiz e the inte rconne ction of the two trans portation le gs us ing a GPS-bas e d monitoring s ys te m in inte rurban trans port and an information s haring platform ope n to dire ctly involve d s take holde rs . • Ne e d for more automate d manage me nt s ys te ms . Information capturing and s haring us ing conve ntional me ans le d to lack of or e rrone ous information. or ins te ad of. pre vious ly 26. the ir cus tome rs (s hippe rs or s hipping companie s and re ce ive rs of goods ). According to initial e s timations . • Se ns or te chnology – Smartbin le arne d valuable le s s ons about the ir s e ns ors as a re s ult of the te chnical proble ms that we re e ncounte re d during the de mons tration.

the total cos t s avings for K+N re ach the 1500€/month. which may affe ct the e fficie ncy of the unloading from othe r trucks . The mos t important le s s ons le arnt we re : • The automation of s e ve ral proce s s e s . • Une ve n le ve l of information provis ion on cargo location (low in Sopron.kms /month and of re s pe ctive CO2 e mis s ions /month. • Diffe re nce s and gaps in the communication protocol be twe e n ne ighbouring countrie s during the trans mis s ion of data caus e d low data trans mis s ion rate (36% s ucce s s ful runs ). many s hop owne rs ne ithe r know if the ir goods will arrive on time nor how many ite ms the y will re ce ive at a time . For a truck de live ring s e ve ral palle ts to s hops in a s hopping ce ntre . information on s hipme nts was colle cte d at diffe re nt critical control points through the las t-mile P á gi na 9 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . • The re was much difficulty in finding capable pe rs onne l in Sopron railway s tation to affix the GPS de vice s onto rail wagons and s e tting the m on at train de parture . it would be ve ry us e ful for the s hopke e pe rs to ge t more pre cis e information on the ir inbound s hipme nts be fore the y arrive . the adde d value is counte rbalance d by the incre as e d cos ts . which is as s ociate d to the pos s ible de cre as e in the attractive ne s s of the provide d s e rvice s due to the low ratio of cos t ove r value . Te chnical is s ue s conce rning communication s tandards ’ incompatibility. • Prompt and s e amle s s information provis ion was achie ve d through the information inte rface facilitating re gular and on- de mand update on cargo location to K+N and. • The GPS de vice s we re not plug ‘n’ play. e quating to CO2 e mis s ions s avings of around 1kg/month. • Re garding GPS s ys te m. Othe rwis e . the high ve ge tation and s pe cial infras tructure (i. as he can only bring one palle t at a time . In many cas e s . while othe rs acce pt to us e e xtra hours be fore all arrive d ite ms are place d on the s he lve s or in an appropriate s torage are a. in turn. The ce ntre was owne d by the Ste e n & Strøm Corporation of s hopping ce ntre s . The municipality of Os lo we re cons ulte d and involve d in the dis cus s ions whe n the de mons tration was planne d. ofte n caus e d powe r s upply proble ms e s pe cially whe n the duration of the rail trip from Sopron to The s s aloniki las te d for more than 7 days (including de lays ). and the de mons tration conce pt was de ve lope d in clos e coope ration with the s take holde rs involve d. • Enhance d information provis ion as s is ts the mitigation of fals e as s ignme nts and waiting time s for truck ope rators . The bas ic conce pt of the de mons tration was to colle ct information on s hipme nts de s tine d for s hops in a s hopping ce ntre in Os lo which re ce ive s de live rie s from multiple ware hous e s in the Os lo are a. the norm is that the drive r has to bring the loads into e ach s tore that re ce ive s ite ms and the n re ce ive s his proof of de live ry. re lie ving the pe rs onne l from time cons uming module s and tas ks . • The limite d batte ry life of GPS de vice s (7-8 days max).gradual incre as e of cus tome r s atis faction/s take holde rs ’ attitude towards e nvironme ntal impact and de mo conce pt acce ptability. For de live rie s to the s hops participating in the de mons tration. but has be e n s old to a diffe re nt owne r afte r the de mo took place . A fe as ible s olution could include charging s pe cific type s of cargo (high value . During this time the truck occupie s s pace in the fre ight re ce ption are a. the re will be a ne e d to adjus t the m according to the re s pe ctive ope rational ne e ds and in compliance with the communication protocol and s tandards of the are a of s tudy or application. the price the cus tome r has to pay for the re al time monitoring s e rvice is dis proportionate to the e xpe cte d be ne fit or the (s mall) value of the trans porte d goods . s o for e ach diffe re nt cas e in the future . Se ve ral re tail chains and logis tics s e rvice provide rs participate d in the de mons tration. Se ve ral logis tics s e rvice provide rs . re ducing the re s pe ctive cos ts and CO2 e mis s ions . vulne rable cargo. as re ve ale d from the s take holde r que s tionnaire s urve y that took place during the winte r 2012-2013). s uch as the ve hicle and cargo tracking and tracing.e . • Handling the GPS de vice s (affixation on wagons . The de mons tration was planne d and organis e d by GS1 Norway. and to de mons trate the us e fulne s s of joint buffe r s torage facilitie s in s hopping ce ntre s . In s hopping ce ntre s the re are ofte n long dis tance s from the fre ight re ce ption are as to the individual s hops . The aim of the de mons tration was thus to de mons trate s marte r s olutions for information colle ction and s haring be twe e n s take holde rs in the s upply chain by us e of GS1 s tandards . als o incorporating s ignificant cos ts which have to be charge d to the cus tome r or be inte rnalis e d by the logis tics s e rvice provide r or the rail ope rator. pe ris hable goods . and the ne ce s s ary s oftware and hardware for information colle ction s haring we re obtaine d from te chnology provide rs . The ce ntre re ce ive s de live rie s from multiple ware hous e s in the Os lo are a. tunne ls ) hinde r the data trans mis s ion on cargo location. s o it is e ithe r not worth it or unne ce s s ary. More ove r. re charging and re turning of the de vice to the initial point of rail trip) cons titute s a comple x proce dure . e tc. re tail chains and re taile rs participate d with the ir cargo. In e ithe r cas e . The local s hopping ce ntre manage r as we ll as the ir owne r Ste e n & Strøm we re active ly involve d and contribute d with room for buffe r s torage as we ll as e xte nde d agre e me nt with the ir s e curity company Se curitas who ope rate d the buffe r s torage . while the re duction in truck-kms is e s timate d to be 1200 kms /month. The GS1 Os lo de mons tration took place at Stovne r s e nte r. le ading to the upgrading of the company’s le ve l of provide d s e rvice s . the drive r may ne e d to s pe nd a s ignificant amount of time bringing palle ts to the s hops . Re tail Supply Manage me nt and Las t Mile Dis tribution in Os lo – GS1 Norway While re ce iving goods . not at all in Se rbia). Stock manage me nt is ofte n handle d at chain le ve ls and not by the individual s tore s . Norway with approximate ly 100 s hops . as we ll as to a 9% incre as e and 4% incre as e in time and ‘quantity’ punctuality of de live rie s . which is a s hopping ce ntre in Os lo.). Some s hops e ngage e xtra s taff whe n the y e xpe ct de live rie s . to K+N’s cus tome rs (s hippe rs and/or re ce ive rs ). It is e s timate d that with the gradual purchas e of GPS de vice s for all rail wagons and afte r the s ucce s s ful facing of s e ve ral communication de ficie ncie s in the data trans mis s ion. e ne rgy autonomy and data trans mis s ion rate mus t be face d in orde r to acquire an e xploitable adde d value s e rvice . The re is thus a pote ntial for improve me nt of the fre ight re ce ption proce s s in s hopping ce ntre s . provide d the opportunity for be tte r human re s ource manage me nt.

• Local Chambe r of Comme rce . The us e of Ge ofe ncing at chos e n points ge ne rate d e ve nt me s s age s to s hop manage rs about e xpe cte d de live rie s . The drive r ge ts 30 minute s to finis h the loading or unloading ope rations and le ave the parking s pace . the s e s take holde rs will e xpe cte dly have the e fficie ncy in the ir loading/unloading ope rations incre as e d by the de mo. On the othe r s ide of the s tre e t s ome Ve hicle De te ction Se ns ors (VDS) we re ins talle d on the road s urface . 2012. who will be ne fit from more re liable de live rie s . and that s hops we re offe re d a be tte r s e rvice be caus e the y obtaine d be tte r information on inbound s hipme nts and als o could choos e whe n the y had the ir ite ms de live re d. not able to automatically de te ct whe the r the parke d ve hicle is allowe d to us e the fre ight ope ration parking s pace or is only a private car ille gally parke d. • Othe r road us e rs . s o this ne e ds to be vis ually che cke d by parking office rs . The Municipal Re gulation for On-s tre e t Parking (which include d the rule s for loading and unloading activitie s ) was approve d in 2004 (Municipal Re gulation no. pe de s trians . 2011 and las te d until April 30th. and private cars parke d on place s for fre ight ope rations ). s ignificant conflicts e xis t be twe e n the urban fre ight ope rations . e tc. on the othe r hand. howe ve r. 85/AM/2004) but ne ve r we nt into force due to lack of a s uitable te chnological s olution to s upport it. This te chnology s hould e ns ure that parking s urve illance be come s more e fficie nt and can be done in re al time . and it is re s pons ible for the imple me ntation of the te chnologie s and for e xe cuting all additional activitie s . As a cons e que nce . e ntry to which was handle d by a guard from the s hopping ce ntre 's s e curity company. A s torage room was made available as a buffe r s torage are a. The s e are activate d by the pre s e nce of a ve hicle in the parking place above the m and the n s e nd a me s s age to EMEL’s control ce ntre . name ly to us e ade quate ly the contactle s s cards . The main challe nge for furthe r imple me ntations is that cos ts and be ne fits are dis pe rs e d on s e ve ral s take holde rs . More s ignificant e nvironme ntal e ffe cts can be obtaine d with a large -s cale imple me ntation whe re the logis tics s e rvice provide rs may re -optimiz e the ir dis tribution due to the s avings obtaine d. and that trans fe r of be ne fits be twe e n s take holde rs may be ne ce s s ary. private car us e rs and public trans port.). From the outs e t the following s take holde rs have als o be e n affe cte d by the imple me ntation of this de mo: • Trans port ope rators . Furthe rmore the re is ne ithe r a national le gis lation to re gulate loading/unloading activitie s nor e fficie nt e nforce me nt to re gulate traffic and parking. This de mons tration te s te d two diffe re nt te chnological s che me s to monitor and manage loading/unloading ope rations . in trolle ys . Loading/Unloading Ope rations Manage me nt and Re gulations in Lis bon . The VDS are . This de mo had e ffe cts on the functioning of the trans port s ys te m and on the fre ight ope rations . Its goal was thre e fold: • Te s ting and ide ntifying te chnologie s for controlling and monitoring cargo activitie s (loading/unloading) in the urban conte xt. who plays an important role in communicating with and e ngaging the s hop owne rs and s hopke e pe rs in the de mo. The parking office rs have the n to che ck whe the r ticke ts unde r the winds hie ld did not e xce e d the 30 minute s . The re we re diffe re nt type s of s take holde rs involve d in the s olution te s te d whos e role . Some improve me nts we re e xpe cte d re garding the punctuality of de live rie s . The mos t s ignificant pos itive e ffe cts of the de mons tration we re that s toppage time of trucks could be re duce d by up to 15 minute s pe r palle t. • Applying the chos e n te chnology to the re s t of the city. was thus commis s ione d to find a te chnological s olution to s upport the re vis ion and e ntry into force of a ne w Municipal Re gulation. le ve l of participation and inte re s t in the s olution diffe r. whos e coope ration in the de mo is as ke d for. trucks and vans parke d on s ide walks .g. or parke d on place s for private cars . The us e of this buffe r s torage are a was optional. • Shippe rs and fre ight re ce ive rs (s hopke e pe rs ). who could als o bring the goods from the buffe r s torage are a to the s hops whe n re que s te d by the s hops . Eve nt Information was colle cte d at diffe re nt critical control points through the las t-mile de live ry like the ware hous e /te rminal of the re tail chain or logis tics s e rvice . EMEL was the main s take holde r as the de mo initiator. which ofte n caus e road conge s tion and e ve n blockage (by trucks s topping on narrow s tre e ts for quick loading/unloading activitie s ) and with ille gal parking (e . thus le ading to an improve me nt in the cus tome r s atis faction – P á gi na 10 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . The de mo took place in ave nue Gue rra Junque iro in Lis bon.EMEL The motivation for the EMEL de mo was to tackle Lis bon’s growing proble ms with unre gulate d loading/unloading activitie s . It was the re fore comple te ly s us pe nde d in March 2007 until a fe as ible te chnical s olution is found. who at one hand will be le s s affe cte d by fre ight de live rie s but on the othe r hand may face more re s tricte d parking re gime s . On one s ide of the s tre e t the e xis ting parking me te rs we re adapte d s o that the y can is s ue a s pe cial ticke t valid for 30 minute s for fre ight loading/unloading (Adapte d Parking Me tre s or APM). EMEL. and it s houldn’t re pre s e nt a he avy financial burde n to the city. and facilitate d re duce d s toppage time s for trucks .de live ry and s hare d with the final re ce ive rs of goods by the us e of GS1 Eve nt Manage me nt s tandard. drive rs have to e xpos e a contactle s s card to the APM. who can notify the drive rs in cas e of non-compliance s . For this . This is the frame work in which the STRAIGHTSOL de mo was de ve lope d. in palle ts . The dire ct e nvironme ntal e ffe cts we re pos itive . but limite d in s cale . • Providing e vide nce and the grounds for de ve loping the Municipal Re gulation on loading and unloading ope rations . This is a 450m long ave nue which was chos e n due to the gre at dive rs ity of s hops (ranging from s mall s hops to large one s ) and of loading and unloading proce dure s us e d (by hand. double -parke d. Lis bon’s Public Municipal Company for Parking and Mobility. It s tarte d on De c 5th.

To ove rcome that. and the information on ille gal parking that was colle cte d s howe d that the re was inde e d a re duction of occurre nce s with the imple me ntation of the de mo. Mos t s hops in Brus s e ls which are locate d in re s ide ntial are as . re ce ive r and trans port company at the s ame time whe re by the y de live r to the ir s hops from the ir dis tribution ce ntre s . For mos t s hops in the Re gion.howe ve r this was not pos s ible to me as ure . The e nvironme ntal pe rmit of re tail s hops locate d in the Brus s e ls -Capital Re gion dictate s whe n de live rie s and pick-ups are allowe d. It is als o a note worthy finding that in a proje ct in which a te chnological s olution is s ought it might be inte re s ting to le t the marke t come up with the be s t s olution pos s ible . re s trictive e nvironme ntal pe rmit or not. The ir aim is to provide a good cus tome r s e rvice in a cos t e fficie nt way le s s hinde re d by P á gi na 11 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . at e ach de mons tration s ite the nois e le ve ls during one comple te de live ry routine us ing s ile nt traile rs . The five de mons tration s ite s mutually diffe r in dis tance to the clos e s t ne ighbour. howe ve r. and 7500€ for e ach APM. are not incline d to do that without a guarante e d night’s re s t for the local re s ide nts . • Ope rating cos ts . The de mons tration took place at five re tail s hops within the Brus s e ls -Capital Re gion. which als o s e rve s as a normal parking me te r. This is what was done afte r the EMEL de mo was finis he d. around 30€/place /month. For night de live rie s to be come a common practice all of the s e e nvironme ntal pe rmits would have to be change d or the le gis lation s hould be change d. s ile nt rolling s tock and e ducating drive rs to work quie tly. marke t and bus ine s s as pe cts and involve me nt of s take holde rs . Local authoritie s . Data for the s e two ite ms was colle cte d but no s ignificant change s have be e n found. Bas e d on the ir e xpe rie nce s with off-pe ak de live rie s in othe r Be lgian citie s . As for the cos ts . • Enforce me nt cos ts . the two bigge s t Be lgian food re taile rs . The y als o be lie ve that time and fue l s avings would be achie ve d by avoiding traffic conge s tion during pe ak hours . which include communications (be twe e n the s e ns ors or parking me te rs and the control ce ntre ). trucks and rolling s tock and taking place be twe e n 8pm and 10pm we re me as ure d. it’s pos s ible to highlight the gre at importance of prope rly e ngaging all the s take holde rs from the outs e t of the proje ct. Drive rs in Brus s e ls face ave rage de lays of ove r 33% during pe ak traffic hours . Night De live rie s in Brus s e ls – Colruyt and De lhaiz e Multiple traffic s e rvice provide rs rank Brus s e ls as the mos t conge s te d Europe an city. The de mons tration cons is te d of two parts . de live rie s cannot be made during the night. Both be lie ve that de live rie s during off-pe ak hours would be a way to be tte r s pre ad the ir ope rations and the goods re ce ption at the s hops . The de mo als o allowe d the ide ntification of the challe nge s and ne e ds for improve me nt as s ociate d to e ach one of the te chnologie s be ing te s te d. late e ve ning or e arly morning. the coope ration of the s take holde rs was crucial as the y had an active role in the proce s s and thus we re ke y partne rs for making the initiative work. thre e of De lhaiz e and two of Colruyt. cove re d loading and unloading docks . cos t/financial. The night-time de live rie s we re te s te d for a pe riod of 2 we e ks for e ach Colruyt s hop and for a pe riod of one we e k for e ach De lhaiz e s hop. In the Brus s e ls -Capital Re gion the y ope rate 39 big s upe rmarke ts . de live rie s s hould e nd at 9 or 10pm and cannot s tart be fore 6 or 7am. te mporary pe rmits we re grante d to carry out night-time de live rie s during the s e cond phas e . re lations hip with the s urrounding ne ighbours and location in the Brus s e ls -Capital Re gion. howe ve r. As anothe r s ide to this . This is als o the cas e for Colruyt and De lhaiz e . cove re d (un)loading dock or not. Bas e d on the s e re s ults . The me as ure me nts we re in line with the Nois e Abate me nt Law in force . be it e arly mornings (6am – 8am). The ide a could als o be be ne ficial for s ocie ty in te rms of re duce d conge s tion. re liable and fully matche s the ne e ds . late e ve nings (8pm – 10pm) or the night (10pm – 6am). e s timate d APM life time : 7 ye ars ). The y are large re taile rs acting as s e nde r. Us ually. re gulatory. That is als o the re as on why the y s e t maximum nois e le ve ls that cannot be e xce e de d. The s e de lays do not only affe ct the e ve ryday commute r. both re taile rs are ke e n to s hift s ome of the daily de live rie s to the s e s upe rmarke ts to the night. and it was not be e n quantifie d. A re duction on the ille gal (on-s tre e t) parking affe cting traffic circulation was e xpe cte d. Re garding the le s s ons le arnt from the de mo. incre as e d traffic s afe ty and fe we r e mis s ions . mainte nance and manage me nt cos ts . In this s pe cific de mo. The de mons tration took place be twe e n January 2014 and April 2014. the mos t re le vant one s we re : • inve s tme nt cos ts . Als o cons ide re d as re le vant for this de mo we re the numbe r of de live rie s and pick-ups and the time for loading and unloading activitie s . s ile nt trucks . This can be achie ve d by making a te nde r which s pe cifie s the main is s ue s to be addre s s e d ins te ad of making a full s pe cification. it is als o ve ry important to have an e ffe ctive e nforce me nt s che me that e ns ure s all the non-willing to coope rate comply with the rule s . Some of the de live rie s that us ually take place during the day (8am – 8pm) we re s hifte d to anothe r time of day. but als o the inne r-city fre ight de live re r. a “re gular” parking me te r would cos t 5000€. both re taile rs did s e ve ral inve s tme nts for quie t de live rie s including s ile nt traile rs . as the s ys te m works on s olar e ne rgy the re are no e ne rgy re late d cos ts . curre ntly have an e nvironme ntal pe rmit that doe s not allow the m to load and unload during the night be caus e of the pos s ible nois e nuis ance produce d by manoe uvring die s e l trucks and the e quipme nt us e d during loading and unloading ope rations . The s e can be groupe d as te chnical/te chnological. De lays might be re duce d by s hifting de live rie s to hours with le s s conge s tion. During the firs t phas e . Colruyt and De lhaiz e we re the initiators and owne rs of this STRAIGHTSOL de mons tration. and thus le tting compe titive innovation work. which are the cos ts re late d to ins talling the te chnologie s (roughly 500€ / parking s pace for the VDSe s with an e s timate d life time of 5 ye ars . Howe ve r it is important that this s pe cification is comple te and we ll-done s o that the s olution found is fe as ible . The pote ntial time gains have incre as e d the inte re s t among carrie rs and the bigge r re tail chains to s hift s ome of the de live rie s to the off-pe ak hours . Only a s mall incre as e in re ve nue s was e xpe cte d with this de mo.

In orde r to carry out de live rie s during the night. working and s pe nding the ir fre e time in Brus s e ls . The bigge r the s hift of de live rie s away from the day. The ave rage s pe e d during the night is not that much highe r than during the e ve ning or morning which make s it difficult to unde rs tand that the ave rage fue l cons umption during the morning is s o low and the ave rage cons umption during the e ve ning is s o high. It can be as s ume d that whe n s hops are de live re d to at night. The goal of the TNT de mons tration in Utre cht was to te s t innovative night-de live ry (B2C) conce pts that re s ponde d to the ne e ds of urban re ce ive rs . That approach would de mand the coope ration of re ce ive rs . which can have a pos itive e ffe ct on s ale s re ve nue ove r time . which de s pite be lie ving that night-time de live rie s might le ad to e fficie ncy gains . De live rie s during off-pe ak hours have an impact on the ave rage s pe e d of the de live ry trucks to and from the s hops that participate d. Although it is as s ume d that pe rforming night de live rie s will have a pos itive impact for the citiz e ns of Brus s e ls in ge ne ral. the analys is is bas e d on data from Colruyt. Night-time de live rie s . The re is a big diffe re nce in ave rage fue l cons umption de pe nding on the time of the day the de live ry take s place . Night time de live rie s could le ad to a lowe r fue l cons umption and allow for be tte r capacity utilis ation of both the workforce locate d at the s hops and of the road ne twork. This can be e xplaine d by the fact that CNG ve hicle s have not e nough powe r to pull full load traile rs which le ads to highe r CO2 e mis s ions . As s umptions have be e n ve rifie d with e xpe rt opinions . This is be caus e much le s s De lhaiz e data we re available on time . The main hindrance is . Due to inte rnal TNT is s ue s the s e plans of having a B2C approach had to be turne d into a B2B ins te ad. The local authoritie s want to provide a s ound living e nvironme nt for the ir citiz e ns . The fue l cons umption for the e ve ning de live rie s s e e ms to be more than twice as high as the fue l cons umption for morning de live rie s . The le as t time is ne e de d whe n de live rie s are done be twe e n 6am and 8am (morning) be caus e the re is s ome body at the s hop to he lp the drive r unload and the re is not much othe r work ye t for that pe rs on. The outcome on the (s ocial) bus ine s s cas e is e xpe cte d to be about s imilar for De lhaiz e . Both re taile rs be lie ve that the y can cut cos ts without caus ing e xtra nuis ance to local re s ide nts while a s hift of de live rie s can als o contribute to a s afe r and more e co-frie ndly e nvironme nt. The citiz e ns are the pe ople living. Night de live rie s s core be tte r than day de live rie s . The y the re fore had to approach companie s that outs ource the trans port from the ir own de pot to the ir s hops or othe r ware hous e s to a 3PL . the e ve ning and the morning the ave rage s pe e d is highe r than during the day. Whe n more de live rie s are s hifte d from the day to the night us ing a Euro 6 die s e l truck. Although Colruyt and De lhaiz e are two s e parate re taile rs . but we compare a particular dis tribution of de live rie s throughout the day. The s e data we re us e d to re cons truct two normal we e ks for e ach s ite and the two de mons tration we e ks which me ans that we do not compare day de live rie s with night de live rie s . During the night.the y we re able to ide ntify thre e pos s ible candidate s to participate in the de mons tration.conge s tion. the chance of e mpty s he lve s for cus tome rs in the morning re duce s . So the ne w de mo was re de s igne d to te s t innovative conce pts /te chnologie s that would re s pond to the s e conce rns . The MAMCA re ve ale d that night de live rie s are favoure d by Colruyt as we ll as by the local authoritie s and the citiz e ns . Colruyt and De lhaiz e inve s te d in s ile nt e quipme nt to make night de live rie s pos s ible . the e mis s ion of CO2 would de cre as e (as it is dire ctly linke d to the ave rage fue l cons umption). while the ope rational e xpe ns e s de cre as e with 8%. The y want to be able to live the ir live s as the y want it in a s afe and he althy e nvironme nt. The goal was to have de live rie s e ve nly s pre ad ove r 24 hours . The time ne e de d by the drive r to load and unload the goods is als o impacte d by the time of day. te mporary pe rmits we re grante d to carry out night-time de live rie s . howe ve r. the nois e nuis ance that de s pite the me as ure s that we re take n incre as e s s ome what during the night compare d to a s ituation without night de live rie s . allowing to s hift more ve hicle move me nts from day to night-time . on ave rage . but us ual TNT Expre s s clie nts are us ually the s e nde r of the good. bus ine s s clie nts we re re luctant be caus e the y e xpe cte d it would rais e the ir cos ts and/or doubte d the re liability and s afe ty of night de live rie s . 16% longe r than during the day be caus e the re is no one at the s hop to he lp the drive r. the e mis s ion of CO2 was highe r. TNT Innight The de mons tration by TNT Innight in Utre cht (NL) had to be cance lle d during the proje ct. Night de live rie s do not dire ctly influe nce re ve nue s tre ams . Bas e d on the re s ults of nois e me as ure me nts with s ile nt mate rial. Colruyt and De lhaiz e are de pe nde nt upon the local authoritie s of the Brus s e ls -Capital Re gion. loading and unloading take s . Colruyt colle cte d data on the trips that we re s hifte d as we ll as on s ome of the ‘normal’ trips . One of the s e was a fas hion re tail chain. The aim of the re taile rs is to de mons trate to two important s take holde rs – the local authoritie s and the citiz e ns – that it is pos s ible to pe rform night-time de live rie s without caus ing additional nois e nuis ance . Howe ve r. During the night. In the pilot s ce nario. the capital e xpe ns e s incre as e with 24% due to inve s tme nts in s ile nt e quipme nt. The y are not incline d to change the e nvironme ntal pe rmit or le gis lation without a guarante e d night’s re s t for the local re s ide nts . The impact on the e mis s ion of pollutants was calculate d bas e d on the ave rage fue l cons umption. Be caus e of the us e of a CNG truck during the de mons tration. at le as t the y we re not notice ably affe cte d during the de mons tration. and the plan was that TNT Innight would ope rate the s e inte llige nt locke rs during the night. but the re are fe w obs e rvations and may be e rrors in the e s timate s . To be able to compare bus ine s s as us ual with the de mons tration. The total e ffe ct is an incre as e of 3%. The de mons tration’s approach was to te s t inte llige nt locke rs as s e cure pick-up and drop-off locations for s mall parce ls . local authoritie s pay s pe cial atte ntion to the nois e impact of night de live rie s on the pe ople living in the vicinity of the s hops . In total 99 de live rie s we re carrie d out to the two Colruyt s hops during the de mons tration pe riod us ing a combination of Euro 6 and CNG ve hicle s . e arly morning or late e ve ning. the be tte r the obje ctive s of the thre e s take holde r groups are s e rve d. did not be lie ve that the s e gains would de cre as e cos ts due to the inve s tme nts ne e de d for the ne w te chnologie s (it P á gi na 12 de 18 Investigación e Innovación .

be caus e the s cale d s ce nario of the s e s olutions e ntail a s ignificant incre as e in ope rational e fficie ncy and. financially viable for the initiator (i. le ading to a pos itive impact both for the citiz e ns and the local authoritie s . in s ome citie s or re gions this can be an is s ue .e . air quality.e . in the cas e of TNT. from the s ide of the local authoritie s : the y do not promote . s uch as e le ctric ve hicle s (DHL . factors s uch as trus t. Not only bus ine s s -as -us ual and the de mons tration we re as s e s s e d. Anothe r cons e que nce it that. In many cas e s . ce rtain mis s ing re gulations . We combine d quantitative and qualitative me thods to e valuate the bus ine s s as pe cts of the de mons trations s e parate ly. To s olve this . TNT Innight als o had s ome re marks re garding this de mo. or de s ire d. re s ource s and cos ts . Eithe r be caus e trucks are us e d more e fficie ntly (GS1. Re luctance be caus e of non-financial (and non-rational) re as ons . branding. One ge ne ral conclus ion that can be made is that we s e e that mos t te s te d conce pts have a pos itive impact for the s ocie ty as a whole . it s hould be note d that the be ne fits have to be s ufficie ntly high to compe ns ate for ris k and trans action cos ts while changing ope rations . If we look acros s the STRAIGHTSOL de mons trations and inve s tigate the thre e main e valuation topics . als o a large incre as e in the ge ographic re ach. (e ithe r s upportive like time window e xe mptions . and the s e cond be caus e the y fe lt the re we re s e curity and ins urance ris ks . the re by incre as ing the chance s of s ucce s s of any initiative . but comple x to put s ucce s s fully in the marke t. But e ve n though total be ne fits outwe igh total cos ts . The MAMCA confirms that P á gi na 13 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . s uch as .e . Finally. Als o. DHL. 2. knowle dge .could be che ape r for the s hops participating in the STRAIGHTSOL de mo be caus e of the s upport of the Europe an Commis s ion. a s ucce s s ful bus ine s s mode l is not like ly to be de ve lope d). can hinde r the marke t uptake of the s olutions . a bus ine s s mode l can be e s tablis he d without s upport from outs ide the own organis ation). the y indicate that night-time de live rie s are only che ape r than daytime de live rie s if the volume s are big e nough and if the de live ry ne twork is de ns e e nough. de pe nde ncy and unce rtainty. pos itive e ffe cts on polluting e mis s ions are e xpe cte d for almos t all de mons trations . Stake holde rs are ofte n not able to value the s e be ne fits and we igh the m with the cos ts (i. Ne xt. or re s trictive like a conge s tion charge ) could ve ry much s upport the de ve lopme nt of ce rtain bus ine s s mode ls whe n the y would be impos e d. TNT). The combination of analys e s e nable s drawing conclus ions on the financial fe as ibility of the s olutions . Stake holde rs that be ne fit are in many cas e s not the one s that have the ability/willingne s s to inve s t. rule s and re gulations can be obs tacle s . whe n be ne fits are dis pe rs e d it is difficult to de ve lop a s pe cific product or s e rvice for one cus tome r that is willing to pay for it. Stake holde rs ’ pre fe re nce s are take n into account in the e valuation at e ach s tage of the de cis ion proce s s . TNT Expre s s was not ve ry ke e n to pas s s ome of its own fre ight flows onto its TNT Innight divis ion. Be ne fits are ofte n not dire ctly financial. Oxfam and Colruyt) and/or be caus e the y are s ubs titute d by le s s e mitting ve hicle s . e tc. but not on the long run). Be ne fits are difficult to quantify. pre ve nt s take holde rs from changing the ir be haviour and he nce . The pote ntial re duction of CO2 and air polluting e mis s ions in the s cale d s ce narios are gre ate s t for the TNT and DHL s olutions . What we have le arne d from the bus ine s s analys e s is that the above factors play a ke y role in whe the r or not s ucce s s ful bus ine s s mode ls can be e s tablis he d. induce or oblige night-time de live rie s be caus e the y do not trus t the nois e impact if the conce pt is imple me nte d on a large s cale . The s e challe nge s s hould be ide ntifie d and ove rcome firs t in orde r to make s ure that future e fforts are targe te d e ffe ctive ly. Bus ine s s mode ls and profitability Within STRAIGHTSOL. Finally. In cas e of the latte r. Multi-actor multi crite ria analys is (MAMCA) The MAMCA provide s a s te p-by-s te p approach for a thorough e valuation of city dis tribution proje cts . we ge ne raliz e d re s ults into bus ine s s conce pts that are als o us e ful for othe r urban- inte rurban conte xts . 3. Socio-e conomic e ffe cts and e nvironme nt Although difficult to me as ure during the de mons trations . time s avings . the de mons trate d s olutions are be ne ficial for s ocie ty as a whole . ide ntification and re dis tribution me chanis m for be ne fit/cos t s haring s hould be de ve lope d. compe tition. s ome ge ne ral conclus ions may be drawn. Due to the re luctance of re ce ive rs . the re are various challe nge s that pre ve nt the s olutions from having a s ucce s s ful bus ine s s mode l: 1. Evaluation of de mons trations The de s cription of e ffe cts and le s s ons le arnt for the individual de mons trations above we re bas e d on the e valuation work done for e ach de mons tration. III. The s olutions are e ithe r: not financially viable (i. Se condly. Although the y alre ady ope rate d an e xpre s s night de live ry s e rvice and be lie ve d that night-time de live rie s allow the m to achie ve the ir goals and obje ctive s . acce s s ibility. Cos ts and be ne fits are dis pe rs e d. curre nt agre e me nts . K+N. comfort. attractive ne s s of (public) s pace . In line with this . cargo bike s (TNT) or s malle r ve hicle s (Oxfam). it is difficult – or e ve n impos s ible – to put a price tag on the s e be ne fits ).e le ctric ve hicle s te s te d only during two we e ks of the de mons tration. we e xamine d the bus ine s s challe nge s for large -s cale imple me ntation us ing bus ine s s mode l and bus ine s s cas e analys is . This re quire s additional time . The othe r two candidate s we re outs ourcing the ir logis tics activitie s to anothe r 3PL and als o de cline d to participate – the firs t be caus e the y we re afraid that the re liability of the de live rie s would not be guarante e d if the y change d the ir 3PL and s hifte d from day to night de live rie s at the s ame time . als o various pos s ible future s ce narios we re as s e s s e d to ide ntify the parame te rs that de te rmine whe the r a conce pt is appe aling to a s take holde r or not.

IV. The private actors focus on viability of inve s tme nt and ope rational cos t. induce d by the actions take n at s trate gic and tactical de cis ion le ve ls . Policie s s uch as low e mis s ion z one s or making conge s tion charge s de pe nde nt on ve hicle e mis s ion le ve ls are als o me as ure s that promote s us tainable ope rations . It als o cons ide re d that inputs are not all e qually controllable . in turn. In this latte r cas e . Core que s tions that have to be addre s s e d are for whom value is cre ate d. the local gove rnme nt can play a crucial role in take -up of the s e conce pts whe n the y us e the ir re gulation powe r to s upport s us tainable conce pts . Private actors are not in favour of the de mons trate d conce pts unle s s the y do not have to he lp paying the bill. A ke y que s tion that follows from the STRAIGTHSOL e xpe rie nce s is thus how (local) authoritie s s hould go ahe ad to promote s us tainable urban fre ight trans port s olutions in the future . In the imple me ntation cycle of a roadmap. how the conce pt can be organis e d. For ins tance . e nvironme nt and s ocio-e conomic de ve lopme nt of the urban are a. As pointe d out by Mancur Ols on (1965). This me ans that e ve n if the de mons trations imme diate ly have be e n trans fe rre d into pe rmane nt ope rations . s hould be the fe e de r of tactical obje ctive s . London’s Fle e t Ope rator Re cognition Sche me (FORS) in one s uch e xample whe re companie s may qualify for diffe re nt ce rtification le ve ls and re ce ive be ne fits corre s ponding to the ir le ve l. ne e ds and proble ms s hould fe e d the s e tting of s trate gic obje ctive s .it is ve ry difficult to imple me nt s us tainable city logis tics conce pts . ope rational obje ctive s mate rializ e outputs vis ible to the citiz e ns .s ome are unde r the control of the trans port (or mobility) authoritie s and thus from the ir pe rs pe ctive are fully controllable . the s olution re quire s adapte d be haviour of the main s take holde r which als o is a major barrie r for roll-out. and the pote ntial s ocio-e conomic P á gi na 14 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . The roadmap was bas e d on the as s umption that a ke y input for the Urban Mobility Sys te m (whe re the urban fre ight dis tribution s ys te m is e mbodie d) is the inte raction be twe e n policie s . The e valuation of the de mons trate d s olutions has s hown that uptake and roll/out of the s e s olutions will contribute to re duce d ne gative impacts . the e xpe rie nce s from the de mons trations may be us e d as a bas is for future imple me ntations . For e ach of the s e we have de s cribe d critical de s ign choice s for othe rs who want to imple me nt s imilar initiative s . for ins tance if more de live rie s bound for municipal buildings we re route d through the cons olidation ce ntre . Toge the r the s olutions cove r s ignificant trans port volume s in urban are as . name ly be twe e n land-us e . 2008). The y re quire . Strate gic obje ctive s . For s e ve ral individual STRAIGHTSOL s olutions it is pos s ible to s e e s pe cific public policie s that would s tre ngthe n the profitability for the private ope rators . it is als o appare nt that a s tronge r involve me nt from local authoritie s could have improve d the viability of the conce pt. From the s e re s ults a roadmap to he lp de cis ion make rs to de cide which me as ure s to apply and whe n to apply the m was de ve lope d. both the mobile de pot s olution of TNT Expre s s and the alte rnative de live ry time s de mons trate d by Colruyt & De lhaiz e would be ne fit from conge s tion charging. 2011). which is large ly de pe nde nt on te chnique s that le ad the private age nts to practice s that will contribute to the de s ire d impacts . Many citie s have de ve lope d or are in the proce s s of de ve loping s trate gic plans for urban fre ight trans port. citiz e ns and local authoritie s us ually as s e s s the diffe re nt s ce narios in the s ame way. All de mons trations we re more e xpe ns ive than bus ine s s as us ual. In that s e ns e . In the proje ct the me thodology that was followe d was cre ate d bas e d on the 10-s te p me thodology us e d in the TURBLOG proje ct (TURBLOG. but it is challe nging to e s tablis h profitable ope rations for the ope rator. the e valuations s how that the re is a big role to play by the (local) gove rnme nts . As a cons e que nce . The trans fe rability of the de mons trate d s olutions to othe r conte xts acros s the EU was als o analys e d. public goods provide d through colle ctive actions cre ate s proble ms with fre e ride rs who are not willing to contribute . Finally. Colruyt and De lhaiz e was to pre pare for future policie s like road pricing. too much initial inve s tme nt of a private partne r or cannot be ope rate d in a profitable way. Analys ing the trans fe rability of a me as ure or a policy re quire s a de dicate d me thodology. Pote ntial Impact: The STRAIGHTSOL proje ct was s e t to promote more s us tainable and e fficie nt urban logis tics as we ll as improve d inte rface s be twe e n urban and inte rurban trans port. local authoritie s te nd to focus on the crite ria that the y have in common with the citiz e ns and to cons ide r the ir othe r crite ria as le s s important. All conce pts are be ne ficial to s ocie ty. A city has to work with a broade r pe rs pe ctive than what e ach of the STRAIGHTSOL s olutions re pre s e nts . howe ve r. whe the r s upportive gove rnance is re quire d and e xpe cte d financial cons e que nce s and dis tribution of the s e on diffe re nt s take holde rs . e s pe cially whe n the y are s cale d. Ove rall. Trans fe rability is de fine d as the ability to trans fe r and adopt s ucce s s ful me as ure s from one city (donor city) to anothe r (targe t or re ce ptor city) achie ving comparable re s ults in the latte r (Macário and Marque s . A low e mis s ion z one would probably als o be ne fit the us e of e le ctric tricycle s in the TNT cas e . The e valuation of the s olutions has s hown that the s olutions in ge ne ral contribute to citie s ’ goals of re duce d e mis s ions . The cons olidation ce ntre de mons trate d by DHL Supply Chain in L’Hos pitale t de LLobre gat could als o have be ne fite d from s imilar policie s . Re comme ndations and challe nge s ahe ad The STRAIGHTSOL proje ct has s upporte d de mons tration of s e ve n innovative urban fre ight trans port s olutions . be caus e the y appe ar to be financially unviable . but s ome of the m can be profitable unde r the right circums tance s and with a s ufficie nt s cale of the ope rations . On the othe r hand. And e ve n if the re are s cale d variations that are financially viable . This re fle cts an incre as e d aware ne s s and it can be e xpe cte d that the challe nge s of the urban trans port s ys te m will be me t by ne w policie s during the ne xt de cade . while othe rs are not. This could call for de s ign of s e le ctive ince ntive s to thos e who actually contribute . Parts of the motivation of the de mons tration of companie s like TNT. in particular local and global e mis s ions . The re s ults of STRAIGHTSOL may s e rve as motivation for more s tringe nt policie s that promote s us tainable urban fre ight trans port s olutions .

and the re is als o a pote ntial us e by companie s and municipal age ncie s outs ide the STRAIGHTSOL cons ortium. one pe r de mons tration. The wtrans ne t we bpage re pre s e nts a pote ntial that s hould be furthe r e xplore d. and whe re z e ro e mis s ion trans port is s upporte d by the local gove rnme nt. public s e ctor. A s e t of local works hops . An Exce l s pre ads he e t ve rs ion of the algorithm has be e n made fre e ly available at: http://ve rolog. a range of publications and article s have be e n de vote d to dis s e minating proje ct ide as and re s ults . More ove r. have be e n us e d as are nas for dis cus s ion of pros and cons of e ach de mons tration. The animations and vide os are acce s s ible from the STRAIGHTSOL we b s ite and the STRAIGHTSOL channe l on Youtube . but als o the ge ne ral urban fre ight community. and one de s cribing the e valuation frame work with the aim of making the information as re adily acce s s ible as pos s ible als o to a wide r public. Within the MAMCA. The proje ct has re ce ive d valuable inputs from the s ix me mbe rs of the e xpe rt pane l Europe an Re fe re nce Group. by us ing re mote monitoring data P á gi na 15 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . the proje ct has put s ignificant e fforts into diffe re nt dis s e mination activitie s . Although re mote monitoring of banks has be e n dis continue d by Oxfam due to vandalis m and re liability is s ue s . and this group has als o s e rve d the proje ct by s pre ading information on STRAIGHTSOL re s ults in the ir local e nvironme nts . one de s cribing the de mons trations . Parce ls s hould be e as y to handle . CENIT and the City Council of Barce lona are de ve loping a trans s hipme nt ce ntre with e le ctric tricycle s in the frame work of the SMILE proje ct from MED Programme . Proje ct works hops have be e n us e d for broade r dis cus s ions of the de mons tration conce pts and the outcome s of the de mons trations . In te rms of e xploitation pote ntial and impact of the STRAIGHTSOL proje ct. acade mics . The Unive rs ity of Southampton will als o continue to champion the re mote monitoring conce pt through the ir as s ociation with Smartbin and the re may als o be s cope to de ve lop re lations hips with othe r s e ns or provide rs having a s imilar inte re s t in the us e of re mote monitoring te chnology. Finally.g. Today. The s e cond pote ntial are a of improve me nt is far-re aching s upport by the local authoritie s . the y like d the dynamic as pe cts of the ve hicle routing us e d and the y are curre ntly inve s tigating whe the r the y can s e rvice the ir s hops on a dynamic bas is . DHL Supply Chain have be e n able to re duce trans port cos ts due to incre as e d cons olidation pote ntial ide ntifie d during the pilot. we have als o made two animations . Take -up of innovative and s us tainable urban fre ight ope rations The de mons trations are innovative and re pre s e nt cutting-e dge initiative s for s marte r urban fre ight trans port s olutions . The companie s and municipal age ncie s that have be e n involve d in the proje ct have take n diffe re nt s te ps to build on the e xpe rie nce s from the proje ct and furthe r e xploit the de mons trate d s olutions . The audie nce s have be e n compos e d of re pre s e ntative s from indus try. The conce pt re quire s a s uitable parking location for the MD right in the city ce ntre whe re land price s us ually are ve ry high. TNT Expre s s is looking for a s uitable location with the right fre ight profile and drop de ns ity. The Unive rs ity of Southampton are collaborating with Smartbin. We have in the s e cas e s als o te ame d up with othe r proje cts in the urban fre ight trans port domain to wide n the inte re s ts and the s cope .it/vrp-s pre ads he e t-s olve r. ranging from indus trial e ve nts to s cie ntific e ve nts and e ve nts e mphas is ing policy making and public s e ctor participants . thos e atte nding the Oxfam de mons tration works hop. This pos itive impact has provide d a ne w s ce nario for s e tting and me rging s ome route s ne ar L´Hos pitale t de Llobre gat and the location of the Urban Cons olidation Ce ntre . DHL’s aim is to ide ntify which s upplie rs could provide a re liable s e rvice within the ir s upply chain outs ource d s e rvice s . The City Council are working on the “Municipal Plan for the improve me nt of the Air Quality”. four main dire ctions s hould be highlighte d: I. TNT Expre s s can aim to furthe r minimiz e the cos t to ope rate the MD. bas e d on the ir day-to-day colle ction ne e ds . Anothe r s upportive me as ure could be that authoritie s s tart inte rnalis ing e xte rnalitie s . which is a mandatory docume nt re quire d by Spanis h le gis lation for all citie s of more than 200 thous and inhabitants . Towards the e nd. During the planning and imple me ntation. A de ns e dis tribution ne twork of parce l de live rie s is a critical s ucce s s factor. Firs t of all. as we ll as the contract and coope ration with the s ubcontractor and the type of goods . For the TNT Expre s s de mons tration. The Unive rs ity of Southampton will maintain contact with Oxfam ke y pe rs onne l to dis cus s furthe r e xploitation opportunitie s and contact will als o be made with othe r charity organis ations or local authoritie s us ing donation banks (e . s uch as the Salvation Army). again ranging from trade journals and indus try-orie nte d magaz ine s to s cie ntific journals and confe re nce proce e dings . organis ations and utilitie s . The cons ortium me mbe rs have be e n active during e xte rnal confe re nce s and e ve nts . The targe t groups of the s e works hops have be e n local s take holde rs in e ach city. this was s imulate d by the conge s tion charge s ce narios . Smartbin has e xpre s s e d inte re s t in e xploiting the ve hicle routing and s che duling algorithm that was de ve lope d by the Unive rs ity of Southampton for the Straights ol de mons tration. the s ocial cos t be ne fit analys is (SCBA) and the multi actor multi-crite ria analys is (MAMCA) re ve ale d that the mobile de pot (MD) conce pt can be improve d in two dire ctions . as long as the y are not too voluminous and not in ne e d of s pe cial conditions .impact of the proje ct is cons ide rable .unibo.de is . for mutual be ne fit. In orde r to maximis e the e xploitation of the proje ct re s ults and the pote ntial impact. and to capture vie ws of diffe re nt s take holde rs that have participate d in or be e n affe cte d by the de mons trations . as this inte rne t s ite pe rmits s haring of information among logis tics ope rators and fle e t manage rs with a vie w to improving truck utilis ation. From the s tart of the proje ct we have de ve lope d vide os de s cribing the main conce pts of the de mons trations . Local authoritie s can provide s upport by making s uch a location available for fre e . the re s ults and e xpe rie nce of L’Hos pitale t we re crucial.

and training cours e s have alre ady be e n give n to practitione rs and othe r inte re s te d partie s . The frame work may be us e d by a local authority wanting to improve urban fre ight trans port in its are a. The motivation for de ve loping a ne w e valuation frame work was the ge ne ral lack of s ys te matic e valuation of me as ure s . P á gi na 16 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . EMEL is re s pons ible for the e nforce me nt of this re gulation. For the Kue hne +Nage l de mons tration. the He lle nic Railways (infras tructure . a private company cons ide ring othe r ways of working. An animation has be e n de ve lope d to e xplain the main conce pt in an e as y way in orde r to re duce the barrie rs to e xploring the frame work. Ste e n & Strøm e xpre s s e d in the local pos t-de mons tration me e ting in May 2014 that the y als o fore s e e to incorporate parts of the buffe r s torage conce pt in othe r e xis ting ce ntre s . e s pe cially whe n imple me nte d on a large s cale . Ins te ad. The re are ne arly 2000 s pace s for loading and unloading activitie s all ove r the city. or by cons ultants and re s e arche rs who want to contribute to a be tte r unde rs tanding of the e ffe cts of any give n me as ure in the urban fre ight trans port domain. the s e inve s tme nts are (more than) compe ns ate d cons ide ring that the s olution allows for a more e fficie nt us e of ve hicle s and dis tribution ce ntre ope rations . Stovne r s hopping ce ntre was s old from Ste e n & Strøm to anothe r actor afte r the GS1 Norway de mons tration and the ne w owne rs have othe r plans for the ce ntre . Ste e n & Strøm will de ve lop the conce pt with us e of buffe r s torage . Capital and human re s ource inve s tme nts have to be made to ge t approval to de live r at night. which was approve d and is now officially into force . but it is mos t like ly that the y will provide it fre e of charge to s pe cial cus tome rs . the s pe cifications for this te nde r we re done bas e d als o on the findings of the de mo. the Lis bon Municipality he ld a public cons ultation on a ne w Municipal Re gulation for On-Stre e t Parking. The conce pt will in addition to de live ry s e rvice s be e xte nde d to include re ve rs e logis tics . howe ve r. This ne w re gulation introduce s the re quire me nt for fre ight ope rations ins ide the city to be pe rforme d e xclus ive ly by re gis te re d ve hicle s . which was one of the main goals of the de mo. e quipme nt and rolling s tock provide r) have alre ady e xpre s s e d the ir inte ntion to te s t and us e the de mons tration’s GPS-bas e d monitoring conce pt and incorporate it on condition that any communication and data trans mis s ion de ficie ncie s are ove rcome . A ne w e valuation frame work for urban fre ight trans port The STRAIGHTSOL e valuation frame work has be e n de s igne d in a ge ne ral way to make it applicable for any actor who wants to as s e s s or cons ide r ne w or alte rnative urban fre ight trans port me as ure s . Howe ve r. name ly thos e re garding the is s ue s of ve rification of the parking s pace occupancy and the re al-time communication with the control ce ntre . For the re taile rs it would be e as ie r if pe rmis s ions we re grante d bas e d on a s e t of me as ure s that have to be take n by both the re taile r and his carrie r. Anothe r re quire me nt for s pre ading the s olution is choos ing the right te chnology. The re s ults of this firs t te nde r we re te chnologically dis appointing as no s olid s olution aros e from it. the e xpe rie nce d high cos ts of re turning the GPS de vice s from The s s aloniki to Sopron is one of the gre ate s t challe nge s . the firs t 30 minute s of which are e xe mpte d from payme nt and the re maining time is charge d according to the on- s tre e t parking charge s . Avoiding conge s te d traffic hours during the day s ave s e ne rgy and time . which hampe rs le arning and knowle dge trans fe r acros s citie s and companie s . K+N have not de cide d on whe the r to charge the adde d value s e rvice (offs e t cos ts and guarante e viability of inve s tme nt. Howe ve r. Howe ve r give n the challe nge s as s ociate d with both te chnologie s . But ove r time . was te manage me nt and othe r value adde d s e rvice s . Ste e n & Strøm is owne d by the Fre nch s hopping ce ntre group Klé pie rre (56. It als o introduce s ne w time rule s : fre ight ope rations are allowe d for up to two hours in de dicate d loading and unloading bays . inte rnaliz ing any involve d cos ts . On the othe r hand. in orde r to promote it and attract a gre ate r s hare of the fre ight trans port marke t. Ste e n & Strøm is Scandinavia’s le ading s hopping ce ntre company. it was de cide d to launch a te nde r for the de ve lopme nt of a ne w te chnological s olution for managing fre ight ope rations . A more e qual dis tribution of de live rie s ove r 24 hours the re fore dire ctly re duce s the ope rational e xpe ns e s . Although it was de cide d not to us e e xactly the s ame te chnologie s as thos e us e d on the de mo. re gional and national s cale ). The e valuation frame work come s with a training manual. following the re s ults of the de mo. During the me ntione d pos t-de mons tration me e ting a s hippe r cove ring a range of re tail chains e xpre s s e d that the y could be able to re ne gotiate trans port agre e me nts with logis tics s e rvice provide rs to cove r e xtra cos ts for buffe r s torage ope rations in s hopping ce ntre s . EMEL has take n no de cis ion towards the choice of one of the m. but at the s ame time je opardis ing the company’s attractive ne s s to e xis ting and pote ntial cus tome rs in tough e conomic e nvironme nt) or not (putting the company ahe ad of compe tition at local. off-hour de live rie s are ofte n prohibite d bas e d on the nois e nuis ance the y caus e and approval is ofte n arrange d in te rms of cas e -by-cas e e xe mptions .1%) and the Dutch Pe ns ion Fund ABP (43. a pe rmit/approval from the local authoritie s . Als o bas e d on the re s ults of the de mo.s upplie d by Smartbin for one of the ir clie nts (in the USA. Ste e n & Strøm is alre ady in contact with provide rs of buffe r s torage and s ingle point s tock re ce ipt s e rvice s . and the de cre as e d contribution to pe ak-hour traffic abs orbs s ome of the traffic ne twork conge s tion. which will e xpe cte dly be cove re d. and als o the is s ue s re fe rre d to in the ris ks and challe nge s ide ntifie d above . II. and no furthe r activitie s will take place the re . The re are als o important be ne fits for s ocie ty: The e ne rgy s avings re s ult in fe we r e mis s ions of pollutants and be tte r air quality. and the y are als o trans fe rring e xpe rie nce s from the Emporia s hopping ce ntre in Swe de n. in a planne d ne w s hopping ce ntre in Os lo.9%). the SCBA and MAMCA analys e s re ve ale d that night de live rie s have a pote ntial in te rms of financial and non-financial be ne fits . For the Colruyt and De lhaiz e de mons tration. EMEL is now re de fining the s te ps to finding a ne w and s atis factory s olution. was te oil s e ctor) to inve s tigate how the e xis ting colle ctions may be improve d through the us e of the me thods de ve lope d in Straights ol. In addition to this . Today. The main pre re quis ite is . as the indus try partie s would the n know in advance if it would pay off to inve s t or not. The motivation to s tart the EMEL de mons tration was of a ve ry practical nature . and it was alre ady part of the initial plan to de ploy the s olution to the re s t of the city as s oon as s ome e s s e ntial re quire me nts we re me t.

Proje cts and initiative s building furthe r on STRAIGHTSOL Se ve ral national and Europe an proje cts and initiative s have us e d e xpe rie nce s from STRAIGHTSOL and built furthe r on re s ults from the STRAIGHTSOL proje ct. STRAIGHTSOL contribute s to trans fe rability and uptake of the de mons trate d s olutions with advice in te rms of critical de s ign factors . For this s che me . and guidance on how local authoritie s may promote s us tainable urban fre ight trans port s olutions by s upportive policie s . GPS data will be provide d to the road ope rator. The re s ult is that. would have pos itive impacts on the s us tainability of urban ope rations . Re comme ndations and advice for furthe r imple me ntation of s us tainable s olutions The e valuation of the s e ve n STRAIGHTSOL de mons trations has contribute d to s pe cific advice targe te d towards companie s inte re s te d in e xploring s olutions from the proje ct (s e e als o I. IV.no Info rmació n relacio nada Result ado resumido Efficie nt and e nvironme ntally s us tainable urban fre ight s olutions Document os y final1-285295-final-s upporting-figure s -oct29. It was als o inve s tigate d whe the r the us e of die s e l or LPG to a truck fle e t s imilar to the one owne d by K+N. Ne xt. More ove r. bas e d on the ope rational profile of the fle e t. Lis t of We bs ite s : www. s o that to build a s e amle s s inte rmodal s e rvice for cus tome rs . NORWAY Phone : +47 99700804 E-mail: jan@toi. Als o the proje ct Gre e n and Sus tainable (GRASS). The proje ct was commis s ione d by the Gove rnme nt of the Walloon Re gion and re s ulte d in policy re comme ndations . Addre s s : Gaus tadallé e n 21. (Se nior Re s e arch Engine e r) Te l.e u Proje ct Coordinator: Jardar Ande rs e n. Bas e d on the K+N de mons tration.s traights ol. a ne w coope rative s che me is be ing formulate d with the coope ration of K+N and TRAINOSE re garding information e xchange about cargo arrival on the railway and colle ction. e laboration on pos s ible ways to e s tablis h fe as ible bus ine s s mode ls . dis tribution and furthe r tre atme nt by road. The proje ct has als o as s e s s e d how alte rnative future conditions may affe ct the attractive ne s s of the s e ve n s olutions . die s e l trucks re ach highe r s us tainability s core s than LPG trucks . Norway. The Norwe gian re s e arch proje ct Gre e n Urban Dis tribution has be ne fite d from the indicators of the STRAIGHTSOL e valuation frame work.pdf publicaciones Co ntacto Jardar Ande rs e n. Within the Be lgian re s e arch proje ct Night De live rie s in the Walloon Re gion.e . funde d by the Polis h-Norwe gian re s e arch fund has incorporate d e xpe rie nce s from STRAIGHTSOL. The FP7 proje ct FREVUE be ne fits from the e valuation frame work de ve lope d in STRAIGHTSOL. furthe r analys is on the marke t uptake of ICT us age in s upply chains was made . following an approach to inve s tigate the s take holde rs ’ be haviour with and without the te chnological s upport of GPS s ys te ms and how the ir urban and inte rurban logis tics ope rations are impacte d.III. above ) as we ll as municipalitie s with an aim to improve e fficie ncy and re duce the ne gative impacts of urban fre ight trans port. 0349 Os lo. the STRAIGHTSOL e valuation frame work was us e d to e valuate 5 pilot te s ts on off-hour de live rie s in 5 diffe re nt Be lgian citie s . Ins titute of Trans port Economics . the multi-crite ria frame work that was de ve lope d within STRAIGHTSOL contribute d in s haping a targe te d frame work for the e valuation of the us e of ICT in the s upply chain ope rations focus ing on the ir impact on the final trans port le g. GD010ZES).: +47 22 57 38 40 Corre o e le ctrónico T emas P á gi na 17 de 18 Investigación e Innovación . indicators are als o us e d for the (furthe r) de ve lopme nt of the fre ight quality partne rs hip in Rotte rdam (i. Finally.

e u/re s ult/rcn/157981_e n.Trans port Fue nte de información: SESAM Últ ima act ualizació n el 2015-03-20 Obt enido el 2017-05-29 Enlace permanent e: http://cordis .e uropa. 2017 P á gi na 18 de 18 Investigación e Innovación .html © Europe an Union.

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