Introduction to Science (NSC 201

Department: BBA
Group: 2

Assignment/ Report No: 1

Submission date: 11th June 2017

Dr. Naila A Mahmud
Assistance Professor, Faculty of Business Administration

Farzanul Haque Mony (161200138)
Ehsanul Amin Khan (152200104)
Md. Sehad Chowdhury (133200069)

Introduction Jaundice is a term used to describe the yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. but it is a sign of a health problem. It's transported in the bloodstream to the liver. Occasionally. such as the mouth and nose (mucus membrane)  pale-coloured stools  dark-coloured urine Causes of jaundice Jaundice is caused by a build-up of a substance called bilirubin in the blood and tissues of the body. It may be a sign of a problem in the liver. eyes and the lining of the inside of parts of the body. where it's combined with a digestive fluid called bile. or sometimes in the gallbladder or pancreas. Bilirubin Bilirubin is a waste product created when red blood cells break down. This eventually passes out of the body in urine or stools. Signs of jaundice The most common signs of jaundice are:  yellowing of the skin. aundice is not a disease by itself. . Any condition that disrupts the movement of bilirubin from the blood to the liver and out of the body can cause jaundice. It's bilirubin that gives urine its light yellow colour and stools their dark brown colour. problems with your blood can cause jaundice.

The relative frequency of hepatitis A as a cause of acute hepatitis has decreased in Western society. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) frequently causes acute hepatitis and is the most common cause of chronic hepatitis worldwide. public health policies. They're a warning sign that something is wrong with the normal processes of your body. Globally. C. hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis. When to seek medical advice Always seek immediate medical advice if you develop the above signs of jaundice. . B. and E all have the potential to cause jaundice. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic viral hepatitis in the Western world. Hepatitis D virus is a defective virus that needs the presence of hepatitis B to cause clinically recognisable disease. D.Viral hepatitis (A to E) The viral hepatitides A. Improvements in hygiene. Infection with HCV is self-limiting in only a small minority of infected people. and sanitation have had the greatest impact on hepatitis A.

it's caused by conditions such as Gilbert's syndrome. it's often possible to confirm the diagnosis using imaging tests to check for abnormalities inside the liver or bile duct systems. and minimizing. you'll have a number of tests to find out how severe it is and determine the underlying cause. You'll probably have a urine test and liver function and blood tests. For example. A general overview of the recommended treatment plans for the main types of jaundice is outlined below. Certain lifestyle changes may help prevent jaundice. it's caused by conditions such as gallstones or tumours. will all help.Types of jaundice There are three types of jaundice depending on what's disrupting the normal removal of bilirubin from the body. Pre-hepatic jaundice can affect people of all ages. If intra-hepatic jaundice or post-hepatic jaundice is suspected. including links to more detailed information. not drinking too much alcohol. including children. it's caused by conditions such as sickle cell anaemia. cirrhosis or other liver damage  post-hepatic jaundice (also known as obstructive jaundice) – the disruption prevents the bile (and the bilirubin inside it) from draining out of the gallbladder and into the digestive system. . Treating jaundice There are many possible treatments for jaundice.  intra-hepatic jaundice (also known as hepatocellular jaundice) – the disruption happens inside the liver. Who's at risk Intra-hepatic and post-hepatic jaundice are more common in middle-aged and elderly people than in the young. depending on the underlying cause. They are:  pre-hepatic jaundice – the disruption happens before bilirubin has been transported from the blood to the liver. Diagnosing jaundice If you have jaundice. maintaining a healthy weight.

ensuring you're vaccinated against hepatitis A or hepatitis B if you're travelling to high-risk areas of the world  Minimizing your risk of exposure to hepatitis C because there's currently no vaccine for the condition. you can take precautions to minimize your risk of developing jaundice. such as blood transfusions may be required to replace the red blood cells. For liver damage caused by infection. Preventing jaundice It's not possible to prevent all cases of jaundice because it can be caused by a wide range of conditions or circumstances. If the damage is caused by alcohol or exposure to harmful substances. only a small number of people are suitable candidates for a transplant and the availability of donated livers is limited. such as malaria. Intra-hepatic jaundice In cases of intra-hepatic jaundice. In severe cases of liver disease. . However.Pre-hepatic jaundice In treating pre-hepatic jaundice. medication to treat the underlying infection is usually recommended. The aim of treatment is to prevent further liver damage. although the liver can often repair itself over time. In cases where pre-hepatic jaundice has been caused by an infection. reducing alcohol consumption or avoiding further exposure to the substance is recommended. the most effective way of preventing hepatitis C is by not injecting illegal drugs. little can be done to repair any liver damage. such as heroin. a liver transplant is another possible option. These include:  ensuring you don't exceed the recommended daily amount (RDA) for alcohol consumption  maintaining a healthy weight for your height and build  if appropriate. such as viral hepatitis or glandular fever. the objective is to prevent the rapid breakdown of red blood cells that's causing bilirubin levels to build up in the blood. In England. For genetic blood disorders. anti-viral medications may be used to help prevent further damage. or making sure that you don't share drug injecting equipment if you do. However.

wikipedia.Conclusion Severe hyperbilirubinemia in relatively healthy term or late preterm newborns (greater than 35 weeks’ gestation) continues to carry the potential for complications from acute bilirubin encephalopathy and chronic squeal. Careful assessment of the risk factors involved a systematic approach to the detection and follow-up of jaundice with the appropriate laboratory investigations.html .gov/jaundice.aspx https://medlineplus.nhs. along with judicious phototherapy and exchange transfusion when indicated. References: https://en. are all essential to avoid these