Research Methodology

Statement of the Problem

Through this report we want to find out how children are influenced by the advertisements especially
of confectionary products. So the statement of this project would be ‘Effect of Advertisements on
Children with special reference to confectionary products’
The research process goes within the following confectionary products:
 Biscuits
 Chocolates
 Wafers
 Noodles
 Sauces
 Health Drinks

Objectives of the Study

The subject matter for this Project is to study the effects of advertisement on children. Following are
the main objectives of this report.

 To know the children's awareness about confectionary Products & their advertisements.

 To study the impact of advertisement of confectionary Products on children.

 To know whether is there any connection between TV watching habit of children and their
medium of study or not.

Research Design
Research design selected for this project is Descriptive.

Scope:
The research will be done at Ahmedabad city only.

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Sampling Plan:-

Target Population : - Target population for this research would be children with age of 8-15
and their parents.

Sample Unit : - Sample unit for this research would be children with age of 8-15 and
their parents of a selected area.

Sampling Technique : - Stratified Random Sampling

Sample Size : - 300 (150 children and 150 parents)

Sampling Methods:

There are mainly two of sampling methods which are being used by the marketers:
1. Probability Sampling (Random Sampling)
2. Non – probability Sampling

Probability sampling is a method for drawing a sample from a population such that all possible
samples have a known and specified probability of being drawn.
Non probability sampling is a sampling procedure in which the selection of population
elements is based in part on the judgment of the researcher or field interviewer.
The sampling method for this report would be probability sampling because here each sample
has equal chance of being selected and again it would be stratified random sampling

Data Collection Method:

There are mainly two types of data collection methods which are as follows:

 Primary Data
Primary Data is the one that is being collected by the researcher itself and is being collected for the
first time. Researcher has collected this data with a specific purpose of studying the problem.

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Primary Data in the research process would be collected by filling up questionnaires from children
and their parents.

 Secondary Data

Secondary Data is the data that already exists and in ready to use format and gathered by somebody
else. This data can be in the form of articles in magazines, journals, government reports or any other
historical data. It might even be the different articles in newspaper and on the internet blogs.
Secondary Data that would be used by researcher in the research process as supportive
documents are from the various newspaper articles, magazines related to specific industry, books in
the specific field of advertising and various different internet sites.

Instrument:-
The instrument selected for the primary data is structured questionnaire.

Tentative plan:-
The tentative plan for this research would be as following.
 Research methodology
 Advertising Industry
 Indian Advertising Industry
 Children and Advertising
 Rules and Regulations of Advertising to Children
 Analysis of Primary Data
 Testing of Hypothesis
 Key Findings
 Suggestions
 Conclusion
 Bibliography
 Annexure

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It covers big number of people living in the area. Geographical Limitations 1. Geographic Limitations As we all know that Ahmedabad is becoming a mega city. Financial Limitations Another major limitation for this study is financial limitation. Beneficiaries Beneficiaries of this research would be researchers. There are thousands of primary schools where the students are studying. Finance is the major limitation for any study. students & the company with confectionary products.Expected contribution of the study The research or study will help to understand how children are influenced by the advertisements of confectionary products. 4 . Also the weather of Ahmadabad city is very hot and hence it is impractical to work for more than 3 to 4 hours a day in field. Time Limitation 2. time has always worked as a limitation to the research process 2. (Because children can be interviewed either at the school opening time or the recess time or the school closing time only). Time Limitations For a researcher time has always worked as a barrier to his/her research process. As we are conducting the survey in the different schools of Ahmedabad city and observing the students aging between 8 years to 15 years. Financial Limitations 3. Limitations The major barriers in conducting the survey are: 1. 3. Again for this study finance does matter to the researcher to some extent.

ADVERTISING INDUSTRY 2.1 What is Advertising? 5 .

radio. such as a public service announcement. which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Advertising may be placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages. readers or listeners to take some action. Organizations that spend money on advertising promoting items other than a consumer product or service include political parties. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion.2 History 6 . It usually includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer. including traditional media such as newspapers. to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume that particular brand. television. religious organizations and governmental agencies. interest groups.Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade its viewers. magazines. 2. outdoor or direct mail. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding.

clubs and civic groups. agencies were brokers for ad space in newspapers. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. the first advertising agency was established by Volney Palmer in Philadelphia. N. It was also the first agency to charge a commission on ads. many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations. rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show. each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers. false advertising and so-called "quack"(fake) advertisements became a problem. in 7 . each show was usually sponsored by a single business. developed advertising expanded to include handbills. However. In 1843. classified ads became even more popular. Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. In the early 1920s. which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press. At first. In the United States. which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. radio station owners soon realized they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's broadcasts. extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularized. The radio station owners soon realized they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights to other businesses. In June 1836. However. which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. As time passed. French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages. In those days. the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. as well as printing.W. filling pages of newspapers with small print messages promoting all kinds of goods. allowing it to lower its price. and included: schools. advertising grew alongside. and medicines.As education became an apparent need and reading. As the economy was expanding during the 19th century.

The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now. it was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows. the U. To placate the socialists. such as the U. the capitalist model prevailed with the passage of the 1934 Communications Act which created the Federal Communications Commission. In Canada. However public radio certainly exists in the United States. advocates like Graham Spry were able to convince the government to adopt a socialist funding model. This eventually became the norm for the commercial television industry in the United States. However. Steel Hour.exchange for a brief mention of the sponsor at the beginning and end of the show.S. 8 .up to and including having one's advertising agency actually writing the show.S. Dumont had trouble finding sponsors for many of their programs and compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses. The 1960s saw advertising transform into a modern approach in which creativity was allowed to shine. However. a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame. the Dumont television network began the modern trend of selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Some of the most creative and long- standing American advertising dates to this period. This practice was carried over to television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. producing unexpected messages that made advertisements more tempting to consumers' eyes. In the early 1950s. However in the United States. convenience. and necessity". In some instances the sponsors exercised great control over the content of the show . a fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialize this new medium and the people who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered the commons. This period of American advertising is called the Creative Revolution and its archetype was William Bernbach who helped create the revolutionary Volkswagen ads among others. to be used only non-commercially and for the public good. Congress did require that commercial broadcasters operate in the "public interest. England followed suit with the development of the BBC. The Volkswagen ad campaign—featuring such headlines as "Think Small" and "Lemon" ushered in the era of modern advertising by promoting a "position" or "unique selling proposition" designed to associate each brand with a specific idea in the reader or viewer's mind.

This type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative. in the U. such as QVC. magazines. users. Nonetheless. unobtrusive ads intended to help. giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brand messages. and various innovations utilizing social network services such as MySpace . and outdoor posters. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising. offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. Home Shopping Network. Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue. in 1925.S. which involve unusual approaches such as staged encounters in public places.9 percent. specialty channels emerged. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower—about 2. By 1998. A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing". such as via product placement. signs on streetcars. television and radio had become major advertising media. The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in media. This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and "embedded" ads. having consumers vote through text messages. Marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the "dot-com"(. For example. which causes consumers to buy the product or idea. rather than inundate. the main advertising media were newspapers. At the turn of the 21st century.com) boom of the 1990s. 9 . Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2. Guerrilla advertising is becoming increasing more popular with a lot of companies.4 percent. including channels entirely devoted to advertising. a number of websites including the search engine Google. and ShopTV Canada. started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant. As cable and satellite television became increasingly prevalent. and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message. MTV ushered in a new type of advertising. Pioneering the concept of the music video.

Use of women to promote a concept or product is increasing day by day. there is no need to ask females to do an ad for a men’s shaving cream. In the movement for equal status and fair treatment to women. but they vary according to cultural. History bears testimony to the fact that the great Romans practiced advertising. shaping our attitude and beliefs. Advertisements pervade every aspect of our life and most of us are hardly aware of it. The meanings that are created by media are not fixed. an important part is attributed to the mass media. The potentialities of advertising multiplied when manual press was invented in the 15th century. Symbolism is one of the major aspects of advertisement and it is to be noted that a change has occurred in this context. The common man judges the products on the basis of the understanding his society and culture has inculcated into them. Advertising is. hence they are important target of these advertisers. They have created a world of 10 . But most of these ads hardly need women as models. It creates an entire worldview. 2. In the advertisement world. advertisers have picked up women for advertising of consumer commodities.3 Changing scenario of advertising Marketing through advertising is considered an important variable in the global business. historical and social context of the people concerned. Women in many cultures make the majority of consumption decisions. For example. Advertising is second only to films as far as its influence on the society is concerned. The list is uncountable. After that the demand has been increasing. particularly to electronic media. the most influential and powerful medium in the present commercial society. The central position of media in daily life ensures its role in advertising business. Most of the companies want to attract the consumers by using the physical look of the models. Their surnames indicated their occupation. in fact. So the advertisers find it easier to sell the product by using the same gender. Women are used in TV commercials as weapon of persuasion.

11 . We try to imitate whatever is shown on the Television.fantasy. The media must play the role of a watchdog in such a situation. And we are drawn towards that world without realizing much about the realities of life.

doors of bathroom stalls. banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"). shopping carts. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. web banners. virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none exist in real-life. Commercial advertising media can include a wall paintings. Television The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format. subway platforms and trains. the opening section of streaming audio and video. shopping cart handles (grabertising). The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009). cinema and television adverts. taxicab doors. mobile telephone screens.4 Types of advertising Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. human billboards. skywriting. in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins. and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Virtual product placement is also possible. musical stage shows. 12 . newspapers. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. sides of buses. printed flyers and rack cards. billboards. stickers on apples in supermarkets. as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. bus stop benches. 2. More controversially. roof mounts and passenger screens. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising. magazines. street furniture components. web popup. posters. radio. The majorities of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience.

Press advertising Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper. A form of press advertising is classified advertising. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base. such as a major national newspaper or magazine. The word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the words "information" & "commercial". this becomes its major disadvantage. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials.Infomercials An infomercial is a long-format television commercial. which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small. The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase. advertising networks and e-mail marketing. online classified advertising. Social network advertising. magazine. display. 13 . Rich Media Ads. Radio advertising Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. and often demonstrate products and their features. Online advertising Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. in text ads. typically five minutes or longer. While radio has the obvious limitation of being restricted to sound. so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals. or trade journal. to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. banner ads. including e-mail spam. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages. narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service. Radio advertisements are broadcasted as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Infomercials describe.

some being backlit. large banners strewn from planes. and long-term campaigns  Conventions  Sporting events  Store openings and similar promotional events  Big advertisements from smaller companies  Others In-store advertising 14 . such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations. however. including:  Target advertising  One-day. and in stadiums. in shopping malls or office buildings. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world. Most often. The billboards are often lighted. Mobile billboard advertising The RedEye newspaper advertised to its target market at North Avenue Beach with a sailboat billboard on Lake Michigan. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients. they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers. for example. Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. continuously or periodically rotating among a set of advertisements. in some cases. and others employing spotlights. they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic. they can also be specially-equipped cargo trucks or. Some billboard displays are static. while others change.Billboard advertising Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists.

as in the movie Minority Report. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. Ford. money. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement. the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand. VAIO. when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. such as at eye level. following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer". at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters. which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. for example. For example. I. swimmer Michael 15 . however. in a film. Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. the main transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front. where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times. and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays. China.In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded. or his watch engraved with the Bulgaria logo. where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner. eye- catching displays promoting a specific product. For example. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. product placement for Omega Watches. also known as guerrilla advertising. most notably Casino Royale. Another example of advertising in film is in I. Advertisers often advertise their products. Robot. Similarly. popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides. fame. the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard Celebrities This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power." because the film is set far in the future. BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films. Covert advertising Covert advertising. calling them "classics.

Online advertising is possible only if one has its own website. pay per click advertising. but the Indian Online Association (IOA). affiliate. then you can experience the difference that online business can bring on your business. largely in the age group of 20 to 40 . blog and interactive marketing services.Phelps' contract with Kellogg's was terminated. It is necessary to help people find you more easily. know more about the services and products that you offer and assure people what real difference you can bring about in comparison to other similar service providers. So. email marketing. Currently. To make your website worth interesting. as Kellogg's did not want to associate with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana 2. online advertising comprises less than one per cent of the pie.2 billion dollars annually. having a website is just like having a shop.5 Recent Trends in Advertising  Internet Advertising Internet Marketing is the online advertisement and selling of products. It's reboot time for Indian advertising with predictions that the online segment is likely to cross the 100 million dollar mark by 2010. The total spending for 2004-2005 was about 18 million dollars. predicts this will touch 57 million in 2006-2007. India's advertising industry generates about 2. Having a website for a particular business is worthless until and unless people know about your business and put their trust and likings on services that you provide. If these strategies are dealt attentively. different Website advertising strategies are available today. know your presence. they obviously visit it. such as. if people find you. Internet Advertising is the latest and most effective method of business promotion. 16 . and visit it again if they find it really interesting. There are 26 million Internet users in India. search engine marketing through search engine optimization. services or businesses through the Internet.a target-base for India's rapid growth advertising industry is increasingly looking at. according to a study by MSN. article. banner advertising. according to industry sources.

dollars in 2004. Unlike print and TV. Print and television still hog a major share of Indian advertising at 700 to 920 million dollars annually.6 million U. And there were more than two dozen first time advertisers the same year. Internet is increasingly a part of the media mix for advertisers as they realize its high potential in reach and penetration. the online operations of one of India's leading media groups estimated total advertising on its site to be around 3. and the advertiser too can filter targets in terms of groups and locales. Indiatimes.000 reach is very effective when compared to other media.com. It largely comprised advertising and fee-based services like online subscriptions.S. 17 . The cost per 1. a fear of venturing into a new area. All top advertising agencies in India from JWT. Rediff saw an increase of over 70 per cent in online revenue on its India operations in 2004. So what's holding back the online advertising boom? It’s the unfamiliarity with the new medium.5-4. mobile downloads and online shopping. Yahoo! India saw a 100 per cent growth in advertising in 2004. The mobile industry has far overtaken Internet with a user base of 50 million in India and is growing by the day. But digital advertising industry players point out that television too saw a sluggish beginning and then exploded as cable TV entered the arena. The Internet has great cost advantage as well. Lowe Lint’s. a lack of understanding of its reach and potential. Most in the advertising industry agree that today even a brilliant campaign has a vital element missing if there is no Internet presence. the consumer can decide when and how he wants to be exposed to a campaign. Finance is the main sector going for Internet advertising in India. Yahoo and MSN are also seeing a revival.it has only 26 million users in a country of one billion .is another reason. The limited reach of Internet . O&M and Mudra have interactive arms or links with the same. Leading portals in India like Rediff.

92.00.00.00.25.000 IAMAI 2007 4.000 ITU 2003 2.00.000 ITU 1999 28.000 C.00.000 ITU 2000 55.I.00.000 ITU 2001 70.65.000 ITU 2002 1.000 Internet world star 18 .00.000 ITU 2004 3.20.00.000 C.Almanac 2005 5.06.00.I.00.Almanac 2006 4.00. Internet Users in India: Year Users Usage Source 1998 14.

Korea and West. As 70% of the SMSes have less than 40 characters. Some FMCG. 19 . sponsored content. MMS broadcast. it prevails as the first medium through which advertisers can reach such a large audience on an individual basis. it has potential to grow at 200% a year. Hundreds of millions of ads are already being run. In India. Targeted mobile advertising is 50% more acceptable to mobile internet users than untargeted ads. according to the consumer mobile advertising report conducted with more than 1. value added services provider Cellebrum has come up with a solution where micro advertisements are inserted into the text messages of subscribers who opt-in to the programme in exchange for incentives such as free SMS or reduced tariffs. Reliance and Tata Teleservices are exploring the option. IPTV and high end gaming on mobile phones will open new avenues for advertising on mobile. With the average revenue per user (ARPU) constantly falling.  Mobile Advertising Mobile advertising in India is at a very nascent stage compared to markets like Japan. Europe and India. click-through rates are much higher than online. MTNL. Currently. it could be a saving grace for operators. it is restricted to SMS based activities in the country. WAP ads and product placement in games. IDC believes with more than two billion mobile users in the world. “The future for mobile advertising is already here. but many are reported to be preparing to get into the act. The size of mobile advertising in India is miniscule. set to grow to Rs 20-25 crore by March 2008. giving operators a new revenue source.2001. operators like Bharti Airtel. It is clearly a medium that needs to be evangelised to brands as how Internet advertising was done to brands in early 2000 . The worldwide mobile advertising market is pegged at $1 billion currently. despite not being on many marketers’ radars yet.200 mobile internet users across the US. the ARPU in December 2006 has declined by 115 to touch Rs 316. The growth of 3G networks. Mobile advertising can take many forms like SMS broadcast. but feel it will take some time for the format to take off in the country in a big way. beverage and entertainment companies have tested MMS too and few operators have also tried to get sponsorship revenue from value added services. From Rs 356 in March last year. it is currently a Rs 5-6 crore market. Seeing the huge potential of mobile advertising in future.

companies hold public competitions to create ads for their product. Films like Krish had over a dozen placements including Lay’s. a common and frequently made mistake made in current commercials is that they often end up communicating product features while obscuring their message and emphasizing technological prowess. offering a cash prize to the winner.  Freelance advertising In freelance advertising. we will hear the advertising message. Pepsico held such a contest for the creation of a 30-second television ad for the Doritos brand of chips. before we get connected. we will have the freedom to choose whether we wish to pay for our mobile calls or have it free. It may ultimately decrease the importance of advertising agencies by creating a niche for independent freelancers  Embedded advertising Embedded advertising or in-film ad placements are happening on a larger scale now than ever before. During the 2007 Super Bowl. is still in its infancy. Soon enough we will be given a free mobile phone and be allowed to make and receive calls for free provided we are willing to pay with our attention to short advertising messages while using these phone. Faber Castell and Hero Honda. This reflects concerns over how communicating a multitude of messages in a single advertisement may easily distract consumers and cause difficulties in understanding the underlying message. This message will more than likely be of some interest to us because the advertiser would have information about who we are based on what content we subscribe to from the ocean of published content. In short. it is based on the premise that one unique selling proposition (USP) is effective. this trend was noticeable in industries where technological capability was a differentiating point and complex functions were the competitive edge. thus weakening the advertisement’s effects. the best one of which is chosen for widespread distribution with a prize given to the winner(s). Bournvita. This type of advertising. Samsung. For instance. In the not too distant future. So.  Shift in Message from Product Features to Consumer Benefits A common rule in the advertising industry is the “one message” strategy. 20 . In particular. however. Chevrolet held a similar competition for their Tahoe line of SUVs. when we answer or make a call.

brand awareness and brand power. 21 . Selecting a simple and clear message as well as delivering messages focusing on consumers' benefits is helpful to raise message appeal. The keys to success for these advertisements have been the use of consumer language and attractive images when communicating features and technologies. communicating product characteristics. Recent successful commercials have instead adopted a strategy of soft appeal focused on consumer benefits. rather than one of hard appeal.

Another objective can be to persuade the customer to purchase the product. they need to understand what makes potential customers behave the way they do. The main objective here is to build primary demand. The mission of advertiser is to reach prospective customers and influence their awareness. The information may include its existence. The use advertising as a way to build preference and to encourage customers to change brand. associations of the product 22 . The other response is that advertising searches the way of persuading consumers to purchase the advertised products by appeals to snobbery. To succeed. attitudes and buying behavior. 2. One objective can be to inform customers about new product or a price change.6 The Role of Advertising: Advertising is the means by which goods or services are promoted to the public. possible objectives. for which there needs to be a significant potential market  The means of advertising cheaply to large numbers of people  A population with sufficient education to be able to understand advertising messages Advertising is a marketing function. The advertiser’s goal is to increase sales of these goods or services by drawing people’s attention to them and showing them in a favorable light. The fundamental purpose of advertising is to influence people to purchase various goods and products. Therefore advertising is seen as providing information to consumers. They spend a lot of money to keep individuals (markets) interested in their products. promotion. quality. What is the role of advertising in the demand function? One response of this question is that a company can sell more of its product by informing consumers about the product. In this sense advertising is a phenomenon that aims to persuade or influence people. a number of factors have to be in place  The goods and services to be advertised  Competition between different providers of the same kinds of goods and services. price. etc. For advertising to exist. and Kotler claims that advertising can have a number of different.

for example television. A repetition of such effects. There are many channels of media to use for advertising. 23 . Customers are jealous of this perfection. cinema. The immediate influence of advertising on sales plays a gatekeeper role to all further effects. Advertisement’s full effect can be only valued if its long-term influence is taken into account as well as its short and medium- term effects on sales. It displays ideal individuals wearing the new clothes and looking good. outdoor and transport poster. a repetition of short-term effects). it is mostly felt within seven days of an advertisement’s exposure). These terms make it possible to evaluate the productivity of an advertising campaign. amounts to a medium-term influence. Without it there will not be medium term effect (i. Advertising shows the last style and the new popular products in the market. There is a time dimension at advertising. printed media. they go out and purchase in hopes of reaching perfection. measured at the end of a year. advertising is the most important part of the whole marketing strategy. radio.with favored people or situations. Advertisement’s influence on sales is immediate (i.e.e. and long-term effect. So that. Marketers use television as the most powerful medium of communication. repetition of the same message and so on. to measure if the campaign shows a financial return on the investment and is thus accountable According to Doole & Lowe (2004).

Its total revenues for 2008 are estimated to have reached $1. McCann Erickson. Euro RSCG Worldwide returned to the global scene under a new management group and immediately earned 24 . United States McCann Erickson is the largest agency with global coverage. Euro RSCG Worldwide.4 B. United States DDB is one of the triumvirate networks under the portfolio of Omnicom.0B. Its main business focuses on traditional advertising operations. Its estimated revenues for 2008 are at $1. Its estimated total revenues for 2008 amount to $1.5 B 4. BBDO Worldwide has long been recognized as the most prestigious advertising network globally.7 Leading Advertising agencies in the world Here is the rundown of the top 10 advertising agencies that made significant mark in the advertising business and has pioneered the known best practices in the advertising industry. United States TBWA Worldwide completes the triumvirate of networks under the Omnicom advertising group. United States BBDO Worldwide is one of the major three networks under the umbrella of Omnicom. It is more on the non-traditional lines and usually dabbles on the “quirky” side of the business. It also offers a range of innovative marketing services under the umbrella company known internationally as McCann World group. TBWA Worldwide. 5. France Euro RSCG Worldwide is one of the two major advertising agencies in France. After growing through some organizational challenges. Its estimated total revenues for 2008 amount to $2. BBDO Worldwide.7 B. Its global reach covers about 75 countries. DDB Worldwide. 2. 2. 3. It maintains a lower profile compared to the other two networks that form the triumvirate network of Omnicom. 1.

Its core business is the integrated marketing business portfolio focusing on a wide range of specialties and disciplines. 9.recognition in major publication in the UK and the US. 7. Its estimated volume of business for 2008 is about $955 M. 6. United States JWT is sort of a legend in the advertising world. United States Y & R Brands is the umbrella organization of several leading marketing service companies which include leading agencies Y & R and direct marketing outfit Wunderman. 10. It broke ground in 1998 and has since then been focusing on innovative projects on site 25 .2 B. Publicis Worldwide Publicis Worldwide is the biggest ad network under the umbrella group Publicis Groupe which also includes Saatchi & Saatchi and the Leo Burnett advertising network.2B. The advertising agency implemented major and strategic changes. JWT Worldwide. Canada Wisdek is one of the emerging and leading online marketing and advertising outfits. It is recognized as the first advertising agency that was ever organized. It has gone through difficult stages in its operations primarily to the disparate performance of the member agencies.1 B. It is a 100% subsidiary of WPP although it maintains a fairly self contained operation. Its estimated 2008 revenues are placed at $1. United States DraftFCB officially started business operations in 2006. Y & R Advertising. It is renowned for innovative and creative marketing solutions designed for companies that are highly reliant on the Internet. DraftFCB. Its estimated revenues for 2008 are about $1. Wisdek. 8. The estimated revenues for 2008 of Y & R are placed at $ 1. It has made significant inroads in its ranking with strategic acquisitions.

Wisdek is the pioneer in an erstwhile non-existent business interest.placements on various search engines. 26 .

INDIAN ADVERTISING INDUSTRY 27 .

branding. If the experts are to be believed then the industry in the coming times will form a major contribution to the GDP. The creative minds that the Indian advertising industry incorporates have come up with some mind-boggling concepts and work that can be termed as masterpieces in the field of advertising. Growth in business has lead to a consecutive boom in the advertising industry as well. Indian advertising industry in very little time has carved a niche for itself and placed itself on the global map. the capital employed or the number of personnel involved. It has emerged as one of the major industries and tertiary sectors and has broadened its horizons be it the creative aspect. media planning. Mccann Ericsonn. This is primarily because of the reason that the industry offers a host of functions to its clients that include everything from start to finish that include client servicing. Keeping in mind the current pace at which the Indian advertising industry is moving the industry is expected to witness a major boom in the times ahead. Ogilvy and Mather (O&M). It has evolved from being a small-scale business to a full-fledged industry. market research. Indian advertising industry with an estimated value of 13. With the market gaining grounds Indian advertising has every reason to celebrate. They have come a long way from being small and medium sized industries to becoming well known brands in the business. Advertising agencies in the country too have taken a leap. 200-crore has set eyeballs gazing with some astonishing pieces of work that it has given in the recent past. With all this there is 28 . Businesses are looking up to advertising as a tool to cash in on lucrative business opportunities. media buying. pre and post campaign analysis.1 Introduction The Indian advertising industry is talking business today. marketing. creative conceptualization. Mudra. The Indian advertising today handles both national and international projects. Indian economy is on a boom and the market is on a continuous trail of expansion. and public relation services. Leo Burnett are some of the top agencies of the country. Rediffussion. 3.

To meet all the demands in adverting sector. thus saleable. various avenues are opening up in advertising industry. Be it is print.Entry of global consumer companies with large advertising budgets . The Advertising Industry in India is getting recognized worldwide with its superior quality work and innovation.Higher degree of competitive concentration among consumer companies . 29 . every medium plays a significant role in the growth of this industry. 127 billion by fiscal 2006. radio. It ensures tremendous growth and scope for the employees. The key factors which have contributed to growth of the Indian advertising industry include: . many agencies are coming to the scene. Rapid economic growth of the country on the back of economic liberalization and deregulation. and is expected to grow at 14. but if you look at the advertisements on Indian television nowadays. . Today Advertising Industry in India is booming with revenue. India is a hub of creativity and this is evident from the fact that more and more people from Indian advertising industry are being accepted world over and imposing a lot of respect in international advertising community. Visibility is the mantra of success these days and advertising makes sure that your product.2% to reach Rs. The change has been a slow and steady one. service is visible. With development in the technology.Increase in consumer riches. Indian advertising industry is fast catching up with their western counterparts. Today. During fiscal 2005. you’ll be vastly surprised. television or Internet. It is estimated that about 2. It is a very successful industry which generates lot of revenue. Advertising Industry in India is surging with revenues.definitely no looking back for the Indian advertising industry that is all set to win accolades from the world over.Growth in media vehicles leading to increase in media infiltration. the gross advertising spend in India is estimated at Rs 111 billion.2 billion dollars are generated in this industry every year.

industry experts say. and it becomes easier to make an impact on the customer. The list is endless. Now. the humor involved. when it was believed that sex sells anything and everything. the times have changed. The Indian consumer no longer falls into an uneducated. People remember jokes. sells the best. easy to please. Humor. There were times. Film stars and cricketers were roped it to sell soft-drinks to massage oils. 30 . Then came the era of glamour and celebrities. Ads were made for cycles and pens.

and has its own identity in communication of brands. Ogilvy has struggled to build brands and has proved its ability to build brands. The agency does its best to enhance the customer-brand relation.  Mudra communications Pvt. India): After the merge of Lintas India Ltd. 750 crore.Lowe.Headed by Mr. media buying house. The most international of the locals are words written to describe the identity of Ogilvy. continues to be a member and is known as the ‘Independent Brands’ division which is the only specialist in advertising and marketing communications.2 Top ten Advertising Agencies of India  Ogilvy and Mather Limited:. inculcate feelings.Head: Mr. 3. Piyush Pandey: The most local of the internationals. channels and media. direct marketing. events. design consultancy. For this. The advertising agency inculcates advertising. Ltd. India Pvt. Lowe Lintas India is a successful agency which is inclined towards quality creative advertising and works for the benefit of its clients. Ltd:. with Lowe Lintas and Partners group of the UK. These. Pranesh Misra (President & COO . Ltd:. The advertising agency always believed in doing interesting work that pleases its clients. what this means is that the advertising agency follows the local market.Head: Mr. ideas. public relations. Madhukar Kamath: The agency practises the art of communication in order to express ideas that can shape the brands. Mudra peeps into the local consumer markets. drama and painting. thoughts and emotions for the success of a brand. rural communications and interactive communications. Basically. understands the customer's needs and then networks worldwide with MNC and other relevant clients.  Lintas India Pvt. the agency is influenced by the artistic traditions of Indian dance. the agency partner of Lowe in India. The turnover of Lintas is Rs. It looks for the entrepreneurial zeal which causes continuous and speedy growth for each brand. it undergoes the process of scrutiny of the tools and techniques which work well to build a long and lasting association with a brand. in turn. Enterprise Nexus. 31 . market research. it is now known as Lowe Lintas. In all its years of business. As the name suggests.

clients. In this process. dealing with market research. Ltd.):. Mahesh Chauhan (President): This advertising agency places its people first. Around the mid-seventies. FCB-Ulka has made a smooth transition from a creative shop to a large mainstream agency. innovation.  FCB-Ulka advertising pvt.Mr. Ulka is known to stand out. Srinivasan K Swamy (Head) It is the agency of the worldwide-renowned BBDO network.  RK Swamy BBDO Pvt Ltd:. It was founded in 1961. ranks number 10 in the world. It believes that the strength of a brand lies in the efforts the people of the organization make. Clients perceive the agency as a resource of ideas which tell the brand’s story to the customer.  JWT (Hindustan Thompson Associates Pvt. FCB-Ulka is seen as a turnaround specialist . Rediffusion DY&R follows system-driven ‘thinking’ in its culture. the agency includes innovative ideas. The symbol or logo of the advertising agency is Hansa and is known to separate milk from the water. The efforts of FCB-Ulka deserve praise. The agency practises high level of commitment and spirited teamwork for a common cause.Head Mr. FCB-Ulka had become the fifth largest agency in India and has sustained this status till date. FCB-Ulka has made its mark in India as Ulka Advertising. Similarly. RK Swamy of BBDO is capable of deriving the essential elements from the irrelevant ones in order to promote each brand. case studies.an agency that does brand building and more. well-thought out leadership and talent. On the creative front. It also gave recognition to those brands that were not in the limelight earlier but are now completely above other market players. The agency attracts right minds because it thinks of a perfect balance between creativity and strategy. being one of the the top three advertising agencies in the USA.  McCann-Ericsson India Ltd:. The advertising agency suggests comes up with solutions for its clients regarding their marketing communication problems and provides them with intelligent solutions and supports them in attaining their goals. awards.Sorab Mistry (Head) 32 . Santoor soap did thorough research and focused on advertising which gave growing sales figures against stiff competition from Levers and P&G brands.Colvyn Harris (Chief Executive Officer): The advertising agency has a special portfolio which includes creativity.  Rediffusion DY&R Pvt Ltd:. Anil Kapoor (Managing Director and CEO): FCB. Not surprisingly.Mr.Head:Mr. Ltd:.

Grey Global): The agency handles above the line advertising for the Grey group.Mr. It generates big brand ideas. Nirvik Singh (President south east Asia & chairman South Asia. It has had Ambuja cement. Lee and many more brands in its portfolio. It has launched Dominos in India.  Leo Burnett:. Leo Burnett. Thums Up.This advertising agency is a leading global agency and has the power and passion to achieve its mission . It's no wonder that the founder of the advertising agency.Mr. But each of them are making their way to becoming the best. The additions and deletion of a few of them formulates the list.  Grey worldwide (India) Pvt Ltd:.McCann-Ericsson is known as a world class advertising agency and has found outstanding talent in its employees. It believes that the brands can become and remain leaders by building better ideas.it is the means through which it can generate plenty of creative ideas. It regards the pencil as its engine no matter the size . regards the pencil as a metaphor for the kind of ideas he was coming up with for his clients. 33 . The agency is never too satisfied with its endless efforts in building up a brand. Arrow. and their efforts are making are each making a mark in the Indian advertising scenario. Arvind Sharma (Chairman and CEO): The advertising agency is totally idea-centric. The mission of the agency is to remain the largest global integrated agency to leading brand ideas. The list of the top ten advertising agencies is not always stable and remains interchanging.

CHILDREN & ADVERTISING 4.1 Introduction 34 .

4. Children are otherwise defined according to national jurisdictions. advertising for children is now framed by a mix of legislation and advertising self-regulation. However. There is no universal definition of a child (although UNESCO .the United Nations Educational. event sponsorship and promotions can also be means to advertise to children. For the purposes of advertising law. as defined by national legislation and advertising standards. 12 is commonly used as a cut-off point. defines early childhood as ages 0– 8 years). Rules on advertising to children have largely evolved in recent years.2 Advertising standards 35 . on the basis of the widespread academic view that by the age of 12 children have developed their behavior as consumers. food and beverage companies (44 companies reporting to the FTC) in the US spent approximately $1. Scientific and Cultural Organization. only data for specific sectors.6 billion in 2006 to promote their products/services to children. the definition of a child varies from one jurisdiction to another. in-store advertising.  Scope and Form Advertising to children can take place on traditional media – television. According to the Federal Trade Commission. There is no global data on ad spending directed at children. effectively recognize advertising and are able to adopt critical attitudes towards it. Advertising to children is often the subject of debate. relating to the alleged influence on children’s consumption. radio and print – as well as new media (internet and other electronic media). Packaging.Advertising to children is the act of marketing or advertising products or services to children. In most countries.

honest and truthful'. increasingly also including digital marketing communications. The ICC Framework is applicable globally but is a minimum standard designed to be adapted and transposed into SR codes at national level. advertising agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards – a set of ethical and behavioral rules they commit to respecting – which is enforced by a Self Regulatory Organisation. based on the ICC codes. The code includes a specific section. no undermining of healthy lifestyle messages. Advertisers. often an independent industry-funded body. no representation of snacks as meals. detailing the special care needed when communicating with children. These codes provide a minimum requirement for marketing communications worldwide. Advertising self-regulation is built on different levels. Since 2006. cultural and consumer concerns and that they promote best practice. amending and enforcing the code. a global code of practice on food marketing communications is also in place. but in most countries detailed rules are in place for different advertising techniques and sectors. Many countries have 36 . National self-regulatory codes. advertising is also governed by self-regulatory codes of conduct. On a global level. including the internet Key provisions include: the need for substantiation for claims or health benefits. At a minimum. decent. responsible for drafting. All forms of marketing communications worldwide must conform to the ICC Consolidated Code on Advertising and Marketing. the International Chamber of Commerce has drafted a global code on marketing communications.In many countries worldwide. The Framework for Responsible Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverage Marketing Communications of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) sets down global requirements for food and beverage marketing communications on all media. the general aim of self-regulatory codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal. no undermining of the role of parents. no encouragement of excess consumption. policed and enforced by local Self-Regulatory Organisations (SROs) and industry in over 100 countries and apply to a range of media. The ICC and national codes are reviewed regularly to ensure that they remain relevant to local. Self-Regulatory Organizations for advertising are increasingly following the best practice model agreed with regulators and consumer and public health groups in Europe. are established.

and followed by 11 companies in Europe with the EU Pledge. Chile. Under these initiatives. Spain. but go further in several respects. participating companies will cease advertising to children under 12. The Netherlands. the UK and the USA. most multinational food and beverage companies have developed their own policies on food and beverage marketing communications to children and. mirroring a similar initiative by 15 companies in Canada – the Canadian Children’s Food & Beverage Advertising Initiative.implemented SR provisions that use the ICC Framework as a basis. A similar Pledge programme was launched by leading food companied in Thailand in May 2008 and in Australia in mid-2009 4. other than products that meet specific nutritional guidelines. France. depending on local considerations. individual companies and industry sectors have introduced a wide range of additional provisions relating to marketing communications directed at children. In July 2007. 10 of these companies (now 13) announced a common pledge in the US – the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative. Canada. New Zealand.3 Media Literacy 37 . In addition to industry-wide self-regulation. Brazil. based on international scientific recommendations. have announced the joint implementation of these individual commitments. Examples include Australia. Ireland. most recently. For example.

Media Smart is a non-profit media literacy programme for school children aged 6 to 11 years old. Since 2002. how strict should that regulation be and. Portugal and Hungary. should regulators draw up common guidelines across different countries and cultures? Should we educate children about advertising. Media Smart is an established media literacy education programme focused on advertising. then when do they develop that ability? Is television an effective way to market products to children? Are the products (such as food and toys) typically aimed at children. Media Smart is funded by the advertising business in the UK and is supported by the UK government and EU institutions. Media smart has been launched in Belgium. the Netherlands. Launched in November 2002. educational materials to primary schools that teach children to think critically about advertising in the context of their daily lives. Media Smart develops and provides. Is it fair to advertise to children unless they fully understand the intent of the advertisers? If young children do not understand that intent. aimed at teaching individuals and children in particular to understand and use the media to their advantage. free of charge and on request. Sweden. in a global market place. the type of products that children should be encouraged to buy? Are children encouraged to buy or try unsuitable products (such as alcohol or tobacco) from viewing advertisements even when those advertisements are not aimed at them? Does advertising encourage a more materialistic attitude in children? Or is it appropriate that children learn to be effective consumers from an early age? Does encouraging children to buy products lead them to pester their parents and cause family disputes? Does television advertising present an accurate or misleading image of the world to children? Should advertising aimed at children be regulated? If so. Media literacy is increasingly recognized by governments and international organizations such as the European Union and the World Health Organisation as a key tool to help children understand and deal with today’s complex media environment. who should take on the role of educator? 38 . Media Smart materials use real examples of advertising to teach core media literacy skills. Germany.Media literacy is a relatively new discipline. and if so. Finland.

Almost 30 percentage of Indian population belongs to this age group. Children aging around 15 in India are having spending power. Now can anyone explain that what kind of nutritious food can be supplied at that rate? When we talk of the Indian economy it is vastly segmented in different age groups with different spending powers. often via television and other media. But the others are having a huge spending power with large amount of selection in the product basket. In Bihar. only five paisa went to child related programmes. spending on per meal per child is about 15 paisa. 4. The children from these segments are being targeted by the companies to generate the sales.4 Children and TV Advertising 39 . These are the questions that require to have a proper look at. and called to be the future of India. It is from their own allowances and earnings. Most of the Indian people live under the poverty line. and it is not surprising that in those countries that have established traditions of advertising. The market for selling products to children is potentially immense. But the fact is that out of every rupee the government spent. much of that advertising is aimed at children.

The 1950s dates the modern era of children's television programming.000. children's television became an industry by itself. 2004). 2004). Advertisers are the first to recognize children’s value as consumers who are capable of making decisions about spending. consequently. 40 . Male voiceovers accounted for the great majority of ads coded. research on children's television advertising of that period consisted mainly on replications and extensions of previous studies (Tseng. Advertising at that time appealed generally to the personal gain of the consumer in the case they decided to purchase the sponsored product. Over the next 15 to 20 years. Stern and Alberty. children have come into their own right as consumers and. the majority of the studies on children's television advertising environment goes from the 1970s onward (Alexander et al. want more toys seen in advertisements and eat more advertised food than children who do not watch as much television (Strasburger. and animated characters seldom appeared (Barcus in Tseng. and fast foods. when a deal between struggling television network ABC and Disney brought The Mickey Mouse Club and Disneyland into children's afternoon television programming. citizens. researchers have criticized in different ways the use of television commercials directed to children (Tseng. Throughout this history of children's television advertising. 2001). There was so little study on this topic during the 1950s. Four types of products advertised to children during the 1970s were limited: toys. 1979). a research team funded by National Science Foundation (NSF) estimated that children viewed an average of about 20.. 2002).commercials per year (Adler in Singer. candies and snacks. 1998).Children who watch a lot of television. Children’s television advertising is rapidly becoming a major concern to government agencies. While marketers and advertisers heightened their interest in the child market during the 1980s. In the 1940s and 1950s children were not considered consumers in their own right but only extensions to their parents purchasing power. they have become an important target market for the business. With the advent of television and other mass media. 2004). groups and researchers in many areas of the social sciences ( Resnik. Eliana Shiao. In the late 1970s. cereals.

Children also urge their parents and friends to be sure to watch certain commercials (Fox in Jarlbo,
2000).

According to (Resnik, Stern and Alberty, 1979), television advertising and its effect on
consumption patterns, values, and social interaction have been hotly debated for many years. But
only recently has the controversy focused on its differential impact on special
interest groups- the elderly, minorities and children.

As many authors states, there are many television advertisements based on children and it is
faced that children urge their parents to purchase what they want without needing. For a whole
generation of new age children, television is as influential as a parent or a teacher (Panwar, 2006).
According to Wiman (1986), children who talk with their parents more frequently about TV
advertising and commercials make more purchase requests. Children considered television to be one
of life’s necessities. Studies commissioned by cable television networks in USA, found that an
average of 43 per cent of total purchases made by parents were influenced by children (Cooper in
Caruana, and Vassallo; 2003). Exposure to it was usually extensive – before school, after school,
during homework, at weekends, with or without friends (Hanley, 2000). Marketers understand this
fact very well. With the growing influence of media on children, an increasingly large number of
advertisements are today directed to them (Panwar, Agnihotri, 2006).

Children, for example, who come from disadvantaged backgrounds, or those who have less
access to their parents may not only spend more time with the media. But, may continue to rely more
heavily on TV advertising for the information that they seek in various areas (Brown, Childers,
Bauman and Koch in Evra; 1995). Parents create direct opportunities by interacting with their
children about purchase requests, giving them pocket money and taking them to shopping excursions
(Ward, Wackman, and Wartella; 1977). Children spend a large amount of time watching television.
They pay more attention to commercials broadcast during children’s programming. Commercials
broadcast during children’s programming are designed to capture the younger child’s attention by the
use of cartoon characters, music, subjective camera angles and editing (Stern & Harmon, 1986).

According to The Guardian newspaper, McDonalds, and Coca Cola spent respectively 34,6
million USD and 16,2 million USD for television advertisement presented for children. In this

41

situation, firms do not hesitate to spend their money for the related advertisements. Therefore
nowadays the expenditure of these advertisements has been increased dramatically such as
McDonalds and Coca Cola as well as Disney. They are the best known brand in the world. It can be
drawn conclusion from here that the role of children as consumer on the world’s economy has rapidly
increased. The common features of the above mentioned brands are easily to find and focus on
children and family in their advertisements.

According to McNeal (1992) American children spent over USD 132 billion on 62 product
categories of products were influenced by children. The number of commercials per hour on
American television increased significantly towards the end of the decade. They provide a strong
indication that American children are today exposed to more than 25 000 commercials per year via
television (Kunkel & Roberts 1991). In 1997, $1,3 billion was spent on television advertisements
directed at children. Counting all media, advertising and marketing budgets aimed at children
approached $12 billion (McNeal, 1999). It is estimated that children may view as many as 40,000
commercials each year (Strasburger, 2001). In one of the research project about the influence of
television advertising on children and teenagers, Hanley (2000) found that the younger children (aged
9–11) were very vague in their recall of current television advertising. The examples they came up
with were often unbranded, with the recall attached to the „story. or characters instead, e.g. Honey
Monster (Sugar Puffs), cartoon elephant (Charmin toilet roll). Older children (aged 12–16) recalled
advertising they enjoyed or disliked. The appeal often related to the „storyline., characters featured or
the product. For instance, they mentioned Rolo (elephant never forgets), as well as KitKat, Argos
(toys), and McDonald.s. They identified three main ways in which television advertising seemed to
influence children: pester power; Many parents felt that advertising had the power to make a
significant impression on their children. Those featuring children, cartoon characters, animals,
„catchy. tunes and phrases, colour, dynamic special effects, aspirational celebrity heroes, humor and
children’s products (e.g. confectionery, cereals and toys) were most likely to be referred to:
www.itc.org.uk Generally advertisers use interesting characters in their advertisement to catch
children’s attention. Sometimes these characters are not real. For example Corn Flakes, Nesquick
advertisements and etc (Hanley, 2000).

42

It was very common for the advertiser to show ads in which the child would acquire
superhuman strength by eating a specific breakfast cereal, or would leave a group of friends in
choking clouds of dust by running with the sponsored sneakers. Toys ads of that time were sponsored
by unknown brands, which would generally end up becoming famous after making deals with the
television station (Alexander et al; 1998).

Children’s ages are also significant to understand the advertisements. Children’s
comprehension of television advertising and its persuasive intent increases with age, because of
greater cognitive maturity and increased experience with the medium. Even a majority of 5-8 years
old have only a low awareness of what a commercial really is; and although three quarters of 9-12
year old children may demonstrate a medium level of awareness (eg. commercials tell you what to
buy) (Ward & Wackman in Evra; 1995). However it is possible to say that even though they are very
young to understand, the most important thing is the advertisements impact on children.

De Bens and Vandenbruaene (1992 pg 27) conveys that children’s attention is affected
depending on whether they are watching TV alone, with their parents or with other children of the
same age. Children.s attention depends on whether they are playing, eating or occupied with
something else while watching TV. Generally it is assumed that these factors contribute to reducing
children’s attention to TV advertising (De Bens and Vandenbruaene, 1992).

In less developed countries the trend appears to follow the same pattern as in the developed
world, although the market size may be comparatively small. Increasingly, children have become not
passive observers, but active participants in the family purchase decisions. Not only do children have
their “own money” to spend on a variety of products and services of their choice, they also have
extensive influence on how their parents buy products and services (Wimalasiri, 2004).

If children saw something new in a television advertisement or in a magazine that they liked
they were likely to buy it. This is in line with Buijzen and Valkenburg.s (2003) findings that
advertising is positively and directly related to children’s purchase requests. McGee in Beder (1998,
pg 100) says “children under aged 12 spend more than $11 billion of their own money and influence
family spending decisions worth another $165 billion on food, household items like furniture,
electrical appliances and computers, vacations, the family car and other spending”. For example, one

43

study estimated that children influenced $9 billion worth of car sales in 1994. 1998. the child literally is our customer. I have watched the child pick out the car. 44 . pg 102) Advertising offers consumer ideas and information. Brown (2004) defends advertising to children on just such cognitive grounds: “Children are young consumers. which we process and evaluate in order to make rational choices."(Stanley in Beder. One car dealer explains: "Sometimes. interested in making choices and needing information about them”.

where as in Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. Political parties too do not seem to be concerned to do something about. the generation next and the civil society of the country is shaped and molded by what they are exposed to today on the “idiot-box” day in and day out. parents try to restrain their children in favor of some discriminative viewing. there are a couple of confessions by adolescents. In fact. 4. And yet there is hardly any sensitivity about the relevance and impact of what is dished out by various television channels. That TV has a double-edged effect and that it is the negative character which impacts more than positive potential often is known. had referred to this adverse trend in its election manifesto a few years ago. etc from one or other TV programme. that in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Neither the Government nor the parents or the teachers seems to be concerned about this situation. for example. The direct influence of TV viewing on the extent of violence and deviant behavior pattern of children has been reiterated – even in India. have brought out various types of negative impact of intense viewing of television by children. even a biography. In fact. For. studies have brought out. Even some court judgments have commented on such effect of TV programmes. But did nothing on coming to power. Research studies over the year’s world over. But what is not realized is that there are no serious efforts to explore positive virtues of TV and that parents who should be more concerned about such a phenomena hardly do anything about it. parents enjoy the same fare of TV along with their children and as keenly.5 TV Advertising & Children in India More than half of television viewers in India today are children of below 15 years. Teachers and social activists in a couple of places have been occasionally demonstrating about the influence of television contents. BJP. 45 . In this order channels are concerned more about “what interests or attracts” rather than what is “in the interest” of children. as to how they picked up ideas about a rape or robbery or revenge or killing or suicide or kidnap. All of them are operating in a competitive mode for one upmanship in the race for viewership. however.

And. More and more channels are going for “children’s programmes”. there has been a decline recently in the extent of locally originated programmes for children even in Indian channels. worse. But not for ensuring educational or general knowledge aspects but for capturing and retaining eyeballs of children again and again and to see their serials have certain “dope-effect” on children. in reality there is neither strict monitoring of the advertisements nor a rigid follow-up despite that many ads on television fall under this category. (b) They do not have anything to do with enrichment or supplementary scope for school education or imparting moral standards (there are of course some good pre-school programmes). the Government the least. And most of these children’s channels have become marketing outlets for brands altogether to India. is conscious of “implications” to children of certain broadcasts and realizes the scope for misuse. In fact. although outdated and inadequate. under the code no advertisements should be accepted which lures children to believe that if they do not own or use the product advertised they will be inferior to other children or that they are liable to ridicule for not owning or using a particular brand. Most of these are beamed into the country as if no one in the country. as a result of all this. There are international lobbies operating aggressively to thrust upon animation serials for children on countries like India. What is not taken note is that: (a) Most of these children’s channels and programmes are of foreign origin or remake of them and are reruns over the years. which need to be taken note. For example. Even the code for advertising. is concerned about such a trend. However. Against this background and in this context there are certain recent trends on the Indian TV scene. Most of these serials are produced after so much research. 46 . That is how today cartoons have become synonymous for Children’s TV. To complicate the matter further these foreign programmes for children are now being dubbed into Indian languages. (c) Some of these foreign channels are now entering their second phase in the country taking to marketing of toys and tools for children promoted in these serials. more channels are coming in describing themselves as “children’s channel” or positioning themselves as such.

in particular. For. It is a good symbolic initiative. For. But what is happening now is contrary. Tenaliraman and the like. Canada and European Union countries have one or other provisions in this regard. one hope was that children’s fare will get some priority and all that treasure of India gets a chance to figure. When some of us advocated and argued a couple of decades ago for expansion of TV network in the country and for going for color television. Today most imported children’s programmes are all out to promote materialism. If France has prescribed 30 percent of contents of channels should be locally originated. which were enriching as well as entertaining and supplementary to school education. The best specific examples of course are Malguidi Days. a few years ago UN has prescribed annual day for mass media when children are supposed to be the producers of media contents. India should go for a higher percentage. in the case of children channels. Panchatantra. not less. The least the Government should do is to prescribe that every channel being down linked must have certain percent of locally produced and originating programmes for children. This recent launch of DTH services in a competitive mode brings out the urgency for Government take a view of this proliferation of uninhibited foreign fare for children and doing something about it so that television is also used with more concern and for positive ends. The exceptions are only a few. But what about our own initiatives? We do not seem to learn from our experiences. India has a rich tradition of enriching children with folk tales and grandma tales and imparting values and imparting discipline and moral values in an entertaining format. there is UN Convention on Rights of Child with a set of standards to promote well being of children. this percentage of locally originated programmes has to be higher. In fact. particularly in animation format. Realizing the significance of media in the context of children. some foreign producers are scouting in India to capture talent for television. selfishness. Unfortunately. there is a decline in the extent of children’s participation even in national channels. Realizing these strengths of Indian tradition. consumerism and “at any cost” approach to life. there is 47 . All India Radio in the earlier years has set good examples for children’s programmes. the format of those AIR programmes was such that they were participatory and empowering confidence and courage building in children and respect for elders and environment. In fact. But it should be followed up by some support to promote “creative TV software” for children of 6 – 12 age groups.

which is a good initiative otherwise. It is most unfortunate that neither of the plethoras of Government agencies claiming concern for children has taken note of this vacuum. pro-active and relevant software for children than what is available now. 48 . It is unfortunate that the Government has neither taken pro-active or re-active initiatives in this regard. the frequency of their viewing television is more than a couple of hours a day. While we have a Children’s Film Society to promote films for children and a Children’s Book Trust.no public trust or foundation of civil society in India for this purpose. Even Public Service Broadcasting Trust. even more critically. is yet to be concerned about children’s interests. we have none for television despite the number of children who see television is several times more and. All this despite ample creative talents across the country to produce more positive. Not even the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting.

How well children understand the persuasive intent of advertisements also affects the success of commercials. marketing campaigns must get children to attend to the message. proclaiming that Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes are “GRRRRRREAT!!” One study found that preschoolers paid more attention to commercials full of action. Children’s patterns of attention help reveal how well they can make distinctions between the commercial and the television program. recognize and remember that product. Audio features have more recruiting power than visual features because interesting sounds can get children who are not looking at the television screen to direct their visual attention to it. 4. The mothers reported that the younger children (five to eight) continued to pay attention when a commercial came on but that children older than eight looked away. Attention.6 How Children Process Advertisements To be effective. sound effects. Audio features are particularly important in gaining children’s attention. 49 . and loud music. sound effects. Recognition and retention. for example. One study found that preschool. desire a specific product. The older children’s awareness of the break in the content suggests that they are less susceptible than the younger children to the effects of advertising. and purchase it. and loud music than to more low-key commercials. bursts onto the screen. In one study. Advertisers use catchy auditory features. Another study found that children aged three to eight were more attentive to commercials that were higher in audio than in video complexity. Advertisers use visual and auditory production techniques and repetition to enhance children’s memory of the content. kindergarten. The animated character Tony the Tiger. researchers trained mothers to examine their children’s visual attention to Saturday morning cartoons and advertisements. Commercials that are designed to attract and hold children’s attention are characterized by lively action. and second-grade children remembered food products that had been advertised audio visually or visually better than they remembered products presented in an audio version only. These findings are consistent with Piaget’s insight that young children are especially focused on the attention-getting perceptual qualities of presentations.

even older children’s. One study. the more children wanted the cereals that contained premiums.to eleven-year-old children’s overall exposure to advertisements at home and to specific advertisements in their laboratory. The more children watched Saturday morning television programs. for example. Product requests and purchases. As noted. as against 87 percent of third graders and 99 percent of fifth graders. 50 . When children are shown the same commercial repeatedly. defenses against product messages. children younger than age eight do not understand that the intent of commercials is to persuade them to buy one product over another. They then had children visit a mock grocery store with a parent. Comprehension of commercial intent. Thomas Robertson and John Rossiter questioned first-. repetitively in commercials to reach child audiences. For instance. Only half of the first-grade boys understood the persuasive intent of commercials. beverage. third-. measured three. instead they see commercials as a means of informing them about the vast number of attractive products that they can buy. Premiums—bonus toys and treats that accompany the product—also increase children’s product requests. Repetition also undermines children’s. Children who were exposed to more overall advertisements at home and who were most attentive to advertisements in the laboratory setting made the most requests for the advertised products. which are saturated with cereal commercials. Free downloads such as screen savers serve similar functions in newer technologies. In a key study demonstrating the developmental advance during middle childhood.such as jingles. and toy products. specific food. Song lyrics and rhymes can replay in children’s heads. in particular. Charles Aitkin found that 81 percent of mothers thought that premiums influenced their children’s cereal selections. increases children’s requests for. and fifth-grade boys about their understanding of commercials. but researchers have not yet fully examined the effects of such practices. leading to automatic rehearsal and memory of content. they are more likely to remember the product advertised. What aspects of exposure to commercial messages lead to product requests? Researchers have found that repetition. and purchases of.

children often use that argument that “Everyone else has one” and because parents want to avoid being identified as ‘scrim piers’ they will often given in. games and certain other promotional events. The promos aim at increasing the brand visibility and developing an emotional connect with the kids. characteristics of the parents. buying decision. Of late.7 Marketing Promos Targeting Children Children play an important role in the household decision making process by attempting to influence their parents acquisition. they exert pressure on the parents for a certain product purchase and they are the future adult consumers. In India. marketers are trying to influence the kids directly through various promos and 51 . cookies. Children are more likely to influence the parents for the purchase of child related products as cereals. In the earlier days. Research finds that success of such attempts on the type of offering. Advertisers are influencing the kids through various educational programs. Targeting Children Marketers are increasingly targeting the young children because of the influence that these kids have on their parents. The most common is that children nag until their parents finally give in. marketers aimed at influencing the parents for purchase related to kid’s products. For clothing and toys. age of the child and stage of the process. children consistently overestimate how much influence they have in most of the decisions. Another important finding is that the older the child the more influence he/she will exert on the parents. Marketers are targeting the kids because kids influence buying decisions. car vacation and new computer technologies. kids have a considerable amount of demographic representation which marketers want to capitalize on. snacks. 4. Working and single parents on the other hand are more likely to give in because thay face more time pressures. usage and disposition behavior. Interestingly.

The response from the kids is usually high because of the emotional tie-ups which is generated by the promos. With every pack of Britania treat. 52 . The dinogems were hidden in the fort of evil and the map was destroyed. one part of the map was given (fortress of Evil). By the end of contest. The kids through this contest had to put together and indentify the dinogems which ultimately powered the rangers. the contests are specially designed to target a particular age group of kids.contests that provide them with lots of fun and adventure. Ten lucky winners could enjoy a ride on a flight with Karisma Kapoor who was the brand ambassador of Rasna. By doing so. the dinogems which was the power source of rangers. The contest was very simple. This is the major success factor for the marketers. The kids had to collect the dinogems. The kids has to complete a slogan “I love rasna juc up because ……. The contest was aired on the television channels everyday. The common thing in all these promos is that they provide fun and adventure to the kids. Generally. marketers are aiming to occupy the young minds successfully. Britania – “Jetix Power Your Rangers Contest” This was one of the biggest kids contest conducted in India.” and send the same along with 10 single served sachets of Rasna. A Bag of Contests from Marketers Rasna – Slogan Contest Rasna conducted a slogan contest for the kids between the age group of 4-10 years. A panel of judges was identified to decide the winners of the contest. The kids were given a call by the rangers to save them from trouble by powering them through dinogems which was hid by the villains. The participants who could not make it to the finals were also entitled to win 1000 early bird prizes.

The winning team was given Maggie gift packets and the members of the audiences who participated in the quiz were given sample packs of Maggi. Wrigly. the bubblegum making company. Once the puzzle was solved. The second round was an oral quiz round and for the winners of the first round. Was the villain who was threatening the brand mascot Choco bear about stealing chocos from him. The entire process was very simple. During these quiz round. a name would be revealed which had to be sent to the company. The first round was an intra school written quiz competition. conducted this contest in which the winners of the contest were given a chance to be with the boomer man in the boomer television commercial. The company then decides the winner on the basis of lots. All kids who wanted to participate in the contest had to buy a pack of chocos and solve the cues provided on the pack in the form of crossword puzzles. V and VI classes and included questions on general knowledge and individual subjects. Crafty croc. Fifty five other winners were given playStation and power ranger game. Boomer Bubble Blowing Championship This championship was conducted in different cities. Besides. phone calls or by e-mails. Maggi Quiz contest This contest was held for students of IV. 53 . Kellogg Mobile Contest Kellogs India in association with mobile2win presented a contest for kids in the age group 4-11. The final contest was conducted between six teams comprising of two students each. The kid who could blow the biggest bubble was the winner. Five lucky winners made a trip to New Zealand with their families.The entries could be through SMS.000 quick gun prizes and “Power your ranger bravery medals” were also given. 10. Massive media support was given to this contest. The contest was held in schools. The contest was held in two cites and two winners were selected from each city and the final winner was selected form that. The contest was open to kids within the age group of 8-12 years. residential complexes and market locations. The theme of this contest was about rescuing chocos from crafty croc. malls. audience questions were also asked.

Another important aspect that the marketers consider is the ‘pester power’ of the children which pressurizes the parents to make many buying decisions. water colors was provided by Hinduatan Pencils to the contestants. Marketers Expectation The marketers conducting such contests usually aim for brand recall which would get converted into sales after the contests. “Kids are generally open to experimentation and if you can weave them into your game plan. The results were declared on the spot by evaluating the entries. they can be excellent ‘Carriers’ of new innovations and quality products in to homes’. ITC’s “Classmate notebooks young authors contest” and so on. These divisions included students of kindergarten and nursery. sharpeners. Contests also introduces a ‘me too’ 54 . The evolution was done by a panel of judges comprising of eminent artists. Also these contests generate a demand for the products. Cadbury with the Bournvita quiz contest. By aiming at brand recall the marketers aim at increasing their market share considerably. says Vijay Subramaniam. General Manager (Laundry and Homecare). those studying in I to IV. The contest targeted four divisions of students depending on the class in which they were studying. erasers. the marketers prompt the kids to buy and use their products once. Many more such contests have been conducted by marketers like Funskool which conducted the “Little Pet Shop Coloring Contest”. The marketers provide excitement to the kids through fun and adventure programs and ultimately aim to increase the sales considerably. pastle colors.Apsara Excellence Awards Arts Contest An arts contest was conducted by Hindustan Pencils Limited. The best entry was awarded with the Apsara Excellence Award Rotating Trophy. V to VII and from VIII to X classes. By organizing such contests. Henkel India. All students got a certificate of participation and the winners were given special prizes. All the required material like pencils.

launching very aggressive marketing campaigns could create some ill effects on the children and thereby gain the wrath of the parents. 55 . Hence. the government should take some initiatives and put some restrictions on such ads. When a kid participates in a contest it influences the other children to participate. the parents and elders in the families must ensure that the kids do not fall prey to these kinds of promos.attitude in kids. Apart from this. The marketers thereby try to make the maximum from these contests. Even though they generate a lot of fun and excitement. Conclusion Marketing through contests and influencing kids is not a favorable option many of the times.

4. The first prime motive of advertising is to attract attention. However. However. Children then get used to a certain kind of lifestyle. Read on to know about the various effects of advertising on children. Advertising influences the minds of children. are more specific about their needs and wants. children tend to misinterpret the messages conveyed through the advertisement. 56 . Does advertising have a strong hold over the way we think or act? Does the mass media dictate our needs and wants? Well. which is shown on the television or through various media. Children are therefore reckoned to be a major ‘buying force’ by advertisers. it can raise many questions when targeted for children. which creates a need to own that particular product being advertised. cannot be ignored. The prime motive of any advertisement is to convince the viewer about the quality of the product and instill that urge in him/her to purchase the same. With children. Parents who cannot deal with the rising demands or temper tantrums only tend to give in to the demands of their children. Children today. as it tends to influence young minds in particular. Goods are particularly packaged in order to appeal to the younger generation. advertising can also have a negative influence over young minds if parents are not really careful and do not teach their children about the importance of money. Today. there are plenty of theories about the effects of advertising.8 Effects of Advertisements on Children Advertisements are meant to influence the minds of the target group that should ultimately result in a sale for the client. advertising plays an important role in the society. Glossy images on the magazines or billboards or flashy advertisements on television only create the urge for impulsive buying. sometimes. Various creative heads that belong to different advertising agencies are often churning out new ideas to deliver their message to the public. Many advertisements aimed towards children are a sole proof of this fact. They end up having wrong notions about many issues. Children form the major chunks of the target group for advertisers. the messages need to be conveyed in a different manner. The power of advertising thus. This only creates a very wrong impression on their young minds making them lose the ability to live a life without relying on materialistic joys. In many cases.

can also try to put their message across creatively and target the entire family rather than just children. he/she has to project the image of its products in such a way that they pick up the maximum sales. The child may dictate to his/her parents about personal preferences in clothing. Parents also need to be firm with children whenever their demands increase. with these kinds of effects of advertising. And the sooner it’s told. They need to monitor what influences the minds of children. we have presented some of the most visible effects of advertising on children. they tend to purchase it frequently. 57 . This will ensure even parents stay within the loop and can monitor the demands of the children. In this article. Parents play a major role in this case. If an advertisement for a product attracts the consumers. Children need to be told gently that a ‘no’ cannot be converted into a ‘yes’ with tears or brawls! Parents also need to instill good habits and help children to differentiate between right and wrong. positive as well as negative. The best way to persuade the consumer to stick to the product of the particular brand. is attractive advertisement. the better it would be for the child and subsequently parents as well. The ad filmmakers are formulating fresh ways of enticing the consumers to buy their products. He/she may want to live the life that is projected in the advertisements. toys etc. the ad filmmakers should remember that the commercials can also have negative IMPACT on people. a child may prefer only a specific pair of branded jeans as compared to other clothing available in stores. However. one wonders who is to be blamed in this whole issue. If a company has to survive in this competitive world. when they hit the stores. food. With a balanced approach. Advertisers on the other hand. the negative effects of advertising can surely be curbed to a great extent.For example. especially the young children. or at least buy it once. when numerous choices are provided to him/her in the market. Well.

With increasing age. 80% of all advertising targeted to children falls within four product categories: toys. candies. According to Seiter. Young children are able to differentiate between a TV program and a commercial but are unable to understand the intent of an advertisement until they are 8-10 years of age. rather than to provide any factual product-related information. Children in young adolescence even exhibited mistrustful predispositions towards advertising. cereals. results in less trust and less liking of commercials. In adolescents. advertising to children avoids any appeal to the rational. The ability to recognize bias and deception in ads. coupled with an understanding of advertising's persuasive intent. There is great concern about children as viewers of advertisements primarily because young children are exposed to thousands of commercials each year in India. Approximately. Marketers use television as a medium of communication since it affords access to children at much earlier ages than print media can accomplish. largely because textual literacy does not develop until many years after children have become regular television viewers. Knowledge of advertising tactics and appeals emerges only in early adolescence and develops thereafter. The most common persuasive strategy employed in advertising to children is to associate the product with fun and happiness. knowledge about advertiser tactics increased with age. they become skeptical of advertising. Higher levels of knowledge of advertiser tactics and certain personality variables were positively related to adolescents' skepticism towards advertising. 58 . and fast-food restaurants. emphasizing instead that ads are for entertainment and "enjoyable for their own sake" as opposed to providing any real consumer information. children's attitude towards ads changes from being positive to negative and further as children step into adolescence. Hence. children in the age category 8-10 years have a positive attitude towards advertisements.

Positive Effects of Advertisements on Children  Advertising makes the kids aware of the new products available in the market. Negative Effects of Advertisements on Children  Advertisements encourage the children to persuade their parents to purchase the products shown in the commercials. which can be performed only by experts. in the field of technology as well as otherwise. food and luxurious of children are altered by the advertisements. often lose the ability to live a life without materialistic joy.  The flashy advertisements broadcast in television generate impulse shopping in children.  Advertisements have an indirect effect on the behavior of children. when deprived of the latest toys and clothes that are shown in the commercials. if they are not bought the product. They overlook the positive side and concentrate more on the negatives. They disregard the inexpensive.  Many advertisements in the present times include dangerous stunts. with fatal results.  Convincing ads.  The kids usually get more attracted towards the costly branded products. but useful. the kids often try to imitate the stunts at home. It increases their knowledge about the latest innovations. if they are attractive enough. can help improve the diet of a child. 59 .  Children. ones that are not shown in the commercials.  Children often tend to misinterpret the messages conveyed in commercials. whether useful or not. toys. after watching the glitter of commercials. Even though the commercials broadcast the statutory warnings with the ad. They might develop temper tantrums. which center around healthy food products. The little ones tend to get adamant.  The personal preferences in clothing. such as jeans and accessories. to a great extent.

This develops a craving for fatty. such as pizzas. burgers and soft drinks. sugary and fast foods in kids. thereby affecting their health adversely. Rules & Regulations of advertising to children 60 . are heavily promoted during children's TV viewing time. Junk foods.

5. children in India seem to be particularly vulnerable to the infringement of these regulations.  Programmes meant for children should not contain any bad language or explicit scenes of violence. The UK. the punishment is prison for up to five years and a fine of up to 5000 rupees (about £60). and other countries featured in this series. which is unfortunately a common occurrence. All programmes must adhere to the codes before being transmitted.  Programmes for adults should normally be aired after 11 pm and before 6 am  Programmes unsuitable for children must not be shown at times when the largest numbers of children are viewing.  Unhealthy practices’ showing children begging or acting in an undignified or indecent way are prohibited. Television The Cable Act provides guidelines for programmes and advertisements on television. 61 .1 Rules and Regulations of Advertising to Children in India Like Canada. For subsequent offences. However. A first offence for contravening the Cable Act is punishable with up to two years imprisonment or with a fine of up to 1000 rupees (£12) or both. The codes of the Cable Act include the following provisions relating to children:  Programmes on cable television should not denigrate children. in India there are specific rules and legislation concerning advertising and children.

circulation. Shaktiman The children’s television series Shaktiman has been a cause of controversy in India for several years. ‘Harmful publications’ are defined as ‘books. with tragic consequences.’ The Young Act details penalties for the sale. leaflets … wherein stories are told portraying criminal offences. However. production or possession of harmful publications. or that they can assume his powers broadcast of the programme. whether by inciting or encouraging the child to commit offences or acts of violence or cruelty or in any other manner. public exhibition. acts of violence or cruelty. pamphlets. magazines. The court can also order destruction of the offending publication. hire.Books and magazines Publications that are deemed ‘harmful’ to children in India are regulated by the Young Act. in such a way that the publication as a whole tends to corrupt a child into whose hands it might fall. Shaktiman. distribution. On 23 June 2004 a nine-year-old school girl in Kolkata accidentally hung herself by attempting to twirl in the air like the superhero. Unfortunately the law does not seem to have solved the problem. incidents of repulsive or horrible nature. Children across the country have attempted to emulate their hero. but as litigation in India often takes place over several years. the legal process has resulted in a caution notice being displayed at the beginning of the programme. highlighting that Shaktiman is a fictional character and his actions should not be imitated. There have been several court cases to stop save them. most of the cases are still pending. Since 1998 there have been several accidents and fatalities as children have risked their lives believing that Shaktiman will be there. 62 . Advertising a ‘harmful publication’ is punishable by up to six months imprisonment. aimed at children and parents. with or without a fine. printing.

distributing. The Act can be invoked for such material on the ground that it has the propensity to corrupt the minds of children. but there has been no legislation passed as yet. Subsequent offences are punishable with an imprisonment of up to four years and a fine of up to 5000 rupees (£60). There is also no law in India which lays down guidelines for the use of child models in advertisements. lascivious or appeals to prurient interest. The IT Act penalizes publication and transmission of material which is obscene. if there is a complaint about an ad it may be withdrawn after consideration by the Advertising Standards Council. Whether children should work in this way is a matter of current debate. If a film is suitable for all and subject to no restrictions it will be given a U certificate. For example. exhibiting or circulating an obscene object to a person under the age of 20 years is punishable with imprisonment for a term of up to three years or fine of up to 2000 rupees (£26) or both. hiring. However. Film The Board of Film Certification grants appropriate viewing ratings for films. A UA certificate is granted for films where children under 12 must be accompanied by an adult in the cinema. Internet Regulation on the internet in India is strict. A film that is not suitable for under-18s is given an A certificate. there are some strict laws relating to advertising and children. an advertisement for a child’s drink was withdrawn as it featured six children at the top of their class at school. implying the drink had given them exam success.Advertisements There are no specific guidelines about acceptable advertisements aimed at children in India. Selling. The granting or refusal of film certificates is published in the Gazette of India (an official government publication that discloses changes 63 . However.

even babies. you must be over 25 years of age to buy alcohol in New Delhi. This act prohibits the promotion of infant foods. 64 . The parliament passed the Infant Milk Substitutes. Cigarettes and alcohol In India there are central government guidelines on the sale of cigarettes and alcohol. infant milk substitutes and feeding bottles. Coca-Cola and Pepsi offer several sponsorships to schools. Not only are there advertisements that are targeted at children but a host of them that feature young children. Violations of the act result in imprisonment for up to three years and/ or a fine of up to 5000 rupees. Advertising in schools There are no bars on advertising in schools in India. Supply and Distribution) Act in 1992. or better than. This is to ensure ‘that no impression is given that feeding of these products is equivalent to.  Legal Implications: In India. Infant milk substitutes The Indian government is committed to promoting and protecting breastfeeding. In fact. The certification once granted is valid for a period of 10 years. particularly for sporting activities. there are no specific advertising laws that relate to children and food-related advertisements in particular. breastfeeding’. Most shops that sells cigarettes and alcohol display a sign showing the age restrictions in that state.in the law or the introduction of new regulations). A host of laws and Acts like the 'Cable TV Networks (Regulation) Act. Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production. but each state has a different age limit for the consumption of alcohol and tobacco – for example. Feeding Bottles and Infant Food Act' deal with children-related advertising in a vague way. 1995' and the 'Infant Milk Substitutes.

D. In India. Agriculture Produce (Grading & Marking) Act (Ministry of Rural Development) This Act is commonly known as AGMARK. both of which are business organizations and can only put moral pressure on advertisers and companies to withdraw objectionable advertisements. and the 'Advertising Standards Council of India'. The government needs to draft and implement laws that do not deal with advertising in general but are specific and relate to every aspect of advertising. Laws being operated by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) BIS is the standard body for formulating standards for various food items. Also. Following action is being taken by various ministries at present: 65 . The various laws are as follows: A. there are only voluntary groups like the 'Advertising Agencies Association of India'. In other parts of the world. Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (Ministry of Health) The act lays down specifications for various food products. In most parts of the world. B. there exist voluntary groups like the 'Adbusters' and 'Mothers groups' that watch and pressure governments to clamp down on aggressive and intrusive advertising. even general rules pertaining to advertising are very lax. Apart from the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting that decides to intervene when it wants to. there are few or no specific rules concerning food advertising to children beyond the rules which must apply to all advertising. Harmonization of Food Laws: It is very essential to have one unified and logical law for food regulation than having numerous laws for the same. These standards are also voluntary. Essential Commodities Act 1. The Act lays down the specifications for various agricultural commodities including some processed foods. especially those that target young children and pertain to food. there are no regulatory bodies that monitor TV advertisements. There is urgent need for voluntary and government pressure groups to seriously take note of the situation. It is mandatory. C. At present there are various laws implemented by government under various ministries.

2007. exercise habits. Be an alert citizen is the message. it should be verified from the trusted source. also have the potential to influence children’s eating habits.  Education and parental involvement Parental involvement in determining desirable programming is the best choice. such as magazines. schools can imbibe on children’s mind what a healthy diet should consists of. a suggestion has been made to set up a Food Regulation Authority (FRA) to formulate and update food standards for domestic and export market. Harmonization of Indian standard with quality norms of Codex and WTO.  The paper brought out by The Ministry of Civil Supplies & Consumer Affairs. It is very important that schools do not stock junk food in their canteen. buying habits and mental health. they may have the same deleterious effects as television. the medium may teach and influence by default. by getting lured by approach of fast food and soft drink companies to stock their stuff. Studies show that parents play an important role in their children’s social learning. Part IV – Advertising & Society International Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society.  Role of schools Schools can also play a very active role in making sure that students get healthy diet at its canteen. Also. IIMK 310  As per the task force set up by Prime minister under the chairmanship of Shri Nulsi Wadia. If children are allowed to be exposed to these media without adult supervision. which is a good step towards harmonization. Hence it is important that unified law is developed as early as possible. 8-10 April. Parents should be educated with respect to what should be healthy food as per proper nutritional intake for their children. Since children spend most of their time in school. Parents have to monitor and control their children’s viewing habits. People should be more aware to what kind of advertisement are shown to the children & when some company say that the product have nutritional value and stuff. Other media. but if a parent’s views are not discussed explicitly with children. it is recommended for BIS to formulate standards for all food items in India. radio. video games and the Internet. 66 .

do not mislead the listeners and viewers as well as the consumers are not repugnant to good taste. arthritis. weak bones and reproductive hormone abnormalities. breathlessness. 2007. Private TV channels are free to air as many advertisements they like.”  Advertisement Code Advertisement Code to be monitored by an organization which will take care of the following:  Before any AD is aired on television. 8-10 April. psycho-social problems. a 30-minute TV programme gets stretched to 45 minutes or even more. Doordarshan poses a limit on advertising time which is a maximum of 7. This is primarily the reason why on some private channels. gall bladder ailments.  The stipulated time limit for advertisement is followed by the companies or not. Any food AD should be scrutinized with regards to the claims they are making & the food ingredients should meet some standards laid down by recognized organization like WHO. the most sought medium by children some code of conduct should be followed.  Statutory Warning Since the intake of junk food & carbonated drinks causes numerous diseases such as obesity. tone or treatment. IIMK 311 67 . hypertension.5 minutes of advertisements in a 30 minute programme. The earnings of commercial revenue are not the sole criteria of Part IV – Advertising & Society International Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society. cancer. sleep disorders. TV Channels generally do not follow any rules regarding advertising air time. cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). asthma.  Broadcasting codes for AIR/ Doordarshan Advertising Code: AIR and Doordarshan has responsibility to ensure that the advertisements shown either in terms of contents. So it should come with statutory warnings as in the case of junk food carbonated drinks & milk powder such as “Intake of this food more than twice a week is not good for health.

Also there is no particular legal framework for sponsorship of children’s programmes on television so advertising to children in this way is unregulated.Prasar Bharti. despite these negatives. although these are by no means comprehensive.  Such code of conduct should be made compulsory to private channels also. Summary There are a few laws which deal with child related advertising issues in India. Laws related to Advertising should be made more stringent as in the case of foreign countries such as Europe & America. 2005’ which lays down standards for advertisements on electronic media. Thus the code has stricter provisions and the main features of the code are as follows:  Tobacco products including 'Pan Masala' and liquors are not permitted.. The debate over advertising junk food to children is also raging in India. advertising law has come a long way in India and increased awareness of the issues concerning advertising to children is improving the situation.  The commercial should never project a derogatory image of women and should not endanger the safety of children.  The goods and services advertised should be in consonance with the laws of the country enacted to protect the rights of the consumers. 68 .  The government should indulge more into Social Advertising as its positive impact on kids & society is enormous. In practice television channels often flout even the existing vague laws with great impunity. However. Government has enacted ‘The Commercial Advertisements on Electronic Media (Regulation) Bill.

which sets down minimum provisions on advertising to children for its 27 member States. 5. and Belgium advertising to children is restricted and in Quebec. sets out several EU-wide rules on advertising and children: 69 . Sweden and Norway advertising to children under the age of 12 is illegal. due to replace the Television Without Frontiers Directive in all member states by the end of 2009.2 Worldwide Regulation and criticism of Advertising to Children In the United Kingdom. The EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive. The European Union also has framework legislation in place. Greece. Denmark.

In the United States the Federal Trade Commission studied the issue of advertising to children in the 1970s and they restricted advertising to children. teachers or other persons. including fast food.  Children’s programmes may only be interrupted if the scheduled duration is longer than 30 minutes  Product placement is not allowed in children’s programmes. One of the main areas of regulation facing fast food companies is the advertising of "junk food" to children. They also called for the disassociation of television and film characters from fast food and stopping celebrities from appearing in such advertisements. though Burger King withdrew from the discussions. Some organisations have called for the watershed to apply to various unhealthy foodstuffs. Talks between the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the fast food companies were initiated to work together in an effort to improve children's diets. Advertising shall not cause moral or physical detriment to minors. and many other countries are looking to introduce strict limitations on fast food advertising.  It shall not directly encourage minors to persuade their parents or others to purchase the goods or services being advertised. and shall therefore comply with the following criteria for their protection:  It shall not directly exhort minors to buy a product or a service by exploiting their inexperience or credulity.  The Member States and the Commission should encourage audiovisual media service providers to develop codes of conduct regarding the advertising of certain foods in children’s programmes. In June 2006. In the United Kingdom. the Children's Food Bill is intended to highly regulate the advertising of such food aimed at children. The impact of such 70 .  It shall not exploit the special trust minors place in parents. the FSA called for laws to prevent such food from being advertised on television before 9pm.

On 3 June 2004 KFC withdrew American television commercials claiming that "fried chicken can. many fast food companies have started making use of Internet advertising to reach their customers. Such adverts broadcast during 71 . While fast food is often not given a traditional label.any food with a nutritional claim (such as "low fat") must also highlight that it is high in something else (such as "high salt") if that is the case. junk food advertisements were banned from programmes aimed at four to nine-year-olds. during and after television programming aimed at under-16s in the United Kingdom. The ASA used one of the upheld complaints as a case study. The actual product is often described as being of poorer quality to that represented in the image. this may have an impact on advertising. between 11 September 2002 and 24 March 2004 the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) in the UK investigated complaints about six McDonald's advertisements. This move has been criticized on both ends of the scale. Not all the complaints are upheld. others have said the restrictions do not go far enough (particularly due to the fact that soap operas would be exempt from the ban). In November 2006. In 2006 the European Union passed a new law regarding the labeling of foods . with members of the public most usually claiming that the wording is misleading. radio and print regulation. Faced with stricter television.campaigns is often denied by the fast food companies and the television networks that carry their advertisements. For example. In Sweden all advertising aimed at the under-12s is banned. with two of them being upheld. Fast food advertising is often complained about to advertising authorities. On 1 April 2007. including fast food adverts. the Office of Communications (Ofcom) announced that it would ban television adverts for junk food before. be part of a healthy diet" after reaching a settlement with the Federal Trade Commission. These regulations were originally outlined in a proposal earlier in the year. while the Food and Drink Federation labeled the ban "over the top". in fact. The accuracy of the images of food used by the fast food companies is regularly called into question. Some networks have also said that tighter regulations would reduce advertising income and that would have a negative impact on the quality of children's programming.

which consists of three components. “host selling” is not allowed. Among the guidelines is the separation principle. the transitions between an advertisement and the program content must be distinct. products being sold cannot be integrated into program content (a practice that resembles the common practice of product 72 . such as “After these messages. That is. third.” to separate program and commercial content. the program must use a constant production convention. First. Second. And. 5. we’ll be right back. the main characters on a television program cannot sell products during that program or during blocks of commercial time adjacent to it." ten to fifteen-year-olds will continue to be phased out over the coming months.programmes "aimed at. with a full ban coming into effect on 1 January 2009. or which would appeal to. the Federal Communications Commission has placed safeguards into the television advertising marketplace to protect young child audiences.3 Regulation of Marketing Practice Because of age-based limits in children’s ability to understand advertiser intent.

The new law. many of its rules have not carried over to the Internet. enforces broadcast standards for the industry. In addition. For instance. and the Annenberg Public Policy Center. It also requires “tombstone shots” that show the unadorned product in a still frame shot without all the extra toys that can be purchased with it. yet the developmental literature from the television area suggests that young children may not understand that such characters are not really interacting with them. websites attempt to create “sticky sites” where users spend long periods of time with branded characters. which placed rules on online marketing techniques to protect the privacy of children under age thirteen. Although CARU has made some attempt to regulate the newer interactive technology marketing practices. several agencies. understand. a voluntary regulatory organization created by the advertising industry. The Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU). video games. Did children even understand that Batman was not real? No research has been conducted to answer that question. in part to prevent governmental interference. While the FCC is charged with regulating media. Such sites feature Tony the Tiger from Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes or Chester the Cheetah for Frito-Lay and create content focused solely on commercially branded products. Although researchers now have a reasonably good idea of what takes place on online websites. the Center for Media Education. the FCC has limited the time allocated to commercial content during a given hour of children’s programs. After COPPA was implemented. or cell phones. Such practices led Congress to pass the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) of 1998.placements). conducted an evaluation of website practices. such as Batman. the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is charged with regulating advertising. No database as yet documents such information on the part of child consumers of different ages. popular media characters. they still know little about how children perceive. authorized the Federal Trade Commission to create and enforce rules for data collection practices at children’s websites and to disclose privacy policies about data collection techniques as well as about how that information was to be used. Early studies of online marketing practices documented the use of deceptive practices that invaded the privacy of children. For example. or participate when asked for personally identifying information. Spyware in which an outside agent 73 . which went into effect in 2000. would ask children for personally identifying information for a census that was being taken in Gotham City. including the FTC. But the studies found fewer efforts to obtain parental consent or to inform parents about how the data collected on the site would be used. All these studies found that the majority of websites linked their home page to their privacy policy.

making products stay in their memory. though. has been interpreted in recent years as calling for the least amount of interference in the advertisers’ right to speak as they wish. With convergence increasingly bringing the varying forms of technologies together under one umbrella. collects information about that user’s behaviors without his knowledge. rules about host selling. and marketers attempt to determine how those dollars are spent. the emerging and perhaps preferred replacement of the fifteen.S. consideration of age based skills in understanding marketer intent. and influencing their purchasing choices. Spyware invades privacy. Such existing television standards as clear separation of commercial from program content. Marketing practices such as repetition. for example. it is sensible to have uniform standards for marketing to children across varying media platforms. Although advertisers do not enjoy the same freedom as everyday citizens in their right to speak as they wish. can insulate users from prosecution for violating a number of laws that they would have to follow within the United States. Moreover. and then sends that information back to a marketer also poses risks that may one day cause spyware to be subjected to regulation by the FTC. the Central Hudson Test. Children have both their own disposable income and influence over what their parents buy. is also in need of additional study and regulation. all of these practices have some protection because of the First Amendment guarantee of freedom of speech. tombstone shots of the unadorned product when the camera shot is still. and can cause computers to crash. Regulators should also address the issue of whether and how to make the regulation of newer online marketing activities consistent with traditional television and film guidelines. but newer technologies are providing new ways for marketers to reach children.or thirty-second commercial. Ultimately. and limits on the amount of time children can spend seeing marketed content should be considered in the context of newer media. law. and it is up to advocacy groups to demonstrate that any regulation is necessary. Conclusion Marketing to children and adolescents is a way of life in the United States. the primary legal argument for limiting commercial speech. poses security risks. in many cases the online environment is not even constrained by U. Immature cognitive 74 . and free prizes are effective in attracting children’s attention. be subject to barrages of pop-up ads. Product placement. including identity theft. Television now reaps most of the advertising dollars. and run slowly. they have considerable leeway to present the content that they wish.installs a program on a user’s hard drive. Indeed. branded environments. Setting up an online shop in a different country.

in some cases. however. economy. public policy regulates how advertisers can interact with children via television.development. It is difficult to generalize about advertising regulations and restrictions can affect various aspects of a company’s advertising program. 75 . including:  The type of products that may be advertised. the cost of that economic success requires considerable scrutiny. Although marketing and advertising fuel the U.4 Political and Legal Issues in Advertising: The political and legal environment in a country is one of the most important factors that influence the advertising and promotional programmes. 5. nationalistic and cultural factors. and the goal of protecting consumers not only from false or misleading advertising but. limits the ability of children younger than eight to understand the persuasive intent of commercials.S. Online environments are now and probably always will be less heavily regulated than more traditional media. from advertising in general. Regulations differ owing to economic and national sovereignty considerations. Thus.

The ban also excludes tobacco companies from sponsoring sporting events. In Europe there has been a longstanding ban on advertising for prescription drug products. the European commission has developed a directive to standardize the basic form and content of comparative advertising. 76 . which is designed to keep government subsidized health care cost under control. Most countries permit the use of foreign languages in print ads and direct mail. However. Recently the tobacco industry has been reducing its advertising efforts in markets around the world. including Asia and Europe. Comparative Advertising is legal and widely used in USA and Canada but is illegal in some countries such as Belgium and Korea. The Australian government restricts tobacco advertising to point of purchase. and some restrict foreign language ads to media targeted to foreigners in the country. some do not allow foreign language commercials on TV or radio or in cinema ads.  The media that all advertisers are permitted to employ. A number of countries ban or restrict the advertising of various products. In Malaysia. In Europe. where they have enjoyed much more regulatory freedom. Cigarette advertising is banned in some or all media in numerous countries.  The use of local versus international advertising agencies.  The use of foreign languages in ads. Government restrictions can influence the use of foreign languages in advertising as well as the production of the ad. Many governments have rules and regulations that affect the advertising message.  The use of advertising material prepared outside the country.  The content or creative approach that may be used.  The specific taxes that may be levied against advertising. a government ban on cigarette related advertising and sponsorship was initiated in 2003 in an effort to curb the rising member of smokers in the country.  The amount of advertising a single advertiser may use in total or in a specific medium.

77 . it has been weakened by the European Court of Justice. Though that regulation continues in effect for broadcasts originating within the country. which had found that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign programming. Some examples are: the ban on television tobacco advertising imposed in many countries. including those from neighboring countries or via satellite. and the total ban of advertising to children under twelve imposed by the Swedish government in 1991.5 Sociocultural and Economic Issues in Advertising: There have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest by regulating the content and the influence of advertising. 5. media and trade associations in several European countries including UK and France have begun pushing for self regulation that would include efforts to help children understand and interpret advertising effectively rather than banning efforts to reach them. Marketers. ad agencies.

namely New Zealand. say the critics – and have you noticed how fond critics are of saying Ah. decent.. yes. This debate was exacerbated by a report released by the Kaiser Family Foundation in February 2004 which suggested that food advertising targeting children was an important factor in the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States of America.. In Europe and elsewhere.. the tobacco industry is required by law in most countries to display warnings cautioning consumers about the health hazards of their products. honest and truthful'. most important. but remain independent. yes. In many countries . social advertising. dramatization and. Linguistic variation is often used by advertisers as a creative device to reduce the impact of such requirements. For instance. Ah. and government has for many years been one of the very biggest advertisers in the United Kingdom. Advertisers. Canada. social benefits. personalization and applies them to the way we live now. printing French words in bold and English translations in fine print to deal with the Article 12 of the 1994 Toubon Law limiting the use of English in French advertising). Naturally. but that isn’t advertising. Take a look at government advertising. The general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal. Of course. there is a vigorous debate on whether (or how much) advertising to children should be regulated. yes. they employ a wide-variety of linguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e. advertising agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards that they attempt to uphold. South Africa. AIDS or public information of any kind – is advertising and often state of the art advertising at that.g. It takes the proven techniques. see Bhatia and Ritchie 2006:542. Therefore. 78 . Some self-regulatory organizations are funded by the industry. and many European countries .the advertising industry operates a system of self-regulation. with the intent of upholding the standards or codes (like the Advertising Standards Authority in the UK). techniques of simplification. many advertisers view governmental regulation or even self-regulation as intrusion of their freedom of speech or a necessary evil. What nonsense. The advertisement of controversial products such as cigarettes and condoms is subject to government regulation in many countries. The communication skills honed on the humble packet of frozen peas or brand of petrol have made invaluable contributions not merely to the small reassurances of daily domestic life but to helping modify social attitudes and behavior..? Ah. public service advertising – whether it’s for drinking and driving.

the role of advertising in social change. Beside that contribution. There is clear conflict between health and economic interests of the country. Increasingly advertising is also used by public authorities and nongovernmental organisations. advertising and the vulnerable. its use of language. Advertising is an important aspect for corporations in their development and prosperity. Advertising has a similar place in the economy as other service sectors such as management consultants. We will consider corporate social performance and finally stakeholder engagement. and origins of needs and wants. Possibly the most massive contribution which advertising makes to society is to make more products affordable to more people. More to the point. issues surrounding reinforcing stereotypes and advertising to children. We will look at persuasion in advertising. Advertising today is many things. It’s part of the social fabric of all our lives which. The social relevance of advertising is much debated. would be a good bit duller without it. it’s a thread on which are strung several of the key economic elements that affect the workings of the business community and the comfort of the individual. cosmetically. banks.  Cigarettes alone account for roughly 10% of excise collections. which given its relatively high profile is not surprising. the occasional complaint that advertising creates discontent by showing products which some cannot afford pales into insignificance. It’s come a long way from the gaudy poster proclaiming the presence of Sunlight Soap.  About 33 per cent of cancer cases are attributed to tobacco consumption. insurance companies and financial brokers. Consumers and commercial buyers are demanding more and more information about products and services in 79 .  Tobacco trade is a major contributor to the national exchequer.35 lakh deaths in India every year. the sector’s commitment to truth and decency. We will cover in this section. Advertising and other forms of commercial communication are fundamental to the success and effectiveness of numerous companies and organisations. Let us go through some facts that provide the clear picture of the impact of advertising:  Cigarettes cause about 6. by making volume sales possible for manufacturers and information available to consumers.

and fast-food restaurants. children in the age category 8-10 years have a positive attitude towards advertisements. Hence. Children in young adolescence even exhibited mistrustful predispositions towards advertising. suggesting that the sector is becoming one of the major players in the development process. coupled with an understanding of advertising's persuasive intent. With increasing age. emphasizing instead that ads are for entertainment and "enjoyable for their own sake" as opposed to providing any real consumer information. According to Seiter. largely because textual literacy does not develop until many years after children have become regular television viewers. candies. advertising has grown by only 24% in real terms.order to make their purchasing choice. results in less trust and less liking of commercials. and advertising thrives on competition’. as we will see. ‘Competition thrives on advertising. The ability to recognize bias and deception in ads. rather than to provide any factual product-related information. Young children are able to differentiate between a TV program and a commercial but are unable to understand the intent of an advertisement until they are 8-10 years of age. Higher levels of knowledge of advertiser tactics and certain personality variables were positively related to adolescents' skepticism towards advertising. The reality. 80% of all advertising targeted to children falls within four product categories: toys. children's attitude towards ads changes from being positive to negative and further as children step into adolescence. cereals. Approximately. is that in the last ten years. which claims that advertising has global expenditures (including in developing countries) increasing faster than the world economy. Indicative of the growing importance of the advertising sector world wide is the 1998 UNDP Human Development Report. The most common persuasive strategy employed in advertising to children is to associate the product with fun and happiness. In adolescents. advertising to children avoids any appeal to the rational. knowledge about advertiser tactics increased with age. There is great concern about children as viewers of advertisements primarily because young children are exposed to thousands of commercials each year in India. they become skeptical of advertising. 80 . Knowledge of advertising tactics and appeals emerges only in early adolescence and develops thereafter. Marketers use television as a medium of communication since it affords access to children at much earlier ages than print media can accomplish.

ANALYSIS 81 .

OF PRIMARY DATA 82 .

15 10yrs. 4 Analysis: The above chart shows that there are more number of 13 years student and as far as 15 years students are concerned they are very less. 18 15 yrs. 23 13 yrs. 43 14 yrs. 83 . 20 12 yrs.Demographic Analysis AGE:- Age Students 8 yrs. 20 11 yrs. 7 9 yrs.

Medium of Study and Student Medium of study Students Gujarati 66 English 84 Analysis: The above pie chart shows that there are more number of children who are studying in English medium than in Gujarati Medium 84 .

85 . There are also 31% children who watch television for 2-3 hrs.Q1 How many hours a day do you watch TV? less then 1 hour 29 1-2 hours 46 2-3 hours 47 more then 3 hours 28 Analysis: The above pie chart shows that as far as TV watching habit of children is concerned. and 19% children who watch television for more than 3 hours a day This shows that most of the children like to watch television for 1-3 hours a day and this is because they might be busy with their home work and project work of their school. there are 31% of children who watch television for 1-2 hours a day.

What do you like to watch on TV? Cartoons 97 Reality Shows 28 Movies 78 Serials 23 Song based programmes 31 Others 13 Analysis: The above bar chat shows that there are more number of children who like to watch cartoons and movies on Television than reality shows. Apart from that. song based programmes and other programmes like programmes which come on Discovery channel. 86 . Q2. In our survey we have found that there are 97 children who like to watch cartoons on television because they are more fascinated towards that. serials. there are 78 children who like to watch movies on television which might be because of his/her favorite actor or actress. National Geography channel and so on.

Wafers and Chocolates than Sauces.Q3. 87 . In our survey we have found that Biscuits. Wafers and Chocolates are preferred by 86. From the following confectionary products which is your favorite product/s. Wafers and Chocolates than other confectionery products. Biscuits 86 Wafers 57 Chocolates 78 Sauces 29 Noodles 38 Health Drinks 42 Analysis: The above bar chart shows that as far as confectionary products are concerned. children like to have more Biscuits. Noodles and Health Drinks. This shows that children are attracted more towards Biscuits. 57 and 78 children respectively.

and children get easily attracted by that celebrity to purchase those products. This is because. In our survey we have found that 79 children who are familiar with the advertisements of Biscuits. Wafers.Q4. Children who are familiar with advertisements of the Wafers and Chocolates are 59 and 61 respectively. in majority of the advertisements of Biscuits. Chocolates and Health Drinks than the advertisements of Sauces and Noodles. You are familiar with the advertisements of which of the confectionary products? Biscuits 79 Wafers 59 Chocolates 61 Sauces 29 Noodles 36 Health Drinks 53 Analysis: The above bar chart shows that children are more familiar with the advertisements of Biscuits. Chocolates and Wafers celebrity is shown wherein advertisements of other confectionary products generally me too model is shown. 88 .

Q5. have you ever tried to purchase that product? Yes 92 No 58 Analysis: The above pie chart shows that after watching advertisement of confectionary products majority of the children have tried to purchase that product which they have shown in the advertisement. In our survey we have found that 61% children have tried to purchase confectionary products after watching advertisements of those products This shows that how children are influenced by the advertisements of confectionary products and this may affect to those families in which source of income is not that much strong. 89 . After watching ad. of any confectionary product.

Q6. Chocolate and Health Drink than Wafer. then which confectionary product you have tried to purchase? Biscuit 78 Wafer 21 Chocolate 52 Sauce 18 Noodle 37 Health Drink 46 Analysis: The above bar chart shows that after watching advertisements of confectionary products. In our survey we have found that there are 78 children who have tried to purchase Biscuit. Sauce and Noodle. If yes. 52 children who have tried to purchase Chocolate and 46 children who have tried to purchase Health Drink after watching advertisement of the same. 90 . children have tried to purchase more Biscuit. Chocolates and Health Drinks in which children have mainly targeted. This shows that children are influenced more by the advertisements of Biscuits. Chocolates and Health Drinks and there are some specific advertisements of Biscuits.

Newspaper and on Hoardings. This is because TV advertisement can be shown more effectively with both audio and video effect than by the other medium and only these factors play a vital role to influence the children. Do you like to watch advertisements of Confectionary product on which media? TV 118 Magazine 33 Newspaper 27 Hoardings 4 Analysis: The above pie chart shows that children like to watch advertisements of confectionary products on TV rather than any other medium of advertising. 91 . In our survey we have found that 65% children like to watch advertisements of confectionary products on TV than in Magazine.Q7.

They just believe that my friend has that product so I should also have that product. Free Promotional items 71 Friend's Influence 24 Association of favorite character 40 Want to be like that character 15 Analysis: The above pie chart shows that children like to buy confectionary products because free items like tattoo and other things are attached with them. So children like to buy confectionary product not only because it gives free promotional products but also because his/her friend’s influence and his/her favorite celebrity is associated with it.Q. There are 27% children also who like to buy confectionary product just because his/her favorite celebrity is associated with that product and there are 16% children who buy confectionary products just because of their friend’s influence. In our survey we have found that 47% children like to buy confectionary products just because they get free tattoo and all that children accessories on the purchase of the confectionary products. 92 .8 You buy that confectionary products because…………….

How often advertisements of confectionary products influence purchase decision of your children? Often 42 Sometimes 66 Rarely 30 Not at all 12 Analysis: The above pie chart shows that advertisements of confectionary products some times affect purchase decision of children.PART B:- Q1. In our survey we have found that there are 28% parents who replied that advertisements of confectionary products affect more often purchase decision of their children. 93 . While 44% & 20% parents replied that advertisements affect purchase decision of their children sometimes and rarely respectively. This shows that purchase decision of children is sometimes influenced after watching advertisements of confectionary products.

In our survey we have found that there are 27% parents who replied that more often their child insists them to purchase any confectionary product after watching its advertisements. Children who not at all insist their parents to purchase any confectionary product after watching its advertisements are very less. This shows that how advertisements of confectionary products affect children.Q2. How often does your child insist you to purchase any confectionary products after watching advertisements of the same? Often 40 Sometimes 56 Rarely 44 Not at all 10 Analysis: The above pie chart shows that there are more number of children who insist their parents sometimes to purchase any confectionary product after watching its advertisements. 94 . And there are 37% parents who replied that sometimes their child insists them to purchase any confectionary product after watching its advertisements.

This shows that majority of parents are not conscious about effects of advertisements on their children especially in case of confectionary products.Q3. In our survey we have found that there are 38% parents who replied that generally they do agree when their child insists them to purchase any confectionary product after watching its advertisements. There are 26% parents who replied that they mostly agree when their child insists them to purchase any confectionary product after watching its advertisements. 95 . How do you react to your child when he/she insist you to buy any confectionary product after watching its advertisements? Mostly Agree 39 Agree 56 Disagree 32 Mostly Disagree 23 Analysis: The above pie chart shows that parents become agree when their child insists them to purchase any confectionary product after watching its advertisements.

TESTING OF
HYPOTHESIS

96

Hypothesis 1: After watching the advertisements of confectionary product children insist their
parents to buy that product is dependent on their age or not

Ho: After watching the advertisements of confectionary products children insist their parents to buy
that product is dependent on their age

H1: After watching the advertisements of confectionary products children insist their parents to buy
that product is not dependent on their age

Age
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total
Often 2 3 5 4 19 4 2 1 40
Sometimes 4 9 12 0 3 22 6 0 56
Rarely 1 2 3 15 0 14 6 3 44
Not at all 0 1 0 1 1 3 4 0 10
Total 7 15 20 20 23 43 18 4 150

Fo Fe (Fo-Fe) (Fo-Fe)2 (Fo-Fe)2/Fe
7 6.53 0.47 0.22 0.03
12 10.07 1.93 3.72 0.37
3 5.4 -2.4 5.76 1.07
5 5.33 -0.33 0.11 0.02
12 7.45 4.55 20.7 2.78
3 5.87 -2.87 8.24 1.40
4 6.66 -2.66 7.08 1.06
0 7.45 -7.45 55.5 7.45
15 5.87 9.13 83.36 14.20
20 7.46 12.54 157.25 21.08
3 8.59 -5.59 31.25 3.64
0 6.75 -6.75 45.56 6.75
5 12.98 -7.98 63.68 4.91
22 16.05 5.95 35.4 2.21
14 12.61 1.39 3.49 0.28
5 7.67 -2.67 7.13 0.93
6 6.72 -0.72 0.52 0.08
6 5.28 0.72 0.52 0.10
8 5.2 2.8 7.84 1.51
∑ (Fo-Fe)2/Fe = 69.87

97

So, Calculated= (Fo-Fe)2/Fe

= 69.87

Calculation of Tabulated:

DF= (r-1) (c-1)

= (4-1) (8-1)

= (3)*(7)

= 21

Significance Level is 5% = 0.05

Tabulated = 32.67

Here, Tab < Cal

So, Ho is rejected.

Therefore after watching advertisements of confectionary product children insist their parent to buy
that product is not dependent on their age.

98

92 21 15.32 234.76 138.7 11.3 2.3 28 16.3 1.76 -1.24 11.52 24 25.84 22 20.32 -15.32 -5.7 8.3 10.32 28.15 36 20.1 0.68 15.76 3.32 234.12 11 26.3 8.32 28.76 138.35 7 12.24 1.68 5.1 0.76 3.Hypothesis 2: TV watching habit of children is dependent on their medium of study or not Ho: TV watching habit of children is dependent on their medium of study H1: TV watching habit of children is not dependent on their medium of study Medium of Study Gujarati English Total < 1 hour 1 28 29 1-2 hours 22 24 46 2-3 Hours 36 11 47 > 3 Hours 7 21 28 Total 66 84 150 Fo Fe (Fo-Fe) (Fo-Fe)2 (Fo-Fe)2/Fe 1 12.76 -11.8 ∑ (Fo-Fe)2/Fe =44 99 .

815 Here. Ho is rejected. Tab < Cal So.So. Therefore TV watching habit of children is not dependent on their Medium of Study.05 Tabulated = 7. 100 . Calculated = ∑ (Fo-Fe)2/Fe = 44 Calculation Of Tabulated: DF= (r-1) (c-1) = (4-1) (2-1) = (3)*(1) =3 Significance Level is 5% = 0.

KEY FINDINGS  From our survey we have found that more number of children watch television for 1-3 hours a day. 101 .

 Those children who have tried to purchase confectionary product after watching its advertisements. Noodles and. parents generally do agree with them. Chocolates. Wafers. Chocolates and Health Drinks more than the Sauces. Wafers. in that they like to buy more Biscuits.  When children insist their parents to purchase confectionary product after watching its advertisement.  After watching advertisements of any confectionary products majority of children have tried to purchase that product. 102 . Children also like to watch movies on television.  Among selected confectionary products from Biscuits.  Majority of children are familiar with the advertisements of Biscuits.  After watching advertisement of confectionary products children sometimes insist their parents to purchase that product for them. As far as watching any particular program on television is concerned. Chocolates and Health Drinks. Sauces.  After watching advertisement of confectionary products purchase decision of children sometimes gets affected.  Majority of children like to watch advertisements of confectionary products on television rather any other media. Wafers and Chocolates more than other confectionary products. There are some children also who like to buy confectionary products just because his/her favorite celebrity is associated with the advertisement of that product. children like to watch cartoon movies or cartoon serials on television.  Majority of children like to buy confectionary products because it gives free tattoo and other promotional things. children like to have Biscuits. Noodles and Health Drinks.

103 .

SUGGESTIONS 104 .

 Children can be easily attracted by the celebrity so. 105 . as far as confectionary products are concerned celebrity should not directly or indirectly persuade children to buy that product which he/she has shown using that product. Chocolate  Advertisers must not misuse children’s relative inexperience.  As far as advertisements of confectionary products are concerned.g. E. To some extent children have limited understanding so advertisers should not directly persuade children to buy the product which is shown in the advertisement. advertisements should be seen with their pros and cons.  It is the duty of parents to see what their children are watching on television and if they are highly influenced by the advertisements especially of confectionary products then parents should try to explain them what are the pros and cons of that product by using it.

CONCLUSION 106 .

Sauces. In this situation.  Nowadays it seems that children’s impact on family decision in shopping has been steadily increased. Even though there are lots of tools to show the goods or services. Today. television was chosen as the best way that can enhance the company's profits greatly by most of researchers. television advertisements have more impact and effect on children than the other medium of advertising. Also they do not care whether these products are healthy for them or not.  Children’s ages are important to understand the television advertisements. Wafers. Children's comprehension of television commercials increases with age. it was found as far as confectionary products are concerned children sometimes insist their parents to purchase those products for them.  While they are shopping. the first thing comes in their mind is to purchase the advertised products. children are influenced more by television advertisements than by the other medium of advertising. the advertising has a stronger effect on younger children than the older children.  After the research. Noodles and Health Drinks) are concerned they do not care price of which they want to buy. Especially confectionary products (Biscuits. 107 .  Also this research validated that among many communication tools.  As far as confectionary products are concerned. Chocolates. particularly young children play an important role as consumers.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 108 .

com/asia/in./kids_advertising_rules  http://www. Article: Marketing Promos Targeting Children  Advertising Age. 1997 Magazines:  Advertising Express.com  http://www.agencyfaqs..internetworldstats.wowessays.htm 109 .c-i-a.Books:  George Belch and George Michel. 6th Edition  Ogilvy David ‘Ogilvy on Advertising’ by..ca/. Article: Effects of Advertisements on Children Web Links:  http://www. ‘Advertising and Sales Promotion Management’.com (Intrenation Telecommunication Union)  http://www.wikipedia.media-awareness./advertising...Itu.com  http://www. Prion Books. London.com  http://www.com/( Computer Industry Almance)\  http://www.

ANNEXURE Annexure 110 .

Boost.) Q4 You are familiar with advertisements of which of the following confectionary products? 111 .Dear Sir/Madam.e. etc. R. For that we want your support by filling up this questionnaire for us. We are doing one Grand Project on ‘Effect of Advertisements on Children with special reference to Confectionary products’. Thanking You. one is to be filled up by children and other is to be filled up by his/her parents. PART A (To be filled by Children) Q1 How many hours a day do you watch TV? Less than 1 hour 1 – 2 hours 2 – 3 hours More than 3 hours Q2 What do you like to watch on TV? Cartoons Reality shows Movies TV serials Song based programmes Others_________________ Q3 From the following confectionary products which is your favorite product/s? Biscuits Wafers Chocolates Sauces Noodles Health Drinks (i. Institute of Business Management Ahmedabad. We assure you that information will not be misused and we’ll use information just for our project purpose. Bournvita. Complain. There are two parts in our questionnaire. We are MBA student of N.

Boost.Biscuits Sauces Wafers Noodles Chocolates Health Drinks (i.. etc) Q7 Do you like to watch ad of confectionary products on which media? TV Magazine Newspaper Hoardings Q8 You buy that confectionary product because.e. have you ever tried to purchase that product? Yes No Q6 If yes then which confectionary product you have tried to purchase? Biscuit Sauce Wafer Noodle Chocolate Health Drink (i. Complain.... PART B (To be filled by Parents) Q1 How often advertisements of confectionary products influence purchase decision of your children? Often Rarely Sometimes Not at all Q2 How often does your child insist you to purchase any confectionary product after watching ad of the same? 112 .. Complain. Bournvita. Bournvita. etc) Q5 After watching ad of any confectionary products..e... It gives free tattoo or any other thing Your friend has that product Your favorite cartoon character/favorite celebrity is associated with it You want to be like the character of that ad. Boost.

_________________________________________________________ Age : .Often Rarely Sometimes Not at all Q3 How do you react to your child when he/she insist you to buy any confectionary product after watching its ad? Mostly agree Disagree Agree Mostly disagree PERSONAL DETAILS Name : ._________________________________________________________ Mother/Father Name : .________ Std. :. Gujarati English 113 . 4th 7th 5th 8th 6th School : -__________________________________________________________ Medium of Study :.