A REPORT

ON

NFL

ABHINAV BABBER GIN/095319

PREPARED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
AT
NATIONAL FERTILIZERS Ltd., BATHINDA

Submitted to

SANT LONGOWAL INSTITUTEOF ENGINEERING &
TECHNOLOGY
LONGOWAL, DISTT. SANGRUR

June-July 2010

1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am very grateful to Dr. S.C Sharma (Head & Professor – Training & Placement
Department, and all other professors and lecturers of Electronic and communication
engineering department who guided me time to time by providing me desired guidance.

The industrial training in an industry / project site is an essential part of
curriculum for completion of B.E. degree. I am grateful to authorities at National
Fertilizers Limited, Bathinda for permitting me to undergo six months Industrial training
in their esteemed organization. During this training I have learnt a lot, for which I pay my
heartiest gratitude to the HRD Manager Mr. D.K. Bora and other staff members of
National Fertilizers Limited, Bathinda who helped me in all respects in fulfilling my
cherished desire of getting a successful Industrial training.

I am very thankful to Er. Nirlep singh(D.G.M –INST.), Er. B.B Grover (MGR),
Er. R.C Sharma (A.M), and all the supervisors and other officials for providing me
complete process details of their respective plants.

Abhinav Babber

2

I have done this training at National Fertilizers Limited. ABSTRACT The training report on the working of National Fertilizers Limited. degree course in Instrumentation and control engineering being taught at Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology. During this training I came across many emergency situations in the plant that surely explained me. Bathinda which is situated on Bathinda – Goniana road and is very well connected with rail and road. I have studied whole plant with Captive Power Plant in detail. In this course industrial training is an integral part of the curriculum and can be undertaken in any reputed industry.E. It is pleasure to face the Industrial life that helped me to convert my theoretical concepts into practical knowledge. Abhinav Babber 3 . Bathinda has been prepared in accordance with the requirement of scheme of three year B. It is very well known for its excellent performance over the past years. actual industrial life.

20 • PROJECT STUDY 20 – 22 4 . • INTRODUCTION 3–4 • COMPANY PROFILE 5 • UREA PLANT 6-10 • STEAM GENERATION PLANT 11 . Table of Contents TOPIC PAGE NO.13 • CAPTIVE POWER PLANT 14 .

1974 with a guaranteed “Feed in “on the Bathinda Fertilizers project to implement within 36 months from the zero date. NFL was formed and registered to set up two modern large capacity Nitrogenous Fertilizers plants.L. NFL. the one at Guna is gas-oil based. environment. Bathinda (Punjab) NFL. two of which are located at Nangal and Bathinda in the Punjab State. India Ltd (EIL). Organization . The old plant at Nangal was commissioned in 1961 followed by expansion which was commissioned in 1978. 5 . NFL has become the first Fertilizer Company in the country to have its total business covered under ISO-9001 Certification. Bathinda and Panipat plants were commissioned in 1979.P. Bathinda and Panipat are fuel- oil based. National Fertilizers Limited (N. ISO-14001. one at Panipat in Haryana and one at Guna in M. INTRODUCTION NFL is known in the industry for its work culture.42 lakh MT per annum. value added human resources. concern for ecology and its commitment to social upliftment.) is the largest manufacturer of nitrogenous fertilizers in the Northern India. safety.This contract becomes effective on September 26.F. Panipat (Haryana) NFL was incorporated on 23 rd August 1974 in order to implement this project contract were entered into with M/s " TOYO ENGINEERING CORPORATION " a well known Japanese Engg. Company and Engg. All NFL plants have been certified for ISO-9002 for conforming to international quality standards and International Environmental Standard i. The overall installed capacity of NFL plants is 10. With the certification of Corporate Office/Marketing operations under ISO-9001:2000. a public sector and Engg. It is presently operating four large fertilizers plants. While plants at Nangal. later on it was planned to set up its own power house known as Captive Power Plant (CPP) with 2 turbo generators of 15 MW each.e. Due to the power requirements and some other factors. On 23rd August 1974.

NFL was incorporated on 23rd August. on the reorganization of Fertilizer group of Companies in 1978. Subsequently the Vijaipur plant doubled its capacity to 14.52 lakh MTs by commissioning Vijaipur Expansion Unit i.49 lakh MTs of Nitrogenous Fertilizers and has recorded an annual sales turnover of Rs. The Company has an installed capacity of 35. The Nangal Unit of Fertilizer Corporation of India came under the NFL fold. 474 crores during 2004-05. 6 . The plant was completed well within time and approved project cost.e.e.64 lakh MT for Vijaipur-I & Vijaipur-II Plants each.4.2000 from 7. In recognition of this achievement. 1978 and is now in full production. the project was awarded the First Prize in Excellence in Project Management by Govt. Vijaipur-II in 1997. Three of the Units are strategically located in the high consumption areas of Punjab and Haryana. The Company expanded its installed capacity in 1984 by installing and commissioning of its Vijaipur gas based Plant in NFL Corporate office: Madhya Pradesh.26 lakh MT of Urea to 8.3.f. of India. Subsequently. The plant annual capacities have now been re-rated w.Guna Plant which is the latest plant of NFL was commissioned in Dec. 1. Noida The Vijaipur Plant was a land mark achievement in project management in India. 1974 with two manufacturing Units at Bathinda and Panipat.

3.97 4. - Indore 1.785** .016* 8.115 . Nangal-I 91.115 .307 3.97 5.Strategically Located . - Bathinda 349.Oil/LSHS 2.Urea Plants Leading Producer of Nitrogenous Fertilizers in the Country.19 F.55 19.Crore) (Lakh MT/Yr. .602 32. - Panipat 338.) MT/Year Plants Feed Stock Ammonia Urea CAN Bio-Fert.646* .66 . - Vijaipur-I 516.181 - Nangal-II 299.181 100 7 . 100 Total 2666.Oil/LSHS 2. PRODUCTION UREA PLANT Capital Cost.26 Naptha 0.42 Strains .97 5.016* 8.00 Natural Gas 5.41 F.646* . Feed Stock & Plants Capacity Capital Cost Existing Capacity (Rs.41 F. - Vijaipur-II 1071.00 Natural Gas 5.Oil/LSHS 2. .

TYPES OF PROCESS CONVENTIONAL MOLE RATIO NH3:CO2 4:1 H20:CO2 0. Crystallization & Prilling section.54:1 %CONVERSION 70% REACTION CONDITION: PRESSURE: CO2 250 kg/cm2 Carbamate 250 kg/cm2 Ammonia 250 kg/cm2 TEMPERATURE: 2000 C UREA PROCESS CLASSIFIED IN FOUR SECTION 1. Recovery section. 4. 3. Decomposition section. 8 . Synthesis section. 2.

0 kg/cm2. The no. of component used for this are: • Pressure gauge • Pressure transmitter • Pneumatic controller • Actuator • Positioner • Control valves OPERATION • PRESSURE GAUGE measures the actual pressure in the pipeline.2 ~ 1.0 kg/cm2 signal. • Positioner acts according to controller signal. • Controller follows pressure transmitter signal and with set point value.e. 9 . • A 1. • Positioner accepts this signal and produces output signal i.2 ~1. • PRESSURE TRANSMITTER takes actual pressure in its primary and secondary part converts this pressure into 0.PRESSURE MEASUREMENT (PNEUMATIC SYSTEM) For the measurement of pressure the single control loops method. • In this way pressure in a pipeline is controlled.4 kg/cm2 supply is providedto pneumatic controller. given to the actuator. • Controller gives output according to desired set point value and produces a output signal of 0. • Actuator diaphragm moves up & down according to positioner signal and control valves moves accordingly.

The control valve is most important and widely used final element in auto control loop. the valve indirectly controls the process variables that may be level. temperature. pressure etc.ACTUATOR A fluid powered or electrically powered device that supplies and motion to a valve closure member. So by controlling the flow. DIAPHRAGM A flexible pressure responsive element that transmits force to the diaphragm plate and actuator stem. A control valve functions as a variable resistance in a pipeline. fully or partially opens or closers that valve to a position dictated by signals transmitted from controlling instruments can be called as CONTROL VALVE. 10 . FORCE PLATE The support plate which gives support to the diaphragm and exerts force uniformly. CONTROL VALVE A valve with actuator that automatically.

VIBRATION AND AXIAL DISPLACEMENT Transducer system is non contacting shaft vibration and relation position measurement system. extension cable and proximate. GAP MEASUREMENT 24 volts normally drive the proximator from an external source such as a power supply or monitoring device. 16volts. When the gap reached specified minimum distance from the 11 . When a conductive material approaches the probe tip. the eddy currents on the surface of material observed more power. As the conserved conductive surface come closer to the probe tab. The system include a probe with an integral cable. The system measures both static and dynamic system probe tips are also each calibrated to a specific probe type cable electrical length and temperature range. The transducer system measurement the gap between the probe fit and an absorbed metal surface and convert this distance to a proportional negative voltage. eddy current generated on the surfaces on the material resulting power loss in RF signal. If there is no conductive material within a specified distance to intercept magnetic field.VIBRATION MEASUREMENT If the observed surface is rotating and rapidly changing the gap distance the RF envelope is not constant amplitude but varies in direct proportion to the peak to peak movement of the observed surface. the output at proximator output terminal is reduced proportionately. As a power loss is developed in RF signal. The proximator converts the DC drive voltage into an RF signal that is applied to the probe through 95 ohm coaxial extension probe radiates the RF signal into surrounding area as a magnetic field. The scale factor is 200MV/mil(1mil=1/1000inch). This peak to peak movement of the observed surface causes the RF envelope to be amplitude modulated. There is no power loss in RF signal the output signal of proximator output terminals is max.

Thrust measurement and eccentricity measurement are the merely gap measurement at the slow rate of change in the gap. process stability and optimization.conductive material surface. A wide variety of level measurement techniques are available to meet the diverse level requirement of the process industry evolved over the years. LEVEL MEASUREMENT WHAT IS LEVEL? The level may be expressed in term of pressure exerted over a datum level or in term of the length of the liquid column. The level has a significant effect on process quality. WHY ITS MEASUREMENT IS IMPORTANT? Level measurement is one of the important parameter in any process industry like our fertilizer plant. 12 . This is reflected as the maximum power loss the RF signal resulting a minimum DC output signal at the proximator output terminal. The proximator measure the magnetic of the RF envelopes and provide a DC output signal proportional to the packs of envelopes. The material absorbs the total RF energy radiated by the probe. accurate and reliable level measurement is necessary. Hence precise. WHY IT IS MEASURED? To ensure that right amount of liquid/solid are added to the vessel at right time and for safe operation. controllability.

equipments and auxiliaries like pressure gauge etc. odourless and tasteless. BENEFITS OF STEAM It is colorless. first and the main reason is for running prime mover and other reason is to exchange heat in the processes taking place their. NFL . Generally two boilers are enough to meet the requirements but third boiler is simultaneously running because if steam load consumption increases then the third boiler plays its part in order to avoid any faulty condition. Bathinda is using steam for two purposes . oil natural gas are used as a fuel for production of steam. 13 . Very economical Non-polluting Can be used as heat exchanger. It can be easily distributed to various sections of plant. For governing the quantity of fuel to be burned and for maintaining the required pressure their are many automatic fuel feeders. There are three boilers capable of producing steam at the rate of 150 Tonnes/hr installed in CPP which were supplied and erected b BHEL. Steam is generated in Boilers (Water tube boilers mounted on common base fitted with mountings and fittings) and then distributed to other parts of plants. Bathinda unit produces and supplies steam at 100 Kg / cm2 pressure and nearly 480°C temperature to Ammonia Plant. STEAM GENERATION PLANT Steam Generation plant is mainly installed for production of steam and then distributed to various parts of the plant. It may be used for power processes and heating purposes as well. Here this section of plant installed in National Fertilizers Limited. coal. In today’s world steam has gained importance in Industries. In the Boilers used at National Fertilizers Limited (Bathinda unit).

Steam is mainly consumed in the Ammonia Plant as nearly 6 to 7 tonne of steam is required to produce 1 tonne of Ammonia.e. Bathinda unit has its own Steam Generation Plant where steam is produced which is used for driving Turbo Compressors. this makes the water in the tubes boil and steam 14 . It is this section of plant where coal is crushed by crushers in order to make small pieces of coal. Grinding mill is grinding coal into powder form. coal is burned to give major source of heat. High Pressure Turbines are being used where high pressure and temperature is to be maintained so SGP section plays a important role for maintaining the said condition. then after crushing it the coal pieces rare passed through heavy electromagnet where iron is separated from coal if present. Heating Purposes. Fuel Oil : As the Boilers are designed to work on both Coal as well as Fuel Oil so fuel oil can also be pumped to Boiler for combustion. Initially coal is stored at Coal Handling plant brought from coal sites. water is inside the tubes and hot air surrounds it when coal is burnt. WHY AND WHERE STEAM IS REQUIRED As National Fertilizers Ltd. Coal is then sent to Bunkers from where it goes to Grinding mill.FUELS USED: Coal : To obtain steam of desired Temperature and pressure. for various reactions taking place in the plant itself. Generally coal alone is not burnt Initially but Fuel Oil (LSHS) is mixed coal and then sent to the furnace for combustion in order to get desired temperature . The powder form of coal is sent to the Boilers through pump as pump sucks the coal from grinding mills and throws it into the boiler for combustion. Conveyor Belts are being used in the whole plant for transportation of Coal. There are three boilers (VU-40 type supplied by M/S BHEL) of 150 tonne/hr capacity .These boilers are Water Tube Boilers i.

For this purpose Raw Water is physically and chemically treated and finally supplied to Steam Generation Plant from Ammonia plant. nitrogen. oxygen and sulphur-di-oxide. This water is called Boiler Feed water which is further heated to 240º C by the flue Gases and taken to Steam Drum. FLUE GAS SYSTEM The products of combustion in the furnace consist of carbon-di-oxide. taken heat from furnace and enters steam drum as a mixture of steam and water. Steam Drum Acts as storage tank and also separates water from the steam at 315º C and 106 kg/cm2 pressure water then enters the Ring Header formed at on the bottom of outside the furnace and rises by gravity through water wall tubes on the all the four sides. In the beginning coal is burnt with fuel oil in order to get desired temperature. Temperature is not reduced further because at lower temperature oxides of sulphur present in flue gases are converted to ACID which damages the down stream equipments. First the steam from steam drum is heated in two super heaters to get the required temperatures of 4950C and then feed water in BANK TUBES is also heated and the gases leave bank tubes at around 4970C next the heat is utilized to heat feed water in the ECONOMIZER and gases are cooled down to 3200C. These gases are further cooled down to 1500C in ROTARY AIR HEATER where the air is required for combustion and conveying the coal is heated up. is utilized at various levels. silica. Iron etc. ash. oxygen. 15 .formation takes place. in order to insure Safe and Efficient working of Steam turbines and Boilers. These gases then pass through ELECTRO STATIC PRECIPITATOR (ESP) where ash is removed. After leaving the furnace the heat Of these gases called FLUE GASES. WATER AND STEAM SYSTEM As the steam being used should be free from impurities like minerals.

B). Under normal running conditions of the plant and healthiness of the P. urea plant is cut off automatically to balance the load with one generator. power factor.P. Latest instrumentation has been used in this plant. In case of any disturbance in the grid.E. frequency.B. thus production is not affected. Electricity is the main driving force after steam in the plant. voltage. With both generators running. temperature. Operation of C. There are two 15 MW turbo-generators to generate power. we generally run in synchronism with the grid merely drawing the power corresponding to the minimum charges to be paid to state electricity board. our system gets isolated from the grid automatically. uninterrupted power and stream to the Ammonia and Urea plant. start up. There is operator interface unit (IOU) Like a TV screen on which various parameters can be 16 . to ensure availability of stable. The power generation of each generator can be varied with 2 MW to 15 MW maximum. etc. The unit requires 27MW of power/hr when running at full load. Bathinda unit was drawing electric power from Punjab State Electricity Board (P.S. shut down of the whole or part of the plant.S. provision exists to run the generator on 10 % extra load continuously for one hour only. grid. the generators are again synchronized with it. This will minimize the tripping of the Fertilizer Plant due to transit voltage dips and power cuts. CAPTIVE POWER PLANT INTRODUCTION: National Fertilizers Limited has set a Captive Power Plant (CPP) at their complex at BATHINDA.P. It allows controlling process variables like flow. Since inception. being used for moving auxiliary equipments.E. is based upon microprocessor based computerized instrumentation which allows automatic operation. As soon as the grid becomes stable. In case only one turbo generator is in line and grid cuts off. pressure. we are able to feed power to the whole plant.

P. 17 .displayed and controlled. TURBO-GENERATOR AND ITS AUXILIARIES: To generate power. its capacity was so designed that it could export around 60Te of steam for process requirement so that only 2 boilers of SGP would be run keeping the 3rd as stand by. Three boilers of 150Te/hr steam capacity were initially installed in SGP to keep 25 boilers running and one stand by as designed steam requirement was less than 300Te/hr. The functioning of CPP can be sub- divided into parts: BOILER AND ITS AUXILIARIES: For generation of high pressure superheated steam. Moreover. NEED FOR C. As new boiler was to be installed for CPP. Operation of CPP is based upon microprocessor based computerized instrumentation which allows automatic operation. Any disturbance in the PSEB grid used to trip the whole plant. frequent tripping’s had an ill effect on machines and equipments extending the re- startup period. shut down of the whole or the part of the plant. The benefits envisaged were: 1. start up. turbine and other auxiliaries. With these points in mind CPP was installed. 2. Lot of money was lost due to this as each re-startup costs around 40 to 50 lakhs rupees. but in actual operation steam requirement was more and all three boilers had to be run and there was no breathing time for their maintenance.P: It was thought to install a captive power plant in which electric power for our requirement shall be generated in a COAL FIRED BOILER. using steam from the boiler. shut-down of boiler. It allows fully automatic start-up.

utilization of heat of the gases and venting these gases at a safe height.5 sec where SGP boiler has 1. Boiler feed water required for steam generation can be fully generated in CPP itself. Mills used for pulverizations of coal in SGP are negative pressure bowl mills whereas in CPP ball tube mill are used which are positive pressure mills. A part of the steam generated is exported for process use in ammonia plant and rest is utilized for power generation in turbo generators as described below: DESCRIPTION MITSUI RILEY TYPE BOILER Maximum evaporation 2.BOILER The basic principle of this boiler is the same as discussed earlier for SGP boiler that is formation of steam by heating boiler feed water inside furnace fired by coal and heavy oil. 30.0 sec.000kg/hr Design process for boiler 124 kg/cm2G Steam temp at outlet 4950C Heating surface 1250M2 18 . SGP boiler can be loaded up to 30% load with oil firing only whereas CPP boiler can be fully loaded with oil alone. Height of combustible zone in CPP boiler is more and it has residence time of 1. Due to more residence time and better pulverization the efficiency of CPP boiler is about 4% higher. Main differences between the two boilers are: SGP boiler is tangentially fired where as CPP boiler is front fired with 6 coal burners and 6 oil gun fixed inside the coal housing.

After this the two lines pass on to the TRANSMISSION pole called DOUBLE CIRCUIT TRANSMISSION. Then these lines go to the M. as here 25KVA capacity is when cooling is oil natural air natural and 31. i. HP1 at 10. The turbine is fed with high pressure steam at 100kg from boiler and flows through various control valves for normal and emergency operation. Both these transformers step up the voltage level to 132KV. main receiving station. two generators of 15MW capacity generate a voltage of 11KV which is fed to the two transformers in the yard. HP2 at 8. HP1 and HP2 are used for heating boiler feed water in 19 .1kg/cm2. The resulting condensate can be fed back to LP heater but is normally sent to the polishing water plant. After this they pass on to the isolator.e.P. It is condensing cum extraction turbine designed as single casing reaction turbine with single control stage and high pressure (HP).S. these two values depend upon the cooling which we provide. The output of the turbine depends on flow of steam and heat difference that is on condition of steam at the main steam valve and the pressure at the turbine outlet or condenser pressure. mild pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) reaction parts.5/25 KVA. Steam is also extracted from various stages.3kg/cm2 and LP bleed at 0. The exhaust steam is condensed in a condenser using cooling water.P. As shall be clear from the attached block diagram various bleeds from the turbine are utilized for heating purpose. The rating of the transformers is 31. The enthalpy of steam is utilized in steps. TURBINE: The turbine used is supplied by M/S SGP of AUSTRIA.5KVA capacity is when cooling is oil natural air forced. From the transformers the three phases pass through the lightning arrestors (LA). It gets high velocity through the nozzle group and then passes over the impellers fixed on to the rotor and fixed diffusers thus rotating the turbine. The turbine is connected to the generator through speed reducing gears.R.4kg/cm2. feed water bleed at 4.9kg/cm2.POWER GENERATION: In C. The exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed in a condenser maintained under vacuum to extract maximum steam enthalpy.

The generators are type SAT three phase. 11kV. gears and generator. DESCRIPTION:- Make Simmering Graz Panker. Latest instrumentation has been used in this plant. pressure and temperature according to a control configuration. The alternators are able to bear 10% overload for one hr with an increase in temp. The NETWORK 90 SYSTEM is a distributed process control system. of 100C while maintaining the voltage as near as possible to the rated one.HP1 and HP2 heaters. There is operator interface unit (OIU) like a TV screen on which various parameters can be displayed and controlled. Austria Type Multifunction (28 stages) Capacity 65 T/H at 15 MW RPM 6789 at 50 Hz Critical speed 3200-3600 RPM GENERATORS CPP is having two number turbo generators of capacity 15MW each. Using a series of integrated control nodes. Feed water bleeds is used for heating the feed water tank and LP bleed is used for heating the polish water make up to the feed water tank. A lubrication system is also there to lubricate the various bearings of the turbine. A turning gear has been provided for slow cooling of turbine rotor. turbine and other auxiliaries.8 power factor rating supplied by M/S JEUMONT SCHNEIDER OF FRANCE. These are totally enclosed self ventilated type with two lateral airs to water coolers for cooling. It allows fully automatic start-up/shut-down of boiler. Bailey’s net work-90 microprocessor based instrumentation system is being used. 50Hz. at 0. The excitation is controlled automatically with automatic voltage regulator 20 . The excitation is compound and brush less with exciter rotor and Rectifier Bridge mounted on the extended main shaft on non driving end. 984amps. The network 90 system allows controlling process variables like flow. Normally the oil pump driven by the turbine shaft supplies oil but auxiliary motor driven pumps are used for start up and during shutdown.

In such an event the load is transferred to an unprocessed bypass supply. All protection relays installed for protection of generator are solid state having high accuracy. but if one module develops a fault. Under normal circumstances both modules are operational and share the load current equally. mission critical applications. such as digital drives & automation. The system offers the user with the following advantages: - Increased power supply: - The UPS has its own internal voltage and frequency regulator circuits which ensure that its output is maintained within close tolerances independent of voltage and frequency variations on the mains power lines. or 21 . we generally run in synchronism with the grid merely drawing the power corresponding to minimum charges to be paid to state electricity board. Under normal running conditions of the plant and healthiness of the PSEB grid. low voltage etc. high rate of change of frequency. In case of any disturbance in the grid measured by higher low frequency. telecom equipment. computer and its three phase mains power supply under all rated load and input supply conditions. quick response and low power consumption. the other module also automatically shuts down.and a PLC controller. programmable logic controller. thus production is not affected. we are able to feed power to the whole plant. our system gets isolated from the grid automatically. distributed digital process control system. REDUNDANT Vs NON REDUNDANT CONFIGURATIONS:- In a non-redundant configuration the system is sized such that both UPS modules are required to feed the potential load and if one of the two modules develops a fault or for some reason shut down. With both generators running. In a redundant module configuration the system is sized such that the potential load can be provided by just one of the two modules. UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY: - The uninterruptible power supply system is connected between a critical load.

e.U.U. Then separately according of function of these section: 1.T. of liquid ammonia per day. AMMONIA SYNTHESIS SECTION 22 .DC-AC converter.S. 7400 Module Design:- The UPS basically operates as an AC. backed-up power. SHIFT CONVERTOR (CO SHIFT CONVERSION) 5. the second module is able to take over the full load demand and continue to provide it with processed. NITROGEN WASH UNIT (N. The first conversion stage (from AC to DC) uses a 3 phase fully controlled silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) bridge rectifier to convert the incoming mains supply into a regulated 432V DC bus bar. SHELL GASSIFICATION AND CARBON RECOVERY 3. DE-SULPHURION (RECOVERY-1) 4. This plant has production capacity of 900 M. reconverting the DC bus bar voltage back into an AC voltage waveform.) 7.) 2. AMMONIA PLANT Ammonia is the major constituent in the production of urea and separately in the ammonia plant. We can easily divide the whole process into following different section and discuss. AIR SEPARATION UNIT (A. CARBIN DIOXIDE REMOVAL 6. The DC bus bar produced by the rectifier provides both battery charging power and power to the inverter section-which is of a transistorized / IGBT based pulse width modulation (PWM) design and provides the second conversion phase i.W.is shut down.

93% Carbon 0. 3. Final products i. Then further cooled in air chiller. 2. Product O2 is the first compressed and then led to reactors in shell gasification process. H2S. SHELL GASIFICATION AND CARBON RECOVERY Lines of O2 feedback and stream led to the gasifier column where in the presence of high temperature of the order 13500 C produce raw gas containing CO.1. H2O 23 . It is removed by stages water wash and there is final scrubbing stage. Absorption process is carried out at low temp.93% It is provided for getting oxygen and nitrogen required for production of NH3 from air is the first section from atmosphere and is pre-cooled. CO2 is send to the urea plant. Methanol has a property of absorbing different gases at different temp. H2S is sent to sulphur recovery plant. HCN is also removed in this stage. and high pressure. H2S and CO2. Some unburnt carbon is also present along with other gases in raw gas.U. DE-SULPHURISATION Sulphur compound are removed in this section because otherwise these poison the catalyst present in the next section.e.U. are removed by passing through alumunia molecular seves.) Air has following composition: Nitrogen 78.S. in the ratio of 1:3 to get pure synthesis gas to manufacture NH3.W. HCN. heat is generated in this unit.93% Argon 0. AIR SEPARATION UNIT (A. On the other hand N2 and H2 are given to N. N2 and O2 are obtained when air is rectified in the rectifying column. as it can check the line. For partial oxidation of food stock for producing raw gas is separated toH2.03% Oxygen 20. This heat is not washed but utilized to produce steam in the waste boiler. Then moisture and dust etc.

1 PPM in this unit by absorbing with MeOH. is around 350-500 oC. CO2 REMOVAL In this unit we get a mixture of gas(H2. where liquid N2 is sprayed on raw gas of 98% H2 from the top of the tank. H2 + CO2 In this industrial method of producing H2 as per le chatlier principle for high concentration of product excess is to be introduced and temp. 6.W.U.W..W. AMMONIA SYNTHESIS SECTION The synthesis gas from N.. N2 + 3H2 …………… 2NH3 24 . is compressed from 37 kg/cm2 to 230 kg/cm2 in the centrifugal type synthesis compressor. in this unit we get 98% of H2 and send to N. Before leaving this section..W. by passing the gas catalyst as per the following reaction: CO(g) +H2O(steam) .and COS are removed in the raw gas to only 0. So compromise is made and temp. Fe is used as catalyst in reaction. it is called synthesis gas. Then the gas enters the synthesis hot exchanger with hot effluent gas from synthesis economizer. should kept low and reaction rate is high. This is removed in N.U.. MeOH is regenerated by N2 by stripping and H2S is sent to sulphur recovery plant.. 5. purified H2 gas is mixed with N2 in the ratio 3:1 and forms an admixture without reaction.) Even a little of CO still remains in raw gas after the shift convertor process.. At the outlet of the compressor the gas contains 16% ammonia. 7. 4... SHIFT CONVERTOR In this unit get CO2 and H2 from CO and steam at high temp. This mixture of MeOH and CO2 is stripped by N2 where CO2 is regenerated and send to UREA PLANT.U. NITROGEN WASH UNIT (N.U. CO2) from shift conversion and CO2 is removed from H2 by absorbing CO2 with methanol of low temp.

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