1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Morphology is the field within linguistics that studies the internal

structure of words. (Words as units in the lexicon are the subject matter of

lexicology). While words are generally accepted as being (with clitics) the

smallest units of syntax, it is clear that in most (if not all) languages, words can

be related to other words by rules. For example, English speakers recognize that

the words dog, dogs, and dog-catcher are closely related. English speakers

recognize these relations from their tacit knowledge of the rules of word-

formation in English. They intuit that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats; similarly, dog

is to dog-catcher as dish is to dishwasher. The rules understood by the speaker

reflect specific patterns (or regularities) in the way words are formed from

smaller units and how those smaller units interact in speech. In this way,

morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies patterns of word-formation

within and across languages, and attempts to formulate rules that model the

knowledge of the speakers of those languages.

The term 'morphology' has been taken over from biology where it is used

to denote the study of the forms of plants and animals. It was first used for

linguistic purposes in 1859 by the German linguist August Schleicher (Salmon

2000), to refer to the study of the form of words. In present-day linguistics, the

term 'morphology' refers to the study of the internal structure of words, and of

“The notion 'systematic' in the definition of morphology given above is important. (words in a lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology). this pattern is not systematic: there are no similar word pairs. However. or implied context. and we cannot form new English verbs by adding h. which compress lots of separate morphemes into single words. For instance. we might observe a form difference and a corresponding meaning difference between the English noun ear and the verb hear. affixes. intonation/stress. CHAPTER II DISCUSSION . analysis and description of the structure of morphemes and other units of meaning in a language such as words. through the agglutinative ("stuck-together") and fusional languages that use bound morphemes (affixes). Morphological typology represents a way of classifying languages according to the ways by which morphemes are used in a language —from the analytic that use only isolated morphemes. up to the polysynthetic.to a noun. parts of speech. 2 the systematic form-meaning correspondences between words. morphology is the identification." In linguistics.

while performance is the real language use by native speaker in real situations. not from performance. The linguistic data are not the utterance of the individual that must be studied. generative transformational grammar is theory of competence. The creativity of language is meant the ability of the native speaker to generate new sentences. particularly his judgment on what sentence are grammatical and what sentences are ungrammatical and his judgment on the interrelationship of sentence. 3 A. it is stated that linguistics is the study of competence. Competence is the native speaker’s knowledge of his language. Generative transformational grammar starts from competence. but his intuition of his language. The Principles of Generative Morphology According to Chomsky (1965:3-9). which means what sentences have the same meaning. In this connection. Chomsky states that linguistic theory is metalistic. language has creative innovative characteristic. Second. Furthermore. . The real object of linguistic study is the homogeneous speech community in which all people use the same language and study that language properly. the principles or the assumptions underlying generative transformational grammar in general and generative morphology in particular can stated as follows : First. The theory of language should be formed to explain this intuition. because this theory attempts to find out the mental reality underlying real behavior. Generative Morphology 1. Chomsky distinguishes between competence and performance.

rules that describe real language of certain groups of speakers. namely. What is meant by rules here are descriptive rule. human language in all levels in governed by rules. Chomsky (1972:103) atates that there is a number of questions that cause someone to study language. language is the mirror of mind. sentence interpretation rules (semantic rules) and pronunciation rules (phonological rules). 4 that is. we will know the inherent features of human mind. sentences that have no similarities with usual sentences. The aims of the linguist who attempts to explain the creative aspect of grammatical competence are to formulate a set of sentence formation rules (syntactic rules). semantic rule. (1984:5-7) complete the basic assumtions of generative transformational grammar as follows : First. generative transformational grammar is the set of rules that gives structural description to the sentence. The native speaker has the capability of generating and understanding new sentences or he has the capability of making judgments of their grammaticality. Fourth. Thus studying a language means studying a set of syntactic rules. The descriptive rules actually express the generalization and regularity of various aspects of language. Every language that we know has syntactic rules governing pronunciation. By studying language in detail. we can achieve better understanding on how human mind produces and processes language. In other words. word formation. Al. Third. Akmajian et. and grammatical constructions. . and phonological rules.

human languages are very different from each other. generative morphology is an integral part of the syntactic component. but from the point of view of deep structure. that is. morphology analysis is carried out in two levels. From the point of view of surface structure. morphology is not an autonomous component. those languages have universal features. to refer to someone’s knowledge of his language. namely. 5 Second. various human language from unified phenomena. Next. particularly generative transformational grammar. so . The linguist assume that it is possible to study human language in general and certain languages to express universal language features. Then we see the process that occur to that underlying representation in order to be able to determine its derived or surface structure. but a part of syntactic component. 2. we first trace the deep structure or underlying representation of morphological construction. Basic Concepts of Generative Morphology a. Competence and Performance Crystal (1980:73) states that competence is a term used in linguistics. Second. In standard generative transformational grammar. Based on this assumption. the assumtions underlying generative morphology are stated as follows: First. the level of deep structure and the level of surface structure. the system of rules which he has mastered.

contrasted with surface structure. and to recognize grammatical mistakes and ambiguities. Deep structure is an abstract syntactical representation of a sentence. The ability to determine whether an utterance or expression belongs to the language concerned. 2. Furthermore. The ability to determine the similarities of meaning of those utterances. The ability to determine the variability of meaning of an utterance. which . The ability to determine the identities of the expression concerning their membership on one utterance. The ability to give judgments concerning the formal similarities among various utterances. 5. a basic level of structural organization explaining all factors that govern the way how sentences should be interpreted. The ability to generate and understand the infinite number of sentences. b. 8. 7. 3. 4. According to Bechert et. 6 that he is able to generate and understand an infinite number of sentences. 6. The ability to determine the different kinds of derivation. 9. The ability to give meanings to utterance or expression belonging to a certain language. Crystal (1980:341) states that the surface structure of a sentence is the final stage in the syntactical representation of a sentence. Deep Structure and Surface Structure Crystal (1980:102) states that deep structure is a theoretical term central in generative transformational grammar. The ability to determine the level of derivation from those utterances. competence covers the following abilities: 1.al (1976:18). that is.

Every morpheme is indicated as a sequence of phonological segments and it is put between labeled brackets. the basic unit of lexicon are morpheme. verb and affixes for example: a) [home]N b) [discuss]v c) [-ty]Suf 2) Word formation rules There are two kinds of Word Formulation Rules namely. as can be seen in the following example: (i) Srendip + i + ty (ii) arrive + al Vac + ant obes + ity Tot + al dark + en Be + lieve child + ish All word formulation rules perform a number of tasks. The representation by nouns. Example: (i) [STEM + I + ty]N (ii) [verb] + a] N [STEM + an]Adj [Adjective + (i) + (Ty)]N [STEM + al]N [ADJECTIVE + en]v [be + STEM]N [NOUN + ish]Adj The two kinds of word formulation rules above generate two kinds of derived words. namely: a. which is very in accord with the structure of sentence which we articulate or hear. 3. and have the following features: . and (2) Word formulation rules which apply to words. The Models of Generative Morphology and Their Organization There are two models of generative used in the word of linguistic. Halle’s Model and its organization Hale’s Model consist of four component : 1) List of morpheme According to Halle. 7 prepare input to the phonological component. (1) Word Formulation Rules which apply to stems and form the linear sequence “ stem + one or more morpheme” with or without the internal structure.

8 a) Word formulation Rules specify sequences in which morphemes must be arranged to form words of language. Verb). then they also function to analysis the existing words. syntactically. (ii) the syntactic category of the output. that means that those formation cannot enter the dictionary. (iii) the internal boundary in the output example: “+” and (iv) regular semantic information c) Word formation rules specify the semantic and syntactic features of the derived words that are not in accord with the features of the base. but not occur in surface structure. The filter functions to mark such formation wit the features [-LI]. example: Noun. d) Word formation rules operate in the same way as derivational morphology and inflectional morphology. e) Word formation rules are more powerful than phonological rules. Word formulation rules can form words that are phonologically. 4) Dictionary The words that have gone the filter form the dictionary of a given language. and semantically. b) Word formulation rules specify (i) the syntactic category of the base. Not all words can be derived by word formulation rules. Verb. The dictionary covers either regular formation that have not been . f) Since word formulation rules that create new words. which the last component of this morphological model. 3) Filter The filter component is a mechanism tat handles the idiosyncrasies occurring in a language. Example: noun.

b.based Hypothesis i) The bases of the word formulation rules are word ii) These words are the existing words. word formulation rules. not more like phrases and less like bound morpheme iv) The input and output of the major the WFR must be the members of the major lexical categories. And Arronoff divides into two part. b) Word formulation rules The word formulation rule is a specific mechanism that create new words in a language that lies wholly in lexicon. 9 modified by the filter by adding or deleting certain features. namely the list of morpheme. filter and dictionary. The problems are related to every subcomponent of this model. Example : [W]x [[W]x + AF] y “ semantic of Y” The formulated : [read]v [[read]v + able]A “ capable of being read” c) Readjustment rules According to Arronoff the readjustment rules are the rules that are limited to special morphemes and occur only in the environment of those special morphemes. Arronof’s Model 1) Criticism on Halle’s Model Scalise (1984: 34) state that the researches carried out later shows a number of problems concerning generative morphology of Halle’s model. Thus possible but non existent iii) The word formulation rules can take single words as bases. namely: i) Truncation rules The general form of truncation rule is as follows: [[root + A]x +B]v . 2) The component of Arronof’s Model a) Word. or idiosyncratic formation have been modified in certain ways by filter.

show. why. cut. do. b. Free morphemes Free morphemes are morphemes that can stand alone as word. Can be further divided into: Prefixes: a-. shirt. too ………………. go. beautiful. for-. a(n). two. does. yesterday.. inter-. some. Intensifiers (Int) : very. rather. in-. now. when. drug.. sea. house. somewhat. en-. The formulated [[root]x + Suf]y 1 2 1+Formative 2 In which X represents a lexical category of the root and Y represent takes a morpheme of formative when a suffix I added to the underlying representation. mis-. Auxiliaries (Aux) : be. tomorrow …… 2) Function words: Determiners (Det) : the. am. …………. did. . The Analysis of Generative Morphology All identified morphemes are classified into two main groups. can.. like: 1) Class or content words: Nouns : fish. how …. 10 1 2 3 1 Ø 3 ii) Allomorphy rules Allomorphy rules are the rules that add morphemes or formatives to the roots or bases when suffixes are added. see. 4. like …………… Adjective : handsome. many. come. my ………. is. clean ………. one. Question words (QW) : who(m). are. Bound morphemes Bound morphemes are morpheme that cannot stand alone. may ……. Free morphemes consist of class or content words.. king …………… Verbs : hit. namely: a. auto-.. so. re-. cleaver. where. what. un-. Adverb : here. there. dis-.

for example. nouns. -ness. -ize. -al ……. can be formed with the following rules: (NFR-1) [[X]v + [-ion]suf]N Semantics: ‘the act of X-ing . -ty. -fy. The analysis of generative morphology divided into two. -er. The Analysis of Generative Morphology of Halle’s Model 1) List of morphemes All morphemes. -ment. And tan every rule must be accompanied by its meaning or semantics. Word formation rules (WFR) Name Abbreviation Noun Formation Rules (NFR) Verb Formation Rules (VFR) Adjective Formation Rules (AdjFR) Adverb Formation Rules (AdvFR) In English. namely: a. Example a) Free morphemes [decorate]v [active]adj [electric]adj b) Bound morphemes [-ion]suf [-ty]suf 2) Word formation After all morphemes are listed in the list of morphemes is to formulate a set of Word formation Rules (WFR). either free morphemes or bound morphemes are listed in the list of morphemes by using labeled bracketing. -able. -en. 11 Suffixes : -ion. -ate.

The phonological rule for these three phonological processes can be formulated as follows: . so they cannot enter the dictionary. 12 This rule states that some English nouns can be formed by adding the suffix. (NFR-2) [[X]adj + [-ty]suf]N Semantics: ‘the state of being X’ This rule state that some nouns in English can be formed by adding the suffix-ty to the base with the meaning ‘the state of being X’.ion to the base consisting of verbs with the meaning the act of X. they must go through phonological processes. namely. The application of (NFR-1) and (NFR-2) generate the following underlying representations: *[#[decorate] + [-ion]#] *[#[educate] + [-ion]#] *[#[nominate] + [-ion]#] *[#[active] + [-ty]#] *[#[electric] + [-ty]#] All of the above underlying representations are ungrammatical or unacceptable.ing. 3) Filter The filter is the mechanism that can change unacceptable underlying representations into acceptable one. To be acceptable. two assimilations and one syllable structure process.

. +high -voice +continuant -back +continual +strident -Delrel 4) Dictionary All words have been formed through Word Formation Rule (WFR) and have gone through the filter are listed in the dictionary. (PR-3) C C C +consonantal -anterior + high +coronal +syllabic + back -voice / ….back This rule state that the high vowel phoneme /i/ is inserted at the end of the base when the suffix –ty is added to te base. 13 (PR-1) C C -sonorant -sonorant +high -anterior +anterior / ……. The Analysis of Generative Morphology of Aronoff’s Model 1) Dictionary . In the dictionary. all words are accompanied their meanings and their semantic feature. + [-ion] … +strident _voice +coronal (PR-2) V + Syllabic Ø +high /…# . b.

The following underlying representation: *[#[active/æktive/]Adj + [-ty]suf#]N . while the underlying representation (e) is morphologically and phonologically unacceptable. (b). Example : a) [active]Adj b) [decorate]v c) [educate]v d) [electric] Adj e) [examine]v f) [nominate]v 2) Word Formation Rule a) The Rule for the formation of English Noun with the suffix –ion (NFR-1) [X]v [[X]v + [-ion]suf ]N Semantics: ‘the act or result of X-ing’ b) The Rule for the formation of English Noun with the suffix –ty (NFR-2) [X] Adj [[X] Adj + [-ty]suf ]N Semantic: ‘the state of being X’ 3) Underlying Representation The application of (NFR-1) and (NFR-2) can generate the following underlying representations: (a) *[#[active /æktive/]Adj + [-ty]suf#]N (b) *[#[decorate /dekеreit/]v + [-ion]suf#]N (c) *[#[educate/ejucate/]v + [-ion]suf#]N (d) *[#[electric/ilektrik/]Adj + [-ty]suf#]N (e) *[#[examine/igzæmin/]v + [-ion]suf#]N (f) *[#[nominate/nomineit/]v + [-ion] suf]N All is underlying representation are ungrammatical or unacceptable. 14 In the formation. 4) Phonological Rule The phonologically unacceptable underlying representations must go through certain phonological process. (c). (d). The underlying representation (a). and (f) are phonologically unacceptable. the steps must be taken is to list sets of words used as bases of Word Formation Rule (WFR) in the dictionary as the first of Aronoff’s Model.

The process of derivation can be described in the following: UR : *[#[active/æktive/]Adj + [-ty]suf#]N (PR-2) insertion of /i/ : [#[æktiv +i/] adj + [-ty]suf#]N Output : [activity/æktivity/] 5) Readjustment Rule The morphologically unacceptable underlying representation must go through the readjustment process. *[#[examine/igzæmin/]v + [-ion] suf#]N The rule for this readjustment process can be formulated as follows: (RR-1) *[[base]v + [-ion]suf]N 1 2 1+at 2 This rule states the formative –at is inserted at the end of the base when the suffix –ion is added to it. The process of derivation can be described as follows: SR : *[#[/igzæmineit/]v + [-ion]suf#]N (PR-1) /t/ /sš /: [#[/igzæmineisš /]v + [-ion] suf#]N Output : [examination/igzæmineisš en/] . 15 To be acceptable must go trough one phonologically process. 6) Surface Representation By applying (RR-1). The syllable structure process in which the high vowel phoneme /i/ is inserted at the end of the base when the suffix –ty is added to it. the following unacceptable surface representation can be generated: *[#[examine + at /igzæmineit/]v + [-ion]suf#]N Because this surface representation is phonologically unacceptable. so it must go through a phonologically process.

there have been efforts of making morphological component as autonomous component. Beside that morphological analysis is carried out in two levels namely the level of deep structure and the level of surface structure. Morphology is not an autonomous component. Conclusion Generative morphology is an integral part of the syntactic component. but a part of the syntactic component. 16 CHAPTER III CONCLUSION & SUGGESTION A. called Word Formation Rule (WFR). Nerveless. In generative morphology we .

Hale’s model and Arronoff’s model. Abdul M. Suggestion Based on the explanation of this paper. (Downloaded on 27th September 2011) .org/wiki/Main_Page. we hope that all of the audience can get the point and more understand about generative morphology furthermore it can be applied in our daily life especially in learning morphology. 2010.wikipedia. Morphosyntax. Makassar: Badan Penerbit universitas Negeri Makassar. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ba’dulu. http://en. B. Wikipedia. 17 know two model to analysis morphological manely. Morphology (linguistics).