King Clovis King of the Franks United all the

and the Ruler of Frankish Tribes and
Gaul. converted to

Charles Martel Was a Frankish Defeated Muslim
prince and invaders.

Charlemagne Frankish king who United europe under
protected the Pope. one ruler.

Empress Wu Female ruler of Only female ruler in
China. 3,00 years of
chinese history.

Otto I German King of the Consolidated the
Holy Roman first Reich by
Empire suppressing

William the First Norman King Launched the
Conqueror of England Norman conquest of

Franks A group of Passed their name
Germanic tribes onto modern day

Carolingian Dynasty A Frankish Noble They ruled starting
Family. in the 8th century.

Holy Roman Empire Made up of multiple Started in the middle
territories the ages and ruled until
largest of which 1806.
was the Kingdom of
Vikings The vikings were Raided europeans
northern seafarers and traded in
northern europe.

Norsemen Scandinavian They spoke the old
vikings who settled norse language.
on the coasts of

Iceland A Nordic Island in Was first settled by
the Atlantic Ocean. the vikings and their

Greenland A cold and icy The vikings settled
island in the North on the southern
Atlantic. coast of greenland.

Vinland The area of North The vikings
America that was discovered this
explored by the place hundreds of
vikings. years before

Magyars Refers to Lived in the kingdom
Hungarians. of Hungary and the
surrounding areas.

Normans People in the 10th They were
through 11th descendants of the
centuries who lived Norsemen.
in Normandy.

Venice A city in Italy. Its position made it a
powerful trade city.

Battle of Tours A battle fought The Franks
between the expanded their
Frankish and the power after they
Burgundian. won.
Estates-General The legislative body Represented the
in France until the clergy, the nobility,
late 1700s. and the commoners.

Estates The bodies of the The first estate was
French Kingdom. the clergy, the
second was the
nobility, and the third
consisted of

Lay Investiture A dispute between Represented a
Controversy the Holy Roman dispute between
Emperor and the secular and religious
Pope. governance.

Magna Carta A charter designed Was drafted by the
to protect rights and Archbishop of
ensure feudal Canterbury and
payments. signed by king John.

English Parliament Legislative body of Introduced by
England. WIlliam of
Normandy to assist
him in making laws.

House of Lords The upper house of Had a greater
British parliament. influence than the
house of commons.

House of Commons The lower half of The house of
Parliament. commons must give
majority approval of
the PM.

Hundred Years War A long war between The war was fought
England and over succession to
France. the French Throne.
Reconquista Period of 750 years Christianity
of Christian expanded in
Expansion. previously muslim

Holy Land The biblical land of The site is
Israel. considered Holy to
CHristians, Jews,
and Muslims.

Crusades A series of religious The crusades
wars. attempted to reclaim
the Holy Land for
the Christians.

Knights Templar A catholic military The order was very
order. wealthy and

Teutonic Knights A catholic military They aimed to assist
order. people on their holy

lords Lords controlled The lords got the
land in the feudal allegiance of fighters
system. in exchange for

vassals Someone who held Vassals were an
land under the important part of the
feudal system. feudal system
because of their
allegiance to those
who gave them land.

knights Noblemen who Knights fought for
were wealthy Charlemagne and
soldiers in medieval the Franks in the
europe. 700s.
feudalism The system in The feudal system
which land was was prominent in the
granted to people medieval ages in
of lower status in europe.
exchange for their

serfs Laborers that were Serfs supported
bound to their land. manners by farming
and were
considered part of
the land.

squires A wealthy man who Squires acted as the
lives on the estate. sword bearers of the

bishops A senior member of The clergy were of
the Christian very high social
Clergy. status.

pope The pope is the The pope spread
leader of the christianity
catholic church. throughout history.

priests Priests are figures Priests let the
in the church that important tradition of
have a ministerial sacraments.

primogeniture The state of being The right of
the firstborn child. succession was
always to the
firstborn son.

bourgeoisie The middle class. Bourgeoisie is a
derogatory term.

burghers A citizen of a town Burghers belonged
or city. to the middle class.
lay people Non Ordained Lay people go to
members of a church but are not
church. clergy.

dialects A form of language Different dialects
that is particular to were spoken in
a specific region. different areas even
though the language
was the same.

vernacular A native language Was the everyday
language or dialect. language of people
in their region.

University of Paris A university in Paris Was the earliest
that appeared in college in the middle
the 1100s. ages in europe.

colleges A few colleges Students learned
began to appear in about law, medicine,
the middle ages in and theology.

Cambridge A university in Has become one of
England founded in the most prestigious
1209. universities.

Oxford Was founded when Is one of the oldest
the king banned universities in the
people from whole world.
attending the
University of Paris.

Renaissance A period in Resulted in a more
European history educated general
from 1400 to 1700. population.

humanism A study of classical Humanism lead
history. people to learn
about Greek
Dante Alighieri The final part of Was a famous
The Divine Comedy Dante’s divine Italian epic poem.

Geoffrey Chaucer 24 stories written They were
The Canterbury by Geoffrey presented as a
Tales Chaucer. storytelling contest
by pilgrims.

Desiderius Erasmus A humanist essay One of the most
In Praise of Folly written in latin. important works of
the renaissance.

Nicolaus A renaissance He created a model
Copernicus mathematician and of the galaxy in
astronomer. which the sin was
the center.

Petrarch An italian scholar One of the earliest
and poet in the humanists.

Vulgate Bible A latin translation of Became the official
the bible. bible of the catholic
church in the 16th

Thomas Aquinas A catholic priest in He was an influential
Italy. philosopher.

Scholasticism Philosophy taught They had a strong
in the middle ages emphasis on
at european tradition.

Romanesque Cathedrals that Romanesque
cathedrals were designed to cathedrals had a lot
be similar to of half circles and
cathedrals in rome. thick walls.
Gothic cathedrals The type of Gothic architecture
architecture that evolved from roman
became popular architecture.
late in the middle

flying buttresses A buttress slanting Were a prominent
from a wall. design feature in the
middle ages.

Great Schism The split in the Was caused by a
Roman Catholic disagreement of
Church. papal authority.

Donation of A forged Roman Was done because
Constantine decree. of the dispute over
the pope’s authority.

Baylonian Captivity The detention of The Persian
Jews in Babylonia. conqueror of
Babylonia allowed
the Jews to leave.

Cluniac Reforms A series of changes Encouraged art and
designed to bring helped the poor.
back traditional

religious orders A group of people Were in the form of
who live away from monasteries for
normal society Christianity.
practice religion.

code of chivalry A moral code of Bravery and honesty
conduct for knights. were emphasized.

manors Units of the feudal Manors were self-
system. sufficient and had
many people living
on them.
manorial system Economic system The head of the
of medieval europe. manor was in
charge of all the
serfs of the mannor.

Hanseatic League A confederation of Formed for trade
guilds. and defense.

guilds A group of The first guilds were
merchants. formed for

cartography The practice of Maps were
drawing maps. important for those
travelling to
transport goods.

Marco Polo A Venetian He wrote down the
Merchant. stories of his travels
for others to read.

longships Long and fast Were made for
viking ships. raiding and wars.

fiefs An estate of land. Fiefs were given
under the condition
of feudal service.

Three field system A manor’s fields This system
were divided into optimized crop
three. production.

Black Death A plague in the Had a devastating
middle ages. effect on the
population of

Little Ice Age Europe had colder Had an adverse
weather than usual effect on crops.
in the middle ages.
Equal field system Or land-equalization system The system provided land to all adult
was a historical system of peasants and thereby slowed the
land ownership and accumulation of lands by wealthy
distribution in China used families.
from the Six Dynasties to

Fast-ripening rice A type of rice that ripens Discovered in China by the Song
faster than other strains and dynasty. Combined with better water
can withstand harsh control and irrigation, greatly increased
weather conditions. rice yields.

proto- A possible phase in Marked by increasing involvement of
industrialization development that set the farmers in market oriented craft
stage for the establishment production. Not a phase that is
of fully industrial societies. consistently observed across Europe.
The phase before

Flying cash A paper currency of the Improvement in carrying heavy copper
Tang dynasty in China. coins over large distances. Not a true
Considered the first legal tender, but used by merchants.
banknote. Around 800.

Paper money Used by Chinese merchants The practice spread to Europe in the
as privately issued bills of 17th century. Introduced by such
credit or exchange notes. explorers as Marco Polo in the 13th
Magnetic compass Originally made of Used for feng shui, in building houses.
lodestone, a naturally Later used for navigation. Aided in the
magnetized ore of iron, in geographical position and direction at
the Han dynasty in China sea. Formerly, sailors used landmarks
around 200 BC. and celestial bodies to navigate.

rudder Part of the steering Advantage was that it did not disturb the
apparatus of a boat or ship. handling of the sails, took less energy to
First appeared in ancient operate and was better for larger ocean
China during the first going vessels.
century AD.

junk An ancient Chinese sailing Used for extensive ocean voyages.
ship. Seagoing vessels Employ sails that are fast and easy to
developed by the Song control.

Wood block printing Technique for printing text, Later used as the method to print on
images or patterns. textiles and paper. Was instrumental in
Invented by the Song and the dissemination of knowledge and
Tang Dynasties. literacy.

Nuclear family Are members of the Ancient Chinese families were more
immediate family, father, extensive that the nuclear family. Joint
mother and children. families were common.
sinification A process whereby non- Term used for the spread of Chinese
Han Chinese societies culture.
come under the influence of
Han Chinese state and
society. Including, writing,
diet, economics, industry

polygyny Man has more than one Establishes different gender roles

Xuanzang Xuanzang, fl. c. 602–664, was a Described early interactions of Tang and
Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, Indian dynasties.
traveller, and translator

Hsuan Tsung Tang emperor from 690-705 Was the longest ruler of the Tang
AD Dynasty and was diligent and had good

An Lushan Was a Tang military general Led An Lushan rebellion against new
from 703-757 Chancellor and General Geshu Han

Scholar gentry Civil scholars appointed by Would perform day to day governance
the emperor of China

daimyo One of the great lords who Most powerful feudal lords under the
were vassals of the shogun shogun

Sui Dynasty Was an empire founded by Reinstituted Han ideals about governing
Wen of Sui that unified and way of life in China (Confucianism
China ideas)
Grand Canal Is the longest made made Linked the Yellow and Yangtze River
river in history (1104mi) unifying all of China

Hangzhou Capital of the of the Economic center of the Tang dynasty
Zhenjiang Province in China

Tang Dynasty Imperial dynasty that Seen as high point in Chinese history
preceded the Sui Dynasty

Middle Kingdom Is described as China Establishes how China felt about rest of
because they thought that world
they were the center of the
world and the people to the
west are barbarians

Silla Kingdom One of the three kingdoms It was the longest living one
of Korea

Tributary system Was a system of trade and Established good international relations
tributaries to foreign nations

Song Dynasty Was an era of chinese Was the first government to issue paper
history that began 960 and money
continued until 1279

Southern Song Refers to the period after The Song court retreated south of the
Dynasty the Song lost control of its Yangtze and established a now capital.
northern half to the Jin The economy was still strong in that
dynasty. there was a large population and
productive agriculture.
Tang Taizong Second emperor of the He was influential behind his father’s
Tang dynasty. uprising. He was a military general. He
reigned for many years.

Song Taizu Emperor of Song dynasty. Began the reunification of China, a
project largely completed by his younger
brother and successor, the Taizong

Chang’an An ancient capital of more Means “Perpetual Peace” in Classical
than ten dynasties in Chinese. Strategically located centrally
Chinese history. with many usefull roads crossing there.

Kaifeng Northern song dynasty City of the Iron pagoda
capital from 10th to 12 th

Yuan Dynasty Was the empire and ruling Mongols switched to traditional Chinese
dynasty of China that came form of government
from the Mongolian Kublai

Ming Dynasty Was the succesor of the Was known as one of the greatest and
Yuan dynasty ost peaceful empires in history
Minamoto clan Were the surnmanes One of the four most powerful clans in
passed down to the the Heisan era
members of the Emperor’s
family who were demoted to
the rank of nobility

shogun Military dictator of Japan Had more power than the emperor since
they controlled the armies

samurai Military nobility of feudalism Similar to the knights of Europe were
japan entrusted in keeping the lands safe

Kumsong One of the last large scale Was a chinese victory
battles of the korean war

Guerilla warfare Quick hit and go attacks Lead to modernday warfare
that were used in many
modern wars

Uighurs Muslims who assimilate Survive off of agriculture and being hubs
themselves closely to asian for the silk road

kowtow Kneeling and touching the Sign used for addressing royalty elders
ground as a sign of ultimate and the emperor

Foot binding The process of painfully Showed gender roles during the time
binding a girl’s feet to
modify the shape
Li Bo Chinese poet that
transformed poetry to new Was one of three revolutionary figures
lengths during his time

Du Fu Was a poet around the Greatest of chinese poets
same time as Li Bo

Chan (Zen) Dominant religion in the Revolves around mediation and peace
Buddhism Song and Tang dynasties

Neo-Confucianism Was just like confucianism Removed taoism and Daoism but kept
but removed mystical and many of its ideals
superstitious elements

Shotoku Taishi Politician who served under Was a legendary figure who had cults
Empress Suiko based on him

Taika Reforms Set of doctrines written by Attempt to perfect japanese government
Emperor Kotuko and to make it more like chinese

Fugiwara clan descending from the Clan dominated japanese politics of the
Nakatomi clan and through heian dynasty from 794–1185
them Ame-no-Koyane-no-
Mikoto, was a powerful
family of regents in Japan

Nara Capital of Nara Prefecture
Heian last division of classical Period of history in which the religions
Japanese history, running Buddhism and Taoism were in full effect
from 794 to 1185

Murasaki Shikibu Was a japanese poet Known for writing tales of Genj

bushido Is a japanese word for the Gives insight into the mindset of the
samurai code and way of samurai

Dar al-Islam Is a term used by Muslim Shows who was allowed to practice
scholars to refer to those islam
countries where Muslims
can practice their religion as
the ruling sect and where
certain religions

Chola Kingdom One of the longest ruling Chola kings were avid builders and
dynastes in south india envisioned the temples in their kingdoms
not only as places of worship but also as
centres of economic activity

Vijayanagar The Vijayanagara Empire Empire came to powrer to fend off
was based in the Deccan islamic invasions
Plateau region in South

Sindh One of four provinces of Home to the sindhi people
Mahmud of Ghazni most prominent ruler of the He conquered iranian lands, modern
Ghaznavid Empire afghanistan, and northwestern Indian

Punjab is the site of Harmandir Major pilgrimage place for people of Sikh
Sahib, the holiest gurdwara

Delhi Sultanate Was a muslim kingdom At one point stretched over most of the
established in the area of Indian subcontinent

Delhi India’s capital territory that Home to many great pieces of
is heavily populated architecture such as the Red Fort

jizya Yearly capital tax that was Was the reason many knigdoms that
imposed onto non-muslim were captures by Muslims switched to
states islam

Funan Funan was the name given Shows relations between chinese and
by Chinese cartographers, indian kingdoms
geographers and writers to
an ancient Indianised state

raja Name for a monarch of Created much controversy over who
Southeast Asia should be named raja

Khmers Native people of Cambodia Majority of the Khmer are followers of
Angkor kingdom Capital city of the Khmer Angkor was a megacity supporting at
empire least 0.1% of the global population
during 1010-1220

Melaka is the capital city of the Bigg trading outpost
Malaysian state of Malacca

Kailash 21 thousand foot high Supplies many of the rivers in the valley
mountain in tibet near it

Guru Kabir Was a 15th century mystic Known for being critical of buhddism and
poet and saint hinduism because they are misguided by
the Quran and Vedas

Proselytizing Trying to change people to Job of missionaries
religion a different set of beliefs

Sufis a Muslim ascetic and mystic Name for a priest like person of islam

Bhakti Movement heistic devotional trend that Promoted the guidance of the individual
emerged in medieval through the caste in one lifetime
Hinduism and later
revolutionised in Sikhism

Mira Bai Was a 16th century mystic Was made a saint
poet of Bhakti

Qutub Minar 73 meter tall stone masonry Is in Dehli india
Urdu Is the native language of Dates back to Muslims in the northwest
Pakistan of the Indian subcontinent

Ramayana The Ramayana is an Formed the Sanskrit writings
ancient Indian epic poem
which narrates the struggle
of the divine prince Rama to
rescue his wife Sita from the
demon king Ravana

Mahabharata One of the two major An epic narrative of the Kurukshetra War
sanskrit of ancient india and the fates of the Kaurava and the
Pandava princes

Angkor Thom the last and most enduring Population of 80,000 to 150,000 people
capital city of the Khmer

Angkor Wat Temple complex in One of the wonders of the ancient world

Calicut City in the southern indian Rose to become a doinant power in india

Spice Islands The Maluku Islands are an Center of the spice trade for countries
east Indonesian archipelago such as Netherlands and England

Monsoon winds Seasonal winds that would Was responsible for the development of
take traders across the the slave trade
Indian oceans
Lateen sails a triangular sail on a long Became trade mark sail for age of
yard at an angle of 45° to discovery
the mast

Stern rudder Something that is used to Allowed for ships to be able to go where
control the movement of a they wanted not where the current
ship wanted

jatis Indicted that form of Has to do with caste and reincarnation
existence by birth

Mongols Are an East-Central Asian Share a common language and nomadic
ethnic group native to tradition. The Mongolian Empire came
Mongolia. to power under Genghis Khan.

khan Title for ruler in Mongol or Example is Genghis Khan.
Turkic languages.

kuriltai An assembly of Mongol or These were sorts of tribal councils.
Turkic clans. Meeting for the purpose of making a
najor political or military decisions such
as the selection of a new khan or the
launching of a war.

Genghis Khan The Mongolian leader who He united the nomadic tribes of the
rose to the largest land Mongolian plateau and conquered huge
empire in history. chunks of central Asia and China.
Jurchens Were a Tungusic people who Established the Jin dynasty, which
inhabited the region of conquered the Northern Song in 1127,
Manchuria until around 1630. gaining control of most of North China
until conquered in 1234 by the mongols.

khanites Is a political entity ruled by a This entity is typical for the Eurasian
Khan. Steppe, a kingdom or empire.

Kara Khitai Empire Was a sinicized Khitan Translated as the Black Khitans. The
empire. Non-Han made into empire took on the trappings of a
Chinese character or form. Chinese state.

Khwarazm Empire Dynasty that ruled in Central
Asia and Iran.

Pax Mongolica Mongol Peace Describes the stabilizing effects of the
conquests of the Mongol Empire on the

Karakorum Founded by Genghis Khan in One of the most important cities in the
1220 on the Silk Road. history of the Silk Road.

Tangut Empire Group of people related to Raised livestock such as goats and
the Tibetans. Lived a camels. Buddhism was the major
nomadic pastoral lifestyle. religion.
Ogodei Son and successor of He greatly expanded the empire. He
Genghis Khan in 1229. built the capital city of Karakorum.

Batu Son of Jochi and grandson of Founder of the Golden Horde, division of
Genghis Khan. Means firm the Mongol Empire.
in the Mongolian language.

Sarai The name of a city and the City founded by Batu Khan, in 1240.
capital of the Golden Horde

Golden Horde A khanate established in the Founded on the fragmentation of the
13 th century. Mongol Empire.


Battle of Kulikovo Was fought between the Won by the Russian forces, regarded as
armies of the Golden Horde the turning point when Mongolian
and various Russian influence began to wane and Muscovite
principalities in 1380. power began to rise.

Hulagu Mongol ruler who conquered Hulagu’s dynasty ruled much of Iran.
Southwest Asia. A grandson
of Genghis Khan.

Baibars Fourth Sultan of Egypt, 1277. Marked the start of an age of Mamluk
dominance in the Eastern
Mediterranean. Also resisted the
Il-khanate Mongol dynasty that ruled in Led by Hulagu. Consolidated the region
Iran from 1256 to 1335. as a political and territorial entity.

Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan. Known and revered for his civilian and
administrative achievements. He sought
to govern rather than to exploit and
devastate. He made the transition from
a nomadic conqueror to and effective

Yuan Dynasty The empire of China 1271 Kublai Khan proclaimed the
established by Kublai Khan. dynasty in the traditional Chinese style.
The first foreign dynasty to rule all of

Dadu Capital of the Yuan dynasty. The main center of the Mongol Empire
and in what is now Beijing.

White Lotus Religious and political Included a forecast of the imminent
Society movement that appealed to adventure of the future Buddha.
many Han Chinese. Progressive in ideas with strict
vegetarianism and free interaction of
men and women.
Zhu Yuanzhang First emperor of the Ming Leader of the peasant uprisings. Born of
Dynasty. Overthrew the a peasant family. Restored agricultural
Yuan Dynasty. production by advocating the planting of
cash crops such as cotton and hemp.

Ming Dynasty Chinese dynasty from 1368 Provided an interval of native Chinese
to 1644. rule between eras of Mongol and
Manchu dominance, respectively.

Gobi Desert Great desert stretching Mostly bare rock, little sand. May drive
across huge portions of both over by car in any direction.
Mongolia and China. 1000
miles long.

yurt Is a portable, round tent The yurts have been a distinctive feature
covered with skins or felt and of life in Central Asia for at least 3000
used as dwelling by nomads years. Can be dismantled and moved
in the steppes of Central compactly

tumens Part of the decimal system Tumens were considered a practical size
used by the Mongol and for efficient transport and supply. The
Turkic peoples to organize military strategy was based on the use of
their armies. Tumen is an tumens as a useful building block.
army unit of 10,000 soldiers.
Siege weapons Types of weapons and An example would be the battering ram.
inventions with the main These weapons afforded entry into
object being to effect an gated and fortified areas of importance.
entrance through gates or

Marco Polo A Venetian merchant The book describes to the Europeans
traveller whose travels are the wealth and great size of China, its
recorded in a book, The capital Peking and other Asian cities and
Travels of Marco Polo, 1300 countries.

Niger River Main river of west Africa, and Significant to trade as well as gold and
runs through Guinea, Mali, salt trade.
Niger, and Nigeria

creole Person of mixed African and Primarily lived in the Caribbean
European descent

Gullah The main creole language Used in the west indies

Greechee The descendants of the slaves Was a variant of English used by slaves
in who lived in South Carolina in particular Lowcountry areas
and Georgia

Santeria Religion developed in Spanish Mixture of African religions, Christianity,
colonies among west african and Indigenous American beliefs
Vodun Also known as voodoo it is the Practiced all across central and south
worship of many of the forces of Africa
nature as well as objects

Candomble Brazilian sect of the macumba cult MAinly Practiced in Brazil and is
responsible for many cultural aspects of

gumbo Soup like dish with seafood and It is delicious :)
some meat added (typical in Was developed by slaves as a cheap
Southern States) meal

polygyny Practice of a man having more Is apparent in many different cultures
than one wife throughout history and can tell alot about
gender equality

Saint Domingue Saint-Domingue was a French colony Is the birthplace of Haiti through multi
on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola rebellions
from 1659 to 1804

Dahomey Was an african kingdom located Was built through military conquest ad
in Western Africa participating in the slave labor

Sunni Ali Sunni Ali, also known as Sunni Began the Songhai empire that had a lot
Ali Ber, was born Ali Kolon. He to do with the salt and gold trade
reigned from about 1464 to
1492. Sunni Ali was the first king
of the Songhai Empire
Oyo The Oyo state was established Were known for military prowess
In modern day nigeria

barracoons an enclosure in which black Was where slaves would be kept in the
slaves were confined for a barracoons until they were on their
limited period. voyage to the americas

Vasco de Gama First European to reach india by Established a spice trade by sea

Triangular trade Trade between Africa, A system of transatlantic trade between
Caribbean and Colonies to trade Europe and Africa and the Americas.
slaves, finished goods and raw The European goods went to Africa and
materials were traded for slaves. The slaves were
then transported to the Americas and

Atlantic trade The transatlantic slave trade Considered the first system of
system that carried slaves, cash crops globalization. An estimated 9-12 million
and manufactured goods African slaves arrived in the New World
between West Africa, Caribbean between the 16th and 19th centuries.
or American colonies and
European colonial powers with
the northern colonies of British.
Middle passage Refers to the part of the trade Is that it brought cheap labor in the form
where Africans, densely packed of slaves to the New World which made
onto ships, were transported raw materials cheaper in Europe. Also,
across the Atlantic to the West the middle passage was responsible for
Indies. the enslavement and death of millions of

African diaspora Refers to the communities In the Americas, the result has been
throughout the world that have multiple ethnic groups from around the
resulted by descent from the world creating multi-ethnic societies.
movement in historic times of
peoples from Africa,
predominantly to the Americas.

abolition The effort in the US to end This effort to end slavery exemplifies the
slavery. values of a country that valued personal

Bosphorus A narrow, natural straight The strait connects the Black Sea with
Strait waterway located in Turkey. It the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.
forms a continental boundary And straddled by Istanbul’s 17 million
between Europe and Asia. And inhabitants.
separates Asian Turkey from
European Turkey.

Strait of Hormuz The straight between the Gulf of It is the only sea passage from the
Oman and the Persian Gulf. Persian Gulf to the open ocean and one
of the world's most important choke
Ghazi ideal Arabic word for “carrying out a Ghazi warriors depended upon plunder
military expedition or raid.” And for their livelihood.
can also mean to “strive for.”

Suleiman The largest mosque in Istanbul. Considered a masterpiece. Architect
Mosque Landmark of the city. was Mimar Sinan.


ulama The learned ones. They are the Most specialize in jurisprudence and are
guardians of the legal and considered arbiters of the law.
religious tradition in Islam.

Shariah Law Is the religious law forming part Law cast from the actions and words of
of the Islamic tradition. Derived Muhammad.
from the Quran and Hadith.

harem The part of the Muslim palace or There may be multiple wives and female
house reserved for the members of the extended families that
residence of women. were to spend their time in the harem.

Miniature Painting used on the illuminated Instrumental for the dissemination of
paintings manuscripts. information.

Sikhism An indian religion founded in the Panentheistic religion and one of the first
Punjab in the late 15th century. major world religions.
sati An obsolete Hindu funeral Demonstrated the full dedication of a
custom where a widow wife to her husband.
immolates herself on her
husbands pyre or commits
suicide in another fashion
shortly after his death.

Din-i-llahi A syncretic religion propounded A religion that merged the best elements
by the Mughal emperor in 1582 of the religions of the empire, in order to
AD. reconcile differences and create unity.

Taj Mahal An ivory white mausoleum on It is one of the wonders of the world. A
the south bank of the Yamuna masterpiece of Muslim architecture and a
river near Agra in India. UNESCO Heritage site.

Gunpowder Three powerful Muslim empires: Each used newly devolped firearms to
Empires Ottoman, Safavid and Moghul. create their empires. There were
cannons and small arms.

Tamerlane The last great nomad power. One of history’s most brutal butchers and
The name of a Turco-Mongol last of the great noman powers.

Samarkand A city in Uzbekistan and one of A crossroad and melting pot of world
the oldest inhabited cities in cultures. UNESCO World Heritage
Central Asia. Center. The final resting place for
Tamerlane and his sons.
Ottoman Empire Turkish Empire, created by Characterized by almost continual
Turkish tribes in Asia Minor and expansion. There was an amalgamation
grew to be a world power in the of classic Islamic institutions with those
15th and 16th centuries. of Byzantium and resulted in the great
Turkish empires.

Mehmed II (The Ottoman sultan in the 1400’s. Most famous sultan for his intelligence.
Conqueror) He conquered Constantinople. He was a
brilliant statesman. He ruled for 30

Topkapi Palace Large palace in Istanbul, Setting for state occasions as well as a
Turkey. One of the major residence. Established by Sultan
residences of the Ottoman Mehmed II.
sultans for almost 400 years.

Suleiman I Known as the Magnificent was The Ottoman empire was at its peak in
the 10th and longest-reigning military and political power. The
sultan, and the most significant Ottoman empire extended over Europe,
ruler in the world in his time. Asia and Africa. There was also trade
growth and cultural and artistic activity.
The “Golden Age”

Rhodes A greek island, and city on the Colossus of Rhodes is one of the Seven
island. Wonders of the Ancient World. Historic
crossroads between Europe, the Middle
East, and Africa. The city has many
different cultural influences.

viziers High official in some Muslim High ranking official and can act for the
countries, especially Turkey sulan, special advisor, prime minister.
under Ottoman rule.

Battle of Naval engagement in 1571, in A major defeat on the fleet of the
Lepanto which a fleet arranged by Pope Ottoman Empire. A first in that it was an
Pius and financed by Spain. “infantry battle on floating platforms.” and
it was the largest naval battle since
antiquity with more than 400 warships.

Safavids Iranian shahs ruled over one of One of the most significant ruling
the gunpowder empires. Ruled dynasties of Iran, and considered the
from 1501 to 1722. beginning of modern Iranian history. The
legacy maintains Persia as an economic
stronghold between the East and West,
based on bureaucracy and “checks and
balances.” Also, innovations in fine arts.
Ismail A figure in the Qur’an and was
Abraham’s first son.

shah The title given to the king of The shah is the ruler of Iran.

Isfahan Is the capital of Isfahan Province Was once one of the largest cities in the
in Iran. It flourished from 1050 world. Was the capital of Persia twice in
to 1722. history.

Babur The conqueror from Central One of hisory’s more endearing
Asia, founder of the Moghul conquerors. He was an excellent
dynasty in India. general and a wise ruler. Was not
known to plunder and loot. He did not
convert people of India to Islam. He
commissioned a Persian style garden
called Aram Bagh.

Delhi The present day capital of India. Delhi has been the center for political
Has a long history of being an turmoil for 5 centuries. It was ruled by
important political center of India Mughals in succession. Fromm Hindu
and the capital of several Kings to Muslim Sultans the city shifts
empires. from one ruler to another.
Shah Jahan The fifth Mughal emperor. Considered one of the greatest Mughals
of the Timur family. He was eager to
expand his empire. This period was
considered to be the golden age of
Mughal architecture. He is best
remembered for the Taj Mahal at Agra.

Aurangzeb The sixth and last effective He extended the Mogul Empire but his
Mughal Emperor. Known as reign was marked by revolts.
“He who seizes the universe.”

middlemen A person who plays an People who traded on the Silk Road
intermediate role between were considered middlemen.
producer and retailer.


Barbary pirates Were Ottoman corsairs, who The predation extended throughout the
operated from North Africa in Mediterranean and even to the Africa’s
the ports of Algiers, Tunis and and South America. The main purpose
Tripoli. of their attacks was to capture Christian
slaves for the Ottoman slave trade as
well as the general Muslim slavery
market in North Africa and the Middle
Grand Bazaar A large central market The bazaar concentrates the trade in one
constructed in 1455 after the place to provide the highest security
Ottoman conquest of against theft, fire and uprising. The
Constantinople. gates were closed at night and the
Bazaar was patrolled by paid guards.

devshirme Known as the blood tax or The tax was imposed only on the
tribute in blood. The Ottoman Christian subjects of the empire in the
Empire sent military officials to villages of the Balkans and Anatolia.
collect boys ages 8 to 18, and The boys were converted to Islam and
they were raised to serve the placed into the Janissaries.
state. Started in the mid 1300’s
to the 1600’s.

Janissaries Elite infantry units that formed This began as an elite corp of slaves
the Ottoman Sultan’s household made up of conscripted young Christian
troops and bodyguards. boys.


zamindars In India, a holder of occupier of The word is used wherever Persian
land. influence was spread by the Mughals or
other Indian Muslim dynasties.

castes Each of the hereditary classes A form of social stratification based on
of Hindu society. heredity that encourages social
interaction and also exclusion.