ARTIGOS / ARTICLES

DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359.2012v33n2p655

CIÊNCIAS DE ALIMENTOS
Phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity determination in
rosemary and oregano extracts and its use in cheese spread

Determinação de compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante
total de extratos de alecrim e orégano e sua aplicação
em queijo à base de ricota

Renata Dinnies Santos1; Kalidas Shetty2;
Alessandra Lourenço Cecchini3; Lucia Helena da Silva Miglioranza4*

Abstract
Natural antioxidants added to foods may have a physiological impact on human health, particularly
because they may reduce the risk of illnesses or they promote the delay of damaging free radicals
effect, like cardiovascular diseases, intestinal cancer or infections symptoms. The best conditions for
the extraction of phenolic compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) and Origanum vulgare
(oregano) was established, and the antioxidant activity from raw extracts was demonstrated based on
inhibition of DPPH free radical formation and microsome lipid peroxidation. The extracts obtained were
added, separately, to a fresh cheese spread (FCS) and the product was evaluated for sensory qualities.
The best condition for extraction of phenolic compounds was 75% ethanol in 8 hours running time
for rosemary (0.46 mg GAE/mL ± 0.01 w/v), and 40% ethanol in 7.5 hours running time for oregano
(2.57 mg GAE/mL ± 0.02 w/v). The rosemary extract showed high antioxidant activity in both tests.
The product with concentrated rosemary extracts had 96 mg GAE/100g in the final blend and 76%
acceptance index. The fresh cheese spread (FCS) with Origanum vulgare extract had 396 mg GAE/100g
in the final blend, with 91 % acceptance index.
Key words: Free radicals, antioxidants, bioactive phytochemicals, total phenolic compounds

Resumo
Compostos antioxidantes naturais adicionados em alimentos podem ter um impacto fisiológico sobre a
saúde humana, principalmente porque podem reduzir o risco de doenças ou promover retardamento dos
danos provocados pelo efeito de radicais livres, como as doenças cardiovasculares, câncer intestinal,
infecções intestinais, entre outras. Neste trabalho, foram otimizadas as condições de extração de
compostos fenólicos das especiarias Rosmarinus officinalis L. (alecrim) e Origanum vulgare (orégano),
e a atividade antioxidante nos extratos brutos foi avaliada pela inibição do radical DPPH e pela
peroxidação lipídica de microssoma. Os extratos obtidos foram adicionados, separadamente, ao queijo
à base de ricota (FCS), e o produto foi avaliado sensorialmente. As condições ótimas de extração dos
compostos fenólicos foram 75% de etanol em 8 horas de operação para Rosmarinus officinalis L. (0,46
mg GAE/ml ± 0,01 p/v) e 40% de etanol em 7,5 horas de operação para Origanum vulgare (2,57 mg
GAE/mL ± 0,02 p/v). O extrato de alecrim apresentou maior atividade antioxidante em ambos os testes.
1
DSc. Food Science Pos Graduate Program. University of Londrina, UEL, Brazil. E-mail: renatadinnies@gmail.com
2
PhD. Department of Food Science. University of Massachusetts, USA. E-mail: kalidas@foodsci.umass.edu
3
DSc. Department of Experimental Pathology, UEL, Brazil. E-mail: alcecchini@uel.br
4
DSc. Department of Food Science and Technology. Campus Universitário. Rod. Celso Garcia Cid. POBox 6001 University of
Londrina. Londrina, PR, Brazil. E-mail: luciah@uel.br
*
Author for corespondence
Recebido para publicação 13/09/10 Aprovado em 09/04/12
655
Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 33, n. 2, p. 655-666, abr. 2012

The two proteins present in quantities and also contribute to the antioxidant greater quantity in milk serum are a. 2007). n. The usefulness of for having superior antioxidant activity than rosemary and oregano on the preservation of food α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) containing these proteins is still unclear. extracts is mainly due to the presence of phenolic isolated protein.. have been recently reported in addition against the damage of reactive oxygen species such to its potent antioxidant activity.. According to Sahin. and in some cases. superoxide. (1952) studying 32 spices. O produto contendo extrato concentrado de alecrim (9. g-terpinene (35–50 mg/mL). 2008). consumption of antioxidant compounds protect cells 2009). which include anti-inflammation rationale the purpose of this study was to evaluate the (HUANG et al. Furthermore. 2009.. 2012 . 2006). BARROS. 2006) and have as an important component in extracts of rosemary defined physiological properties. ERKAN. O produto lácteo formulado com extrato de orégano apresentou concentração de compostos fenólicos de 396 mg GAE/100g de produto. peroxyl radicals. are well recognized. anti-mutagenicity concentration of phenolic compounds in alcoholic 656 Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 655-666. phenolic diterpenes such as rosmanol. 33. Bayramoglu and Sumni (2008) The evidence for antioxidant effect of spices and the main components of Origanum vulgare L. D. and methyl-epirosmanol are present in smaller DATTA. 2009). com compostos fenólicos na concentração de 96 mg GAE/100g de produto. Londrina. and b-lactoglobulin. thyme. etc.. 2009). the antioxidant function mg/mL) and α-terpinene (10–15 mg/mL).1%. fitoquímicos bioativos. extracts have been effective. The improvements in technological processes to produce lipid labile antioxidant activity of rosemary leaf commercially attractive concentrated protein. carvacrol (40–60 mg/ these rosemary and sage were considered the most mL). prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (HAMAGUCHI et al. this species and are consumed during the reaction herb has antimicrobial and antioxidant properties (RAMALAKSHMI et al. Subsequently.. enriched protein diterpens carnosol and carnosic acid. 2008). 2008). et al. Oregano was also confirmed in oregano. BHATTACHARJEE. herbs in food systems was initially determined by essential oil are thymol (650–750 mg/mL) followed Chipault et al. BHATTACHARJEE.. pepper. p. Many beneficial functionalities of Based on integrating the above background and rosmarinic acid. mustard and cinnamon. Santos. 2006). TESSARO. having higher levels of antioxidant activity than Currently. with approximately 70-80% of the total protein Rosmarinic acid. 2008).. antioxidantes. abr. SIMITZIS et al. epirosmanol 2011.lactalbumin activity of rosemary extracts (AYRANCI... the antioxidant properties of rosemary BHT and BHA (TARHAN et al. 2. Phenolic compounds belong to a class flavor and smell are greatly appreciated throughout of antioxidants that interact with free radical the world for culinary applications. apoptosis Several studies have indicated that the induction of colorectal cancer cells (XAVIER et al. also appears content (BRODKORB et al. R. compostos fenólicos totais Introduction (FURTADO et al. (TEPE. or more recently. (LOIZZO et al. which are globular proteins AYRANCI.60 mg GAE/mL p/v) atingiu 76.. β-myrcene (15 effective. a caffeic acid ester. It is a free radical scavenger The use of whey proteins as specific ingredients possibly due to metal chelator and superoxide in functional dairy foods has increased due to radical inhibition (MORENO et al. and among by p-cymene (60–85 mg/mL). amongst others. v. 2009). as singlet oxygen.. ginger. Palavras-chave: Radicais livres..0% de aceitação. 2008). com índice de aceitação de 91. Other fractions (BALDASSO. hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite (YANG et Oregano is widely used as a condiment and its al.

0 +1 +1 45.0 8.0. at room temperature.5. L.0 9. After 15 days respectively. linear.5 7.0 7.414 0 32.0 8.5 0 0 75. After obtaining the response for each point of the Optimization of extraction of phenolics from initial planning.5 7.0 6.0 0 0 40. After the extraction. Parana State.5 -1 +1 72. was performed the steepest ascent. in Londrina. X2: time extraction.5 +1 +1 77. 655-666.5 9.414 0 78.5 8. v.414 40.9 7. The statistical analysis of data was performed 2 2 using software Statistic 5. containing the phytochemicals extracts. at different times. 33.0 +1.5 9. 60 officinalis L. develop and evaluate sensory a fresh cheese spread Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis (FCS).0 8.6 0 +1. n. the (moisture 12. Brazil.0 7..414 75. the herbs was carried out using response surface followed by a second order factorial design (22) with methodology. and X1 and X2 are the 657 Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 2012 .5 -1. Coded variables* Not coded vabiables* Coded variables* Not coded vabiables* X1 X2 X1 (%) X2 (h) X1 X2 X1 (%) X2 (h) -1 -1 35.4 0 0 40. 4 and 6 h).5 +1 -1 77. extracts were obtained by extraction with the combination of solvents ethanol and water. respectively.1 7.5 0 0 75.0 -1. p. Londrina.414 0 47. following collection they were partially dehydrated under constant agitation.5 -1 -1 72. Experimental data Y = b 0 + ∑ b i X i + ∑ b i X i +b12 X 1 X 2 (01) i =1 i =1 were fitted to a second-order polynomial model and regression coefficients obtained. Table 1. and to and 70%) and time extraction (2.0 * X1: % ethanol. Factorial design of second order for the phenolic compounds extraction process from Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis L. interaction term. respectively) and stored under refrigeration and kept away from light.414 75. quadratic and surface analysis was as follows (equation 01). bi. minced.0 6.3% for Origanum vulgare samples were filtered through vacuum filtration and and Rosmarinus officinalis L.0 +1 -1 45.0 6. abr.5 8.9 0 +1. +1.1% and 10. Origanum vulgare Rosmarinus officinalis L.0 8.) The herbs were acquired in a local market were extracted with 200 and 150 mL of solvent.414 0 71.0 8.0 -1 +1 35.1 0 -1. Ten grams (10 g) of dried material samples Material and Methods (Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis L. bii and b12 are the regression second-order polynomial model used in the response coefficients for intercept. and its antioxidant activity. The generalized where b0.414 40.0 0 -1. The two located central points and star points (Table 1). based on a factorial design 32.Phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity determination in rosemary and oregano extracts and its use in cheese spread extracts of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus design variables were ethanol concentration (50.0 6. 2. Source: Elaboration of the authors.

2. and for 20 min. 1. The quantification of MDA was held in the presence of rats liver microsomes and alcoholic extracts of oregano and rosemary. 100 mL 1 mM ascorbic acid. the mixture was centrifugated at 2. with subsequent ice bath for cooling. independent variables. 1.. molar extinction coefficient of malondialdehyde. n. Londrina. demonstrated in the herbs and other ingredients (Table 2). v. Three milliliters of DPPH 60 mM in ethanol were added to 1 mL of alcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis L. abr. One milliliter of the homogenate. butanol and the rest was stirred again using a vortex mixer. Orthofer (1990). the control and the comparison compounds was performed spectrophotometrically blank were agitated in 40” vortex for homogenization. MDA (malondialdehyde) Assay After optimization of the extraction conditions.0 mL Rosmarinus officinalis L. Fresh Cheese Spread (FCS) Formulation and incubated at room temperature for 15 min. modified by Cechini. taking into account the  A control . p. by measuring the absorbance in UV-VIS Then. After 5 min. using 156 as the standard methodology as modified by Chun et al. at room temperature. the antioxidant activity was calculated as inhibition in wich were added the concentrated extracts of % of DPPH radical formation. MDA is one 394/3 incubator with air circulation. One milliliter from rats liver microsomes was added to 100mL 1 of alcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare and mM FeCl3. Santos. R. Aruoma and Halliwell the methodology described by Singleton. et al. and the reagent mixture was kept 60 min used. at 35°C for of the most abundant aldehydes derived from tissue 2. the tubes were placed in water-bath at 95°C spectrophotometer Shimadzu 1240.167 x g for 15 min. a gallic acid (10-100 µg/mL) in 95% ethanol was The organic phase was extracted with 2. As a control 2.5 h. was added to 1 mL 95% 2.0 mL of alcoholic extract of oregano or Ciocalteu reagent. As a control. WILLIAMSON.1-diphenyl-2-picrhydrazyl (DPPH) was performed with butanol. 1 mL 5% Na2CO3 rosemary. 100 (02)  A 517  (1 g/day) (SCALBERT. D.5 mL 1N Folin. 2000) and the sensory characteristics of the product. Aldehydes are often produced when lipoperoxides the extracts were concentrated in a TECNAL TE are metabolized by aerobic organisms. The volume equation 02. and the calibration 1. 2012 . The quantification of phenolic The treatments. the malondialdehyde/mL of extract. lipid peroxidation. 1 mL of 95% ethanol was of extract added to formulation was established used to replace the extracts. The Total Phenolics methodology was based on the use of thiobarbituric Total phenolics were determined according to acid. 5 mL distilled water and 0. acid and 2. at 725 nm.0% thiobarbituric ethanol. 658 Semina: Ciências Agrárias.A extract  Recommended Daily Intake for phenolic compounds % inhibition =  517 control517 .0 mL of used for obtaining a standard curve. The absorbance measuring Antioxidant Activity Inhibition System of Radical was at 535 nm and 572 nm.0 mL 1. After stirring.0% fat) were the basis of the formulation. prepared and Lamuela-Raventos (1999). 655-666. after quantification of phenolic compounds in the concentrated extracts. (2005) was used.8% trichloracetic acid. The Commercial ricotta cheese and 15% of milk measuring was performed at 517 nm absorbance and cream (25.0 mL distilled water was was added. The results of lipid To assess the capacity of herbal extracts to inhibit peroxidation were expressed in nanomoles of the sequestration activity of the DPPH radical. 33.

0 10. According to Chun et al. Sensory Evaluation the most important phenolic compounds contained in the matrix (SUHAJ. The experimental design was planed to assess the To assess the acceptability of the two formulations. HEYMANN. p. and their effects may be either authors. (2005). The optimal conditions of extraction were different titratable acidity expressed in lactic acid %.5 h of operation (Figure 2). Fresh cheese spread formulations. According to the polarity.0 Source: Elaboration of the authors. 659 Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 2006). time a 9-point hedonic scale was used.4 1. properties through an acceptance test and ideal scale. pH and for both raw materials due to the likely differences water activity) analyses for the commercial ricotta in chemical nature and polarity of the phenolic and FCS were performed according to the AOAC compounds.4 Concentrated extract (mL) 22. Selection of the most in the phenolic concentration and this is an essential appropriate conditions and solvents for extraction requirement for use as an ingredient in functional is required to maximize the degree of recovery for foods. time of extraction. abr. acidity. Londrina. using 75% ethanol in 8 h of operation (Figure 1).4 Dehydrated oregano (g) 0.4 0. bitter and water for the extraction of phenolic compounds taste. 1998). using 50 tasters (LAWLESS.Phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity determination in rosemary and oregano extracts and its use in cheese spread Table 2. Formulations Origanum vulgare Rosemarinus officinalis L. solvent the extracts were concentrated. 2. among others. For oregano. In this experiment. the authors found vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis L. The ideal scale of extraction and ratio between solvents ethanol was used to evaluate the parameters: color. 2012 . Basis (g) 100 100 Sodium chloride (g) 1. In those conditions. v.4 Monosodium glutamate (g) 1. The formulations containing oregano and the response surface methodology was used as tool rosemary extracts were evaluated for sensory in the optimization of the experimental conditions. 33.0 0. salty taste and firmness (texture). phenolic compounds from rosemary were obtained at 25oC.0 Fine herbs (g) 0. samples randomly coded with three-digit numbers The optimum conditions for extraction of were served in a monadic form in individual booths. 35.35 mg GAE/mL (w/v) compounds is influenced by multiple parameters. in the clonal oregano. It is important to mention that such as temperature. 655-666. commercial herb extracts lack uniformity independent or interactive.4 1. The physical and chemical (gross composition. the optimal conditions for extraction of phenolic compounds were obtained when it was Physical and Chemical Characterization used 40% ethanol in 7. (1995) methods.43 mg GAE/mL (w/v) phenolic compounds in The efficiency of the extraction of phenolic commercial oregano and 55. improved results in the extraction of phenolic compounds Results and Discussion from commercial or clonal oregano were obtained through the use of 60% ethanol in 24 h of Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Origanum extraction. n. The (dependent variable) from oregano and rosemary. impact of two factors (independent variables).

0 Time Extraction (coded variables: -2. +2.65*y^2+7.57*x^2-9.5 450 -1.65+93.0 400 350 -1.0 150 -2. n.88*y-29.0 -0. alcoholic extract.43*x^2-42. 10 Runs.0 0.0 -0. Santos.0 = 70.5 -1. 660 Semina: Ciências Agrárias.0 = 80.0 = 10.26+11.5 -1. Variable: Total Phenolic (mg GAE/mL) 2 factors.5 1.0 Time Extraction (coded variables: -2. Fitted Surface.0 = 9.0 2200 2000 -1.0%.0 1.0 -1. +2. 2.0 = 5. 655-666. 1 Blocks. 1 Blocks. et al.0 1200 -2. 10 Runs.18*y^2-59.0 0.0 1.0 -0. Figure 1.0 -0.0 = 6.0%.5 1.5 0.0 100 Ethanol Concentration (coded variables: -2.5 0.0 1000 Ethanol Concentration (coded variables: -2. M S Residual=36284. v.5 300 250 200 -2. 33. Response surface plot for the effect of ethanol concentration (%) and time of extraction (h) on total phenolic content from Rosmarinus officinalis L.886 z=457.0h. M S Residual=1262. abr. +2.0h) 1. Fitted Surface.5 2400 -1.96*x-47.5 1.5 1800 1600 1400 -2.42*y-148. Response surface plot for the effect of ethanol concentration (%) and time of extraction (h) on total phenolic content from Origanum vulgare alcoholic extract. p.0 = 50.0%) Source: Elaboration of the authors.5 0. 2012 .5 2.5h.0 -1.37*x-167.9*1*x*y 2. Figure 2.5 0.5h) 1.5 2. Variable: Total Phenolic (mg GAE/mL) 2 factors. Londrina.0 = 30.0 0.5 1.33*x*y 2.0 0.75 z=2574.0%) Source: Elaboration of the authors. +2. R. D.

This suggests that the physico. 655-666. 0. This rosemary alcoholic extract and 41.1-diphenyl-2- from oregano crude extracts was obtained.958 mg GAE/mL (GRANATO. was over 18. The picrahydrzyl (DPPH) total phenolic content found in the extract. phenolic compounds is enough to obtain a desired 661 Semina: Ciências Agrárias.57 mg GAE/mL ± 0.16% for oregano observation indicates that a critical concentration of alcoholic extract. indicating good dosage for stable free radical. 33. The reduction of absorbance in the presence extracts was significantly lower (P< 0. CASTRO. after solvent evaporation (ethanol). Londrina. to the antioxidant activity than the total phenolic The percent inhibition of DPPH was 90. n. p.Phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity determination in rosemary and oregano extracts and its use in cheese spread In the present experiments concentrations of Antioxidant Activity 2. 2. Source: Elaboration of the authors.0 DPPH (1. 2010). The rosemary alcoholic extract had higher chemical nature of the individual phenolics in the antioxidant activity than the oregano alcoholic extracts may be more important in contributing extract. Figure 3. free radicals (Figure 3). a solution of DPPH is mixed with a substrate acting KATAYAMA. a stable non radical form of DPPH is obtained with simultaneous change The concentration of phenolic compounds of of the violet color to pale yellow (LAJOLO et al.01 obtained from rosemary 2006). 2012 .041 – 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) is a mg GAE/mL (w/v).60 mg GAE/mL in the concentrated group and expressed as the percentage of scavenged extract.. which has a spare electron that application of the extract as ingredient in dairy makes delocalization over the whole molecule.46 mg GAE/mL ± 0. despite the lower total phenolic content. This concentration was considered adequate The delocalization causes a deep violet color with when compared with Brazilian red wines phenolics absorption maxima (λmax) around 520 nm. 2012).01) than the of oregano and rosemary alcoholic extracts was concentration obtained from oregano in the diluted compared to the absorbance reduction of the control extract and 9. foods. DPPH radical inhibition activity of alcoholic extracts of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis L.02 w/v of total phenolics Inhibition system of radical 1.14% for content (RODRÍGUEZ-ROJO et al. When of 1.. v. as a hydrogen atom donor. abr.

621 ± 0. such as malondialdehyde (MDA). low not increase the antioxidant activity. antioxidant activity after which there is a saturation acid (TBA) with hydro peroxide decomposition effect and the presence of additional phenolics does products.01ª 49. abr..5 Control group 4. p. et al. Londrina. water activity. O’SULLIVAN. Santos. it has been widely The differences in antioxidant activity in this used to determine lipid peroxidation in biological assay were largely based on the ratio of hydrophilic systems.8 Rosmarinus officinalis L. pH.6% activity than their total concentration.8%). 2011).6% of the Recommended Daily This result further confirms observations that Intake (SCALBERT. rosemary alcoholic extract reduced Physical and Chemical Characterization by 70. 2006. corresponding to 9. Source: Elaboration of the authors. 2012) although Kulisic et al. D. v. and.5% the production of malondialdehyde. Besides both extracts presented antioxidant Development of Fresh Cheese Spread (FCS) activity. Concentration of MDA (malondialdehyde). fat.02 - * Means followed by different letters in the same column differ from each other at a 5% level (Tukey). 662 Semina: Ciências Agrárias.03b 70. n. Although unspecific. RODRÍGUEZ- assay to inhibit the microsomal lipid peroxidation. inhibited (P< 0. in cells and tissues (MONOHAN. (total nitrogen). 33. The the chemical nature of phenolic compounds present product containing rosemary extract had 96 mg of in extracts may be more important in antioxidant phenolics/100g of product. and hydrophobic nature of phenolics.362 ± 0.05) in the presence of oregano and rosemary alcoholic extracts (Table 3) when compared to the control. 2. (2012). total carbohydrates. which corresponds to 39. 2000). according of the Recommended Daily Intake. had 396 mg of phenolics/100g of product. Table 3. 1. indicating greater antioxidant activity than the The formulation containing oregano extract oregano alcoholic extract (49. ROJO et al.. WILLIAMSON. weight aldehyde and others sub-products of lipid peroxidation. (2004) claim that the polarity of the substrate does not Microsomal lipid peroxidation was significantly influence the methods sensitivity. to Rodríguez-Rojo et al. 655-666.318 ± 0. since this CAPRIOLI. crude protein compounds. Alcoholic extract nmol MDA/mL Decrease in the MDA production (%) Origanum vulgare 2. This could be evidenced TBARS Determination by the decrease of malondialdehyde production The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test indicating that both extracts have antioxidant activity (TBARS) is based on the reaction of thiobarbituric towards biological membrane lipid peroxidation. 2012 . a saturation effect may occur in the presence of additional phenolic The values of total dry extract. mineral residue (ash). The results are method determines mainly water soluble phenolic expressed as nmol MDA/mL of extract used in the compounds (LAJOLO et al. titratable acidity and calorific value were determined for the commercial ricotta as well as for the final product (FCS) (Table 4). R.

5 ° C) 0.001*a 0.0% acceptance rate. 1 2 3 Total dry extract (%) 34.10 ± 0.Phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity determination in rosemary and oregano extracts and its use in cheese spread Table 4.4%).987 ± 0.006*a 0.005*b 0. 663 Semina: Ciências Agrárias. bitter taste. Source: Elaboration of the authors. 33.11 ± 0. Comparison of the attributes color.87a 336.02*a 8. 2. through the use of the extracts. ideal scale (Figure 4).70*b 10.59*c Ash (%) 1.63 kJ/100g.01*a 5. The product containing level of 1% (Tukey).82ª 31.53 ± 0. Source: Elaboration of the authors. evaluated by the ideal scale (5 = much more than the ideal. n. 1 = much less that the ideal).07 ± 0. which is also reflected in the higher fat and carbohydrate value.985 ± 0. abr.01b 321.07*b 2.235 ± 0.0 ° C) 6. 655-666.53 ± 0.45*c Fat (%) 14. 2012 . salty flavor and texture/firmness. being significantly higher than accepted.82 ± 0. such as color.40 ± 0. the caloric value of the formulation containing The sample containing rosemary extract showed a rosemary extract (321.1%. acidity.21 76.10*a 19. reaching an acceptance index of 91. Figure 4. bitter taste.980 ± 0. p.24b 27.43 ± 0.03c Titrable acidity (% lactic acid) 0.23 ± 0. extract (3). statistically different from each other at 5% using Tukey’s Method.50 ± 0.81 ± 0. v.86 ± 0. fat The two samples were submitted to evaluation and carbohydrate value may be due to differences of attributes.22 ± 0.48 ± 0. kJ/100g). Physical and chemical characterization of commercial ricotta (1) and the (FCS) with Origanum vulgare extract (2) and Rosmarinus officinalis L.81 ± 0.47c * Means of three determinations ± standard deviation Means followed by different letters in a similar line.01*c Caloric value (100g) (kcal) 203.278 ± 0.03*a 2. 3 = ideal.005*c Water activity (25. in the overall sensory quality.25*b Crude protein (%) 12.192 ± 0. salty in water content of the final products with the herb flavor and texture/firmness.47 kcal/100g or 1342. oregano extract contained 336. These differences in calorie.01 kcal/100g or and the sample with oregano extract was the most 1403. acidity.001*a 0. in both samples of FCS.15*b Total carbohydrates (%) 6.21*b 58.005*b 5.15*a 61. Londrina. The protein content of the two formulations Sensory Evaluation developed was lower than the protein content of the Both samples tested differ significantly at the commercial ricotta (12.25*b 19.001*b pH (25.

The rosemary extract had an intense Recommended Daily Intake. p. C. for grants to R. Therefore. and did not differ significantly from each other (P> 0. 278. hours of operation for rosemary and 40% ethanol DATTA. 2012 . 275. it was verified that 54.. AYRANCI.01). p. the sample containing oregano AYRANCI. T. Santos. 17.0% of tasters found mg/100g phenolic compounds in the final product. 2. phenolic compounds were 75% ethanol during 8 BHATTACHARJEE. G. 1-3. blackseed (Nigella sativa L. C.6% of the the bitter taste. Since rosemary extract DPPH free radical formation and on the inhibition has a light color. 50% of tasters AOAC.0% of acceptance. 1.0% of tasters activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L. The acceptance rate bitter taste. n. R. with 96 scale. which was reflected in the sensory of this product was 91. I. and that corresponds to 39. TESSARO. which was not found Intake. The optimum conditions for extraction of 2011. USA: AOAC Internacional. 141-150. S. respectively. carnosic acid. The tasters found it “slightly darker than the ideal”. BALDASSO. Official methods of analysis of AOAC found “ideal” the sample containing rosemary international. oregano extract (P< 0. was considered “ideal” by 48.0% of the GAE/mL total phenolic content. Santos. S.60 mg GAE/mL for rosemary. n.01). 1995. 2008.) essential oil. Concentration and purification of whey proteins by Conclusions ultrafiltration.. 1-2. abr. C. N. Antioxidant extract. 2006. v. The attributes of salty flavor and acidity were considered “ideal” for both samples. 76-82. Desalination.0 mg GAE/mL for oregano extract had intense brown color. et al. 381-386. n. v. p.5 hours of operation for oregano. in the sample added to oregano extract. since the product is based on compared to the oregano extract. 655-666. the sample containing rosemary extract “slightly corresponding to 9. rosemary extract the natural color of the product very slightly. and “slightly firmer that the ideal” by 48. v. Studies on the fractionation of β-lactoglobulin from casein whey using ultrafiltration and ion-exchange during 7.1%.46 mg GAE/mL and 2.) extract. n. The concentrated extracts had 18.. In the assessing of Although rosemary and oregano extracts showed sample containing rosemary extract.57 mg extract was considered darker with 66.. Food Chemistry. v. D. The two samples differed in the color attributes Soluble extracts obtained from rosemary and (P< 0.0% of the rosmarinic acid and sesamol.6% of the Recommended Daily more bitter than the ideal”. and ricotta usually has a white or light yellow color. tasters. As References for texture/firmness of the sample. the sample containing rosemary Acknowledgements extract was considered bitterer than the sample with The authors thank CNPq-Brazil. D. The product containing quality of the product. However.0% of the tasters considered the bitter taste “ideal”. ed. 33. With application of the ideal rosemary extract had 76. extract. ERKAN. This showed to be more effective as an antioxidant when is an expected result.. 110. p. in which 78. its addition to the FCS changed of microsomal lipid peroxidation. membrane chromatography. BARROS. and the sample containing oregano oregano had 0.01). 664 Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 70% of tasters antioxidant activity in the inhibition based on the found the color “ideal”. which oregano and 9. the ricotta.. Journal of Membrane Science. E. The fresh cheese spread formulated with oregano extracts had 396 mg total phenolics/100g of final Another attribute that should be considered is FCS product. Londrina. BHATTACHARJEE. C. resulted in a darkening of the FCS.

. Free Radical Chemical analysis. 43. DUARTE-ALMEIDA. RADONIC. WILLIAMSON. p.. M. DARDAMANI. n. ORTHOFER. H. B. S. CAPRIOLI.. ONO. KATAYAMA. J.. K. p. FURTADO. Food Chemistry. P. C. M. F. ácido linoleico e método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH·. LAMUELA- n. 657.. T.. J. 446-452. O. BIZELIS. R. THEODOSIOU.. YAMADA. 245-258. CHATTERTON. A. 809-816.. 8. KULISIC. v. G. Journal of Food Engineering. 1. A. Meat Science. v. p.. 2008. p. p. T.. SHETTY. MURASE. 1998. thiobarbituric acid reative material from microsomes TUNDIS. Ciocalteu reagent. G. Journal of Nutrition.. O’SULLIVAN. E. MIZUN. Boiss and Origanum syriacum L. T. 11. Use of different methods for testing antioxidative activity of oregano essential oil.. p.. B. Methods in Enzymology. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2009. VOJNOV. M. 109. K. vulgare) with antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter MORENO. B. YUM. n. Londrina. Process Biochemistry. natural spices. S. W. 2012 . p. SAHIN. R. 1542-1549. R.. 2. pylori. n. RAVENTÓS. v. I.. D. G. v. S. C. CUNHA. W. 655-666. M. implications for processing. Rosmarinic Bethesda. 535-540. 40. The action of hydrogen peroxide on the formation of LOIZZO. FREGA.. M.. Food LUNDBERG. W. Radical Research. v. R. Bioactivity of Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos. F. SINGLETON. K.. 46-55. 85... v. Phenolic antioxidants from clonal oregano (Origanum Food Chemistry. L. p. bioavailability of polyphenols. Food Research.. R. 2009. 1284-1287. A. O. M. G. 229-240. A. HAUK.. M. 2073-2085. 2. R. p. 98-103. HAMAGUCHI.. n. TAVARES. SUMNU.. n. MILOS. G.. acid in Prunella vulgaris ethanol extract inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 and nitric SIMITZIS. A. 2. 8. n. 4. p. Assessing the association between phenolic compounds D. 10. A.. extracts linked to their polyphenol composition. Y. n. n.. A. GENOVESE. 2011. 22. HALLIWELL.. H. antioxidant.. 2008. A. or from DNA damage by bleonycin or phenanthroline A. RIZSHSKY. LIN. p. M.. COCERO. G. MENICHINI. P. A. 79. v. J. V. 10. Free FURTADO. p. b-lactoglobulin and a-lactalbumin – technological 2. R. RAO. V. v. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin- LAJOLO. VISENTIN. v. S. 2006. VATTEM. DELIGEORGIS. n.. 633-640. 115. 4. Davis. SMITHERS.. v... of food: principles and practices. CHUN. 6. Campinas. anticholinesterase activities of Origanum ehrenbergii CHIPAULT. n. 299.. Antimutagenicty RAMALAKSHMI. systems. CONFORTI. Dietary intake and HUANG. I. 124. 2000. WIDRECHNER. v.. P. HOUGHTON. ROMANO. CASTRO. A. 16.. Food Science and Technology. OIL SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAMB MEAT CHARACTERISTICS. SCALBERT. Phenolic compounds prevent Alzheimer’s pathology SOLVENT-FREE MICROWAVE EXTRACTION OF through different effects on the amyloid-beta aggregation ESSENTIAL OIL FROM OREGANO. CINDIO. K. FEGEROS.. 2008. p. Engineering. n. J. Journal of Food pathway. J. Sensory evaluation Edmonton. artefacts in the thiobarbituric acid test. Y. ARUOMA. U. S. atividade antioxidante utilizando sistema b-caroteno/ 665 Semina: Ciências Agrárias. I. v. HEYMANN. M. F. 117. Amsterdam..Phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity determination in rosemary and oregano extracts and its use in cheese spread BRODKORB. p. KATALINIC. M. American Journal of Pathology. C. v. E. ALMEIDA. HAWKINS. ROUPAS. RODRÍGUEZ-ROJO. I. 79-85. n. oxide in RAW 267.. abr. n. A. 2006. 150- green coffee and spent coffee in different in vitro model 154. SCHEYER. C. New York: Chapmann CECHINI. 174-180. BAYRAMOGLU. MAESTRI. 1990. M. 2. 2006. M. F. M. 217-223. SAAB. D. Interference of sodium caseinate in the TBARS assay. Journal of J.... G. N. A. n. 1. p. R. F. n. R. GOTO. H. v. M. I.. Food Chemistry. v.7 mouse macrophages. M. v.. 1. A. SOLVENTS. STATTI. L. C. J.... p. ASSISTED EXTRACTION and the antioxidant activity of Brazilian red wines using OF ROSEMARY ANTIOXIDANTS WITH GREEN chemometrics. Bioactivities of low grade micronucleus assay. The antioxidant properties of Chemistry. MONOHAN. p. Y. v. 1. Mutation Research.. 1999. 57.. p. A. EFFECT OF DIETARY OREGANO 10579-10589. McCOY... 1952. v. BONESI. TAKANO- of rosmarinic acid in Swiss mice evaluated by the ISHIKAWA. 26. essential oils. 130. p. SANTOS.. L. 88. n. v. International Dairy Journal. K. 2557-2565.. M.. p. 2009. 17. 175. GRANATO. D.. P. & Hall. anti-inflammatory and Research Communications. LAWLESS.. L. T. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary 2005. 40.. 3. D. 33. Avaliação da 152-179.. n. J. 2009. 2012. 2010. J. M. v.... 223-231. 2004. J.

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