1.1. Overview of wireless Technology
Wireless technologies have become increasingly popular in our everyday business
and personal lives. Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) allow individuals to access calendars,
email, and address and phone number lists, and the Internet. Some technologies even offer
Global Positioning System (GSP) capabilities that can pinpoint the location of the device
anywhere in the world. Wireless technologies promise to offer even more features and
functions in the next few years.

An increasing number of government agencies, businesses, and home users are
using, or considering using, wireless technologies in their environments. Agencies should be
aware of the security risk’s associated with wireless technologies. Agencies need to develop
strategies that will mitigate risks as they integrate wireless technologies into their computing
environments. This document discusses certain wireless technologies, outlines the associated
risks, and offers guidance for mitigating those risks.

Wireless technologies, in the simplest sense, enable one or more devices to
communicate without physical connections without requiring network or peripheral cabling.
Wireless technologies use radio frequency transmissions as the means for transmitting data,
whereas wired technologies use cables.

1.2. Wireless Networks:
Wireless networks serve as the transport mechanism between devices and among
devices and the traditional wired networks (enterprise networks and the Internet). Wireless
networks are many and diverse but are frequently categorized into three groups based on their
coverage range: wireless wide Area Networks (WWAN), wireless Local Area Networks
(WLAN), and wireless personal Area Networks (WPAN).


WWAN includes wide coverage area technologies such as 2G cellular, Cellular Digital
packet Data(CDPD), and Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), and Mobitex
WLAN , representing wireless local area networks, includes IEEE 802.11, Hiper LAN, and
several others. WPAN represents wireless personal area network technologies such as
Bluetooth and IR.

“Attention, the universe! By kingdoms, right wheel!” this prophetic phrase is the first
telegraph message on record. Samuel F.B. Morse sent it over a 16 km line in 1838. Thus was
born a new area, the era of electrical communication.
Over the next century and a half, communication engineering had advanced to the point
that earthbound TV viewers could watch astronauts working in space. Telephone, radio, and
television have become integral parts of modern life.
Long distance circuits span the globe carrying text, data, voice, and images.
Computers talk to computers via intercontinental networks. Certainly great strides have been
made since the days of Morse. Equally certain, coming decades will bring many new
achievements of communication of engineering.
A communication system conveys information from its source to a destination some
distance way. There are so many different applications of communication systems that we
cannot attempt to cover every type.

1.3 Inter network:
An inter network is a collection of individual networks, connected by intermediate
networking devices, that function as a single large network. Internetworking refers to the
industry, products, and procedures that meet the challenge of creating and administering
internet works. Figure 1-1 illustrates some different kinds of network technologies that can be
interconnected by routers and other networking devices to create an internet work.


Figure1: Different Network Technologies Can Be Connected to Create an
Internet work

1.4 History of Internetworking:
The first networks were time-sharing networks that used mainframes and attached
terminals. Both IBM’s Systems Network Architecture (SNA) and Digital’s network
architecture implemented such environments.
Local-area networks (LANs) evolved around the PC revolution. LANs enabled
multiple users in a relatively small geographical area to exchange files and messages, as well
as access shared resources such as file servers and printers.
Wide-area networks (WANs) interconnect LANs with geographically dispersed users
to create connectivity. Some of the technologies used for connecting LANs include T1, T3,
ATM, ISDN, ADSL, Frame Relay, radio links, and others. New methods of connecting
dispersed LANs are appearing everyday.
Today, high-speed LANs and switched internet works are becoming widely used,
largely because they operate at very high speeds and support such high-bandwidth
applications as multimedia and videoconferencing.
Internetworking evolved as a solution to three key problems: isolated LANs, duplication of
resources, and a lack of network management. Isolated LANs made electronic
communication between different offices or departments impossible.


1.5 Open System Interconnection Reference Model:
The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model describes how information
from a software application in one computer moves through a network medium to a software
application in another computer. The OSI reference model is a conceptual model composed
of seven layers, each specifying particular network functions. The International Organization
developed the model for Standardization (ISO) in 1984, and it is now considered the primary
architectural model for interceptor communications. The OSI model divides the tasks
involved with moving information between networked computers into seven smaller, more
manageable task groups. A task or group of tasks is then assigned to each of the seven OSI
layers. Each layer is reasonably self-contained so that the tasks assigned to each layer can be
implemented independently. This enables the solutions offered by one layer to be updated
without adversely affecting the other layers. The following list details the seven layers of the
Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model:

 Layer 7—Application
 Layer 6—Presentation
 Layer 5—Session
 Layer 4—Transport
 Layer 3—Network
 Layer 2—Data link
 Layer 1—Physical

The OSI model provides a conceptual framework for communication between
computers, but the model itself is not a method of communication. Actual communication is
made possible by using communication protocols. In the context of data networking, a
protocol is a formal set of rules and conventions that governs how computers exchange
information over a network medium. A protocol implements the functions of one or more of
the OSI layers.
A wide variety of communication protocols exist. Some of these protocols include
LAN protocols, WAN protocols, network protocols, and routing protocols.
LAN protocols operate at the physical and data link layers of the OSI model and
define communication over the various LAN media.


7 OSI Model and Communication between Systems: Information being transferred from a software application in one computer system to a software application in another must pass through the OSI layers. and so on down to the physical layer (Layer 1). 1. the information is placed on the physical network medium and is sent across the medium to System B. many routing protocols use network protocols to exchange information between routers. the application layer of System B passes the information to the recipient application program to complete the communication process. which relays the data to the session layer (Layer 5). Many protocols rely on others for operation. At the physical layer. network protocols are the various upper-layer protocols that exist in a given protocol suite. The physical layer of System B removes the information from the physical medium. Figure 1-2 illustrates this example. This concept of building upon the layers already in existence is the foundation of the OSI model. Figure 2: OSI Model Layers Communicate with Other Layers 5 . and so on. until it reaches the application layer (Layer 7) of System B. Finally. Finally. WAN protocols operate at the lowest three layers of the OSI model and define communication over the various wide-area media. For example. Routing protocols are network layer protocols that are responsible for exchanging information between routers so that the routers can select the proper path for network traffic. the application program in System A will pass its information to the application layer (Layer 7) of System A. For example. and then its physical layer passes the information up to the data link layer (Layer 2). The application layer then passes the information to the presentation layer (Layer 6). if a software application in System A has information to transmit to a software application in System B. which passes it to the network layer (Layer 3).

mechanical. The SAP is a conceptual location at which one OSI layer can request the services of another OSI layer.8 OSI layer services: One OSI layer communicates with another layer to make use of the services provided by the second layer. OSI layers can provide services to multiple service users. and deactivating the physical link between communicating network systems. maintaining. the service user is the OSI layer that requests services from an adjacent OSI layer.8.1 OSI Model Physical Layer: The physical layer defines the electrical. The service provider is the OSI layer that provides services to service users. Physical layer implementations can be categorized as either LAN or WAN specifications. timing of voltage changes.1. procedural. and physical connectors. the service provider. Three basic elements are involved in layer services: the service user. Figure 1-1. and functional specifications for activating.4 illustrates some common LAN and WAN physical layer implementations. Physical layer specifications define characteristics such as voltage levels. and the service access point (SAP). In this context. The services provided by adjacent layers help a given OSI layer communicate with its peer layer in other computer systems. Figure 3: The service provider 1. 6 . maximum transmission distances. physical data rates.

7 . Figure 1-1. flow control moderates the transmission of data so that the receiving device is not overwhelmed with more traffic than it can handle at one time. Error notification alerts upper-layer protocols that a transmission error has occurred.2 OSI Model Data Link Layer: The data link layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical network link.Figure 4: Physical Layer Implementations Can Be LAN or WAN Specifications 1. network topology. and flow control. Network topology consists of the data link layer specifications that often define how devices are to be physically connected.5 illustrates the IEEE sub layers of the data link layer. and the sequencing of data frames reorders frames that are transmitted out of sequence. including physical addressing. error notification. such as in a bus or a ring topology. sequencing of frames. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has subdivided the data link layer into two sub layers: Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC). Different data link layer specifications define different network and protocol characteristics. Finally.8. Physical addressing (as opposed to network addressing) defines how devices are addressed at the data link layer.

2 defines a number of fields in data link layer frames that enable multiple higher-layer protocols to share a single physical data link.2 specification and supports both connectionless and connection-oriented services used by higher-layer protocols. The IEEE MAC specification defines MAC addresses. 1. LLC is defined in the IEEE 802. 1. Flow control generally occurs at the transport layer. IEEE 802. The Media Access Control (MAC) sub layer of the data link layer manages protocol access to the physical network medium.8. define network addresses in a way that route selection can be determined systematically by comparing the source network address with the destination network address and applying the subnet mask. much of the design and configuration work for internet works happens at Layer 3. such as the Internet Protocol (IP). 8 .8. the transport layer is responsible for making sure that the data is delivered error-free and in the proper sequence. routers can use this layer to determine how to forward packets. Figure 5: The Data Link Layer Contains Two Sub layers The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub layer of the data link layer manages communications between devices over a single link of a network. Because this layer defines the logical network layout. which enable multiple devices to uniquely identify one another at the data link layer.4 OSI Model Transport Layer: The transport layer accepts data from the session layer and segments the data for transport across the network. the network layer. Generally. Because of this. Some network layer implementations. Flow control manages data transmission between devices so that the transmitting device does not send more data than the receiving device can process.3 OSI Model Network Layer: The network layer defines the network address. which differs from the MAC address.

and common data encryption schemes. 1. and synchronizing communication. determining resource availability. Communication sessions consist of service requests and service responses that occur between applications located in different network devices. Multiplexing enables data from several applications to be transmitted onto a single physical link. 9 . common data compression schemes.8. These functions ensure that information sent from the application layer of one system would be readable by the application layer of another system. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. Some examples of presentation layer coding and conversion schemes include common data representation formats. such as requesting that data be retransmitted. which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. Virtual circuits are established. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners.8. The transport protocols used on the Internet are TCP and UDP.7 OSI Model Application Layer The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user. and Session Control Protocol (SCP). while error recovery involves acting. manages. Error checking involves creating various mechanisms for detecting transmission errors.5 OSI Model Session Layer The session layer establishes. . and terminates communication sessions.6 OSI Model Presentation Layer The presentation layer provides a variety of coding and conversion functions that are applied to application layer data. the AppleTalk protocol that coordinates the name binding process. to resolve any errors that occur. These requests and responses are coordinated by protocols implemented at the session layer. 1. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. maintained. 1.8. conversion of character representation formats. Some examples of session-layer implementations include Zone Information Protocol (ZIP). and terminated by the transport layer. the DEC net Phase IV session layer protocol.

all communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer. Figure 6 illustrates the basic components of a data link layer frame. and data units. A frame is composed of the data link layer header (and possibly a trailer) and upper- layer data. segments. 10 .9 Information formats The data and control information that is transmitted through internet works takes a variety of forms. data grams. and messages. A frame is an information unit whose source and destination are data link layer entities. Common information formats include frames. cells. The terms used to refer to these information formats are not used consistently in the internetworking industry but sometimes are used interchangeably. The header and trailer contain control information intended for the network layer entity in the destination system. In synchronizing communication. packets. Frames Data link layer Upper layer data Data link layer Header trailer Figure 6: Data from Upper-Layer Entities Makes Up the Data 1. Data from upper-layer entities is encapsulated in the data link layer header and trailer.1 Link Layer Frame A packet is an information unit whose source and destination are network layer entities. 1. A packet is composed of the network layer header (and possibly a trailer) and upper- layer data. the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit.9. When identifying communication partners. When determining resource availability. Data from upper-layer entities is encapsulated in the network layer header and trailer. the application layer must decide whether sufficient network resources for the requested communication exist. Figure 7 illustrates the basic components of a network layer packet. The header and trailer contain control information intended for the data link layer entity in the destination system.

A cell is composed of the header and payload. The payload contains upper-layer data that is encapsulated in the cell header and is typically 48 bytes long. The term segment usually refers to an information unit whose source and destination are transport layer entities. Suds are information units from upper-layer protocols that define a service request 11 . A cell is an information unit of a fixed size whose source and destination are data link layer entities. packet Network layer Upper layer data network layer Header trailer Figure 7: Three Basic Components Make up a Network Layer Packet The term data gram usually refers to an information unit whose source and destination are network layer entities that use connectionless network service. and bridge protocol data units (BPDUs). The header contains control information intended for the destination data link layer entity and is typically 5 bytes long. Figure 8: Two Components Make Up a Typical Cell Data unit is a generic term that refers to a variety of information units. Some common data units are service data units (Suds). such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) networks. protocol data units. The length of the header and the payload fields always are the same for each cell. Cells are used in switched environments. A message is an information unit whose source and destination entities exist above the network layer (often at the application layer).

when an end node tries to complete an actual connection. Then. 1. When the transfer of data is complete. whereas connectionless services do not. In general. The data transfer phase occurs when the actual data is transmitted over the connection. transfer data. the end nodes may reserve resources for the connection.11 Internet Work Addressing Internet work addresses identify devices separately or as members of a group. The spanning-tree algorithm uses bPDUs as hello a lower-layer protocol. PDU is OSI terminology for a packet. The end nodes also may negotiate and establish certain criteria for the transfer. A connectionless service can send the data without any need to establish a connection first. the end nodes terminate the connection and release resources reserved for the connection. Connection-oriented service involves three phases: connection establishment. there are not enough resources for the valid connection. An attacking system will send many requests for establishing a connection but then will never complete the connection. Connection-oriented network services have more overhead than connectionless ones. most connection-oriented services will monitor for lost packets and handle resending them. Connection-oriented services must negotiate a connection. and tear down the connection. 1. During connection establishment. This resource reservation is one of the things exploited in some denial of service (DOS) attacks. Three types of 12 . whereas a connectionless transfer can simply send the data without the added overhead of creating and tearing down a connection. Each has its place in internet works. connection-oriented services provide some level of delivery guarantee. and connection termination. Addressing schemes vary depending on the protocol family and the OSI layer. The protocol is generally also responsible for putting the packets in the right sequence before passing the data up the protocol stack. data transfer. such as a window size used in TCP connections.10 Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Network Services: In general. Connection-oriented services must first establish a connection with the desired service before passing any data. During data transfer. transport protocols can be characterized as being either connection- oriented or connectionless. The attacked computer is then left with resources allocated for many never-completed connections.

1. and the IEEE sub layers of the data link layer. Data-link addresses usually exist within a flat address space and have a pre- established and typically fixed relationship to a specific device. data- link addresses.2 MAC Addresses: Media Access Control (MAC) addresses consist of a subset of data link layer addresses.11.1Data Link Layer Addresses A data link layer address uniquely identifies each physical network connection of a network device. As with most data-link addresses. and network layer addresses. Figure 10 illustrates the relationship between MAC addresses. Figure 9 illustrates how each interface on a device is uniquely identified by a data-link address. MAC addresses are unique for each LAN interface. Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. End systems generally have only one physical network connection and thus have only one data-link address. 13 .11. MAC addresses identify network entities in LANs that implement the IEEE MAC addresses of the data link layer. Data-link addresses sometimes are referred to as physical or hardware addresses.internet work addresses are commonly used: data link layer addresses. Figure 9: Each Interface on a Device Is Uniquely Identified by a data link address 1.

14 . Data-Link Addresses. Figure 10: MAC Addresses. The last 6 hexadecimal digits comprise the interface serial number. and the IEEE Sub layers of the Data Link Layer Are All Related MAC addresses are 48 bits in length and are expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. which are administered by the IEEE.S. Social Security numbers). Figure 11: The MAC Address Contains a Unique Format of Hexadecimal Digits 1. The first 6 hexadecimal digits. identify the manufacturer or vendor and thus comprise the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI). each successively narrowing an address until it points to a single device (in a manner similar to street addresses). A hierarchical address space is organized into numerous subgroups.12 Hierarchical Versus Flat Address Space Internet work address space typically takes one of two forms: hierarchical address space or flat address space. A flat address space is organized into a single group (in a manner similar to U. or another value administered by the specific vendor. Figure 11 illustrates the MAC address format. MAC addresses sometimes are called burned-in addresses (BIAs) because they are burned into read-only memory (ROM) and are copied into random-access memory (RAM) when the interface card initializes.

"Ireland" in a street address eliminates any other country as a possible location. A static address does not change until the network administrator manually changes it. by means of some protocol-specific process. Address sorting and recall is simplified using comparison operations.1 Address Assignments Addresses are assigned to devices as one of two types: static and dynamic. A device is therefore likely to have a different address each time that it connects to the network. For example. Devices obtain dynamic addresses when they attach to a network. A device using a dynamic address often has a different address each time that it connects to the network. A network administrator according to a preconceived Internet work-addressing plan assigns static addresses. Server-assigned addresses are recycled for reuse as devices disconnect. Figure 11 illustrates the difference between hierarchical and flat address spaces. Figure 12: Hierarchical and Flat Address Spaces Differ in Comparison Operations 1. Hierarchical addressing offers certain advantages over flat-addressing schemes. 15 . Some networks use a server to assign addresses.12.

2 Addresses versus Names Internet work devices usually have both a name and an address associated with them. One common error-checking scheme is the cyclic redundancy check (CRC). the packet is considered valid.12.1. the packet contains errors and is discarded. which detects and discards corrupted from one building to another). If the values are unequal. Error-correction functions (such as data retransmission) are left to higher-layer protocols. Error checking is implemented at several of the OSI layers. Internet work names typically are location-independent and remain associated with a device wherever that device moves (for example. The destination device compares this value to its own calculation to determine whether errors occurred during transmission. the source device performs a predetermined set of calculations over the contents of the packet to be sent. names are usually mapped to network addresses through some protocol. Therefore. the source places the calculated value in the packet and sends the packet to the destination. If the values are Your computer performs a DNS lookup of the IP address for Cisco's web server and then communicates with it using the network address. 1. The Internet uses Domain Name System (DNS) to map the name of a device to its IP address. Then. it's easier for you to remember www. For into your browser when you want to access Cisco's web site. As with network addresses being mapped to MAC addresses. 16 . The destination performs the same predetermined set of calculations over the contents of the packet and then compares its computed value with that contained in the packet. A CRC value is generated by a calculation that is performed at the source device. First. Internet work addresses usually are location-dependent and change when a device is moved (although MAC addresses are an exception to this rule). you type www.13 Error-Checking Basics Error-checking schemes determine whether transmitted data has become corrupt or otherwise damaged while traveling from the source to the instead of some IP address.

demultiplexing is the process of separating multiplexed data channels at the destination. Multiplexing can be implemented at any of the OSI layers. Figure 13 illustrates this example. Figure 13: Multiple Applications Can Be Multiplexed into a Single Lower- Layer Data Packet Another example of multiplexing is when data from multiple devices is combined into a single physical channel (using a device called a multiplexer). Conversely.14 Multiplexing Basics Multiplexing is a process in which multiple data channels are combined into a single data or physical channel at the source.1. One example of multiplexing is when data from multiple applications is multiplexed into a single lower-layer data packet. Figure 14: Multiple Devices Can Be Multiplexed into a Single Physical Channel 17 . Figure12 illustrates this example.

In FDM. frequency-division multiplexing (FDM). information from data channels is allocated bandwidth as needed by using dynamically assigned time slots. In statistical multiplexing. regardless of whether there is data to transmit. asynchronous time-division multiplexing (ATDM). Some methods used for multiplexing data are time-division multiplexing (TDM). information from each data channel is allocated bandwidth based on preassigned time slots. In TDM. A multiplexer is a physical layer device that combines multiple data streams into one or more output channels at the source. bandwidth is dynamically allocated to any data channels that have information to transmit. information from each data channel is allocated bandwidth based on the signal frequency of the traffic. 18 . and statistical multiplexing. In ATDM. Multiplexers de multiplex the channels into multiple data streams at the remote end and thus maximize the use of the bandwidth of the physical medium by enabling it to be shared by multiple traffic sources.

Architecture where the system us subdivided into cells. with a single access point (it can also work without an access point ) most installation s will be formed by several cells.11 LAN. where the access point are connected through some kind of backbone called Distribution system(DS) generally Ethernet.1 Introduction This chapter deals with introduction about Wi-Fi technology and it gives the relative comparison with other technologies (Blue tooth.11 nomenclature) is controlled by a base station called access point. The following picture shows a typical 802. Wimax etc. 19 . with the components described above Figure 15: typical 802. Chapter-2 WI-FI TECHNOLOGY 2. a base station called access point controls each BSS. where each cell (called basic service set or BSS) in the 802. Even though that wireless LAN may be formed by a single cell . each cell is called Basic service set. a detailed description of the PHY layer.) This chapter addresses mainly functional and MAC aspects.15 each system is divided into cells.11 LAN In the above fig.

when to transmit.11 MAC FH DS IR PHY layer Beyond the standard functionality usually perfumed by MAC layers.11 Mac performs other functions that are typicality related to upper layer protocols such as Fragmentation. the 802. The basic access method: CSMA/CA CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) is the channel access mechanism used by most wireless LANs in the ISM bands.11 protocol covers the MAC and physical layer the standard currently defines a single MAC. a portal is a device that interconnects between an 802.11 Layer Description: The 802. Figure 16: Distribution system The standard also defines the concept of portal. the distributed coordination function and the point coordination function. packet Retransmission and acknowledges.11 and another 802 LAN 802. A channel access mechanism is the part of the protocol which specifies how the node uses the medium: when to listen. This is an asynchronous message passing mechanism 20 .. The MAC layer defines two different access methods. which interacts with three PHYs 802.2 Data link layer 802. The basic principles of CSMA/CA are listening before talk and contention..

(connectionless). Its main advantages are that it is suited for network protocols such as TCP/IP. like in Ethernet). the transceiver has the ability to listen while transmitting and so to detect collisions (with a wire all transmissions have approximately the same strength). it sends back immediately a short message (an acknowledgement) to the transmitter to indicate that it has successfully received the packet without errors. 2.CSMA/CA is derived from CSMA/CD (Collision Detection). Because of that. it knows that the packet was lost. most MAC protocols also implement positive acknowledgement and MAC level retransmissions to avoid losing packets on the air. adapts quite well with the variable condition of traffic and is quite robust against interferences. the strength of its own transmissions would mask all other signals on the air.2. The main difference is the collision avoidance : on a wire.1 MAC retransmissions As we have seen in the previous chapter. There is also a higher error rate on the air than on a wire so a higher chance of packets is corrupted. but no bandwidth and latency guarantee (you are still following?). TCP doesn't like very much packet losses at the MAC layer). minimize latency and avoid the sequencing packets (something that TCP doesn't like as 21 . delivering a best effort service. Most MAC protocols use a stop and go mechanism. so it will retransmit the packet (after contending again for the medium. which is the base of Ethernet. they transmit the next packet of the queue only if the current packet has been properly acknowledged (no sliding window mechanism like in TCP). 2. So.2 MAC techniques We have described the main principle of CSMA/CA but most MAC protocols use additional techniques to improve the performance of CSMA/CA. even if a radio node could listen on the channel while transmitting. the protocol can't directly detect collisions like with Ethernet and only tries to avoid them. But. CSMA/CA is fundamentally different from the channel access mechanism used by cellular phone systems . The rationale is that it makes the protocol simpler. The principle is quite simple: each time a node receives a packet. the main problem of the CSMA/CA protocol is that the transmitter can't detect collisions on the medium. If after sending a packet the transmitter doesn't receive an acknowledgement.

If your Wireless LAN doesn't implement MAC level retransmissions.The acknowledgement are "embedded" in the MAC protocol. Fragmentation is sending the big packets in small pieces over the medium. the node needs to retransmit it entirely. wireless WAN protocols (like satellite links) don't implement that either. which work at a different level. These acknowledgements are very different from the TCP acknowledgement. Of course. Figure17: M AC retransmissions in CSMA/CA 2. If the packet to transmit is long and contains only one error. but done just over the MAC).see figure). because it duplicates packet headers in every fragment. but are not really per formant. so we can't get packet through. because the round trip delay in their case is so long that by the time they would receive the acknowledgement they could have sent another packet. we could come to some situation were the probability of error in large packet is dangerously close to 1 (we can't fit a packet between the bursts of errors due to fading or interferers).2 Fragmentation: The radio medium has a higher error rate than a wire.well). MAC level retransmissions solve this problem. We have explained in the previous chapter that it was why most products were including MAC level retransmissions to avoid losing packets. so they are guaranteed not to collide (the contention starts after the acknowledgement. This is why some products use fragmentation. If the error rate is significantly high. Each fragment is individually checked and retransmitted if 22 . this adds some overhead.2. all is not lost : students of Berkeley have created a protocol called snoop which filters the TCP acknowledgement and retransmits the lost packets before TCP even notices that they are lost (this is still a link level retransmission.

RTS/CTS In the chapter about range we have seen that the main effect of transmission on radio waves is the attenuation of the signal. so understands that a transmission is going on. At the same time. the RTS and CTS messages contain the size of the expected transmission (to know how long the transmission will last). The reception of a CTS indicates that the receiver is able to receive the RTS. The nodes hearing the CTS are the nodes that could potentially create collisions in the receiver (assuming a symmetric channel). so the node increases its chance of success in bad conditions.25) is to use RTS/CTS (Request to Send/Clear to send). those nodes ignore each other and may transmit at the same time. This node could be impossible to reach because of these collisions. every node in the range of the receiver hears the CTS (even if it doesn't hear the RTS). these simultaneous transmissions have a comparable strength and so collide (in its receiver). The situation might be quite different between those two locations. Because transmissions are based on the carrier sense mechanism. But. Because of this attenuation. we have very commonly a problem of hidden nodes. this is a good thing because it allows frequency reuse (they are effectively in different cells). the node needs only to retransmit one small fragment. The first advantage is that in case of error. RTS/CTS is a handshaking: before sending a packet. The fundamental problem with carrier sense only is that the transmitter tries to estimate if the channel is free at the receiver with only local information. Usually. a small packet has a higher probability to get through without errors. the transmitter sends a RTS and wait for a CTS from the receiver (see figure below).Because these nodes may not hear the data transmission. so the packet (the channel is clear in its area). RTS/CTS have another advantage: it lowers the overhead of a collision on the medium (collisions are much shorter in 23 . so it is faster. This is the collision avoidance feature of the RTS/CTS mechanism (also called virtual carrier sense): all nodes avoid accessing the channel after hearing the CTS even if their carrier sense indicates that the medium is free. A simple and elegant solution to this problem (proposed by Phil Kern in his MACA protocol for AX. for a node placed in between. The second advantage is that if the medium is very noisy. The hidden node problem comes from the fact that all nodes may not hear each other because the attenuation is too strong between them.necessary.

laptops. If two nodes attempt to transmit in the same slot of the contention window. usually it is not used for small packets or lightly loaded networks. so they loose only a RTS. Cell phones and palm pilots can only be connected to the internet by wireless connection. Figure18: RTS/CTS and hidden nodes in CSMA/CA Because the RTS/CTS handshaking adds a significant overhead. With that in mind.e. These radio signals are transmitted from antennas and routers and are picked up by Wi-Fi receivers such as computers and cell phones that are equipped with Wi-Fi cards. whereas in the normal scenario they would have lost a whole packet. think of the 24 . Radio waves are the keys which make Wi-Fi networking possible.time). Wireless-fidelity or Wi-Fi as most people call it allows a ubiquitous internet connection to be broadcasted through radio waves. their RTS collide and they don't receive any CTS.3 WIFI Computers. the Wi-Fi card will read the signals and thus create an internet connection between the user and the network without the use of a cord. Whenever a computer receives any of the signals within the range of a Wi-Fi network which is usually 300 – 500 feet for antennas and 100 – 150 feet for routers. 2. cell phones and palm pilots are examples of mechanisms that can grant the user internet access. Its purpose serves directly to the users looking for internet access devoid of any cords or wires. Wireless networking is possible through the technology of wireless-fidelity. Although computers and laptops are capable of having normal internet connection (i. Usually the connection speed is increases as the computer gets closer to the main source of the signal and decreases when the computer gets further away. Ethernet connection). they are also able to have internet access through wireless technology.

4 Specific Parts: 2. it is fixed to a radio frequency and broadcasted with the antenna. you may purchase a USB antenna attachment and have it externally connect to your USB port. It also gives the person insight of how wireless technology work through radio waves and how it functions. libraries and airports. Many new laptops already come with a Wi-Fi card built in and in many cases you don’t have to do anything to start Wi-Fi that is one of the best things about it and how simple it is. When you literally talk into the walkie- talkie. Research has shown that within the next 10 years. they must have Wi-Fi equipped products shown on the diagram. radio signals are the most essential and crucial components. Though there’re also free-based network connections as well in some areas. or have an antenna-equipped expansion card installed directly to the computer. A Wi-Fi card is not installed in your computer. 25 . 2. hot spots will be all over urban and suburban vicinities. You can also create your own hotspot in your home.Wi-Fi card as being an invisible cord that connects your computer to the antenna for a direct connection to the internet.1 Radio Signals When it comes to Wi-Fi technology. which makes possible to communicate with one another. It is a small box that is hardwired into the internet. The diagram represents the person with the most important information of what features you need to understand of how Wi-Fi spreads the net in a specific location. Wi-Fi networking around the world is creating hot spots in cities where anyone with a laptop can wirelessly plug into the internet. The diagram also features how Wi-Fi cards can receive these radio signals into their Wi-Fi receivers and have wireless connection to the internet. The basic concept of radio signals used in Wi-Fi networking is usually compared to that of walkie-talkies. They determine if you have internet access and what speed the connection is running on. Laptops without a built in Wi-Fi card is usually installed the external way while PCs have it installed internally. the user will be prompted with a login screen and password if it is a fee-based type network. These walkie-talkies can transmit and receive radio signals. In order for the person to gain access to the internet.4. Once a connection is established between the user and the network. hotels. A hotspot is a connection point for a Wi-Fi network. There are many Wife hotspots now available in public places like restaurants.

4GHz.4GHz. a band 5GHz. and range to replace 802.11g as its last form. an un 2.11” that defines the format and structure of radio signals sent out by Wi-Fi networking routers and antennas. Table 1: Comparisons between Different Technologies: 26 .11b. and then 802. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) has produced a set of standards and specifications for wireless networks under the title “IEEE 802. still a already crowded crowded band crowd of cordless with cordless phones and phones microwaves Acceptance Hot spots are More common in 802. which came before 802.11g Speed 11 Mbps 54 Mbps 54Mbps Range 100-150 feet 27-75 feet indoors 100-150 feet indoors indoors Frequency 2. The antenna is placed on top of a building and emits radio waves within the vicinity.11b.11b.4 GHz while those that comply with the 802. Standard 802.11g has the speed. but 802. in this case. which give a direct signal to the user the ability to have internet access.11b as the most common configuration of Wi-Fi. Each standard has advantages. The main sources of radio waves come from the antenna or router which transmits these waves to another antenna.11a form broadcasts at 5GHz. Wi-Fi radios that work with 802. Here is a chart that represents the main differences of each standard. Equipment is environments.11a. office specs for 802.11g is already established corporate and compatible with the using 802.11a 802.11b 802. The higher frequency allows faster data rates. Currently there are three forms of the 802. compatibility. Notice that people with internet devices are receiving these signals to gain access to the internet. meaning it can be readily available used on a network based on b or g versions.11g broadcasts at a frequency rate of 2. Wi-Fi cards.11b and 802.11 standard proposed by the IEEE: 802.

you can install plug-in PCI cards or a small external adapter for the USB port just like the one used for laptops. MAC OS.11b (see the chart in the radio signals section). 2.11g use much more explicit encoding techniques that contribute to the much higher data rates.2 Wi-Fi Cards In order for computers to receive these radio signals. This allows Numerous Wi-Fi cards under the same radio signal to talk concurrently with no interference with each other.11a and 802. this card will be a PCMCIA card in which you insert to the PCMCIA slot on the laptop. A network adaptor should be capable to use in any operating system such as WINDOWS. The network adapter in this case is called the Wi-Fi Card and it can take several physical forms.4. The recommended Wi-Fi card to buy is the 802. This is known as orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). it is called Complimentary Code Keying (CCK).The three radio standards in wireless networking have the ability to change frequencies. The other way is to buy an external adapter and plug it into a USB port. there are three different kinds of Wi-Fi cards that are available to purchase. The 802. 27 .11b. As for 802.11b cards can indirectly transmit radio signals onto any of the three bands or they can split the available bandwidth into many channels and does the term “frequency hop” between them. What’s helpful about frequency hopping is that it overcomes interference from other people who are using the same radio signal and changes frequency various times per second. LINUX and UNIX as long as the driver for the adapter is accessible to download or install Therefore. a network adapter must be installed on the computer. For personal computers.11g because it has the advantage of higher speeds than the 802. For laptops. The standards 802. Below are pictures of how Wi-Fi cards appear and how it fits in the MCMCIA slot on the laptop.

As mentioned earlier. cell phones and palm pilots). it can very well connect to the wireless hotspot. hot spots are connection points for Wi-Fi networks. Figure 19: Wi-Fi Cards Figure20: USB versions of WI-FI cards These three items are examples of the USB versions of the Wi-Fi cards. This is the external Wi-Fi card indicating that it is an exterior item.5 Hotspots When laptops are equipped with Wi-Fi cards. computers.e. They are often small and easy to carry around. They are simply locations where wireless internet is available for those who have internet ready instruments (i. 28 . 2. laptops.

2. The first is the 64-bit encryption and the other is the 128-bit encryption. Hackers can track down what you are looking at and can implant viruses such as worms and Trojans and can even access your data! That is why people use firewall on their connection to prevent any harm caused by hackers. anything that is larger than your home is required to use antennas rather than routers. As reliable as it sounds having internet connection without the use of cords. they have a higher signal transmission at a 300-500 feet radius. anyone with a Wi-Fi card can gain access to that hotspot. Once the internet connection has been established. 29 . That is why hotels. It is considered to be a complex encryption system that is made up of two differences. the new and improved 128- bit encryption was made. As mentioned earlier. the user must input the WEP key code. libraries. As for open connections. 2. It is much secure and is what most people use to enable WEP. wireless internet is very exposed to hackers and very insecure in most cases. If you already have more than one computer hooked together on the same network and want to have a good hotspot. So once you turn on your access point on. Think of it as a simple password. The 64-bit encryption was the original standard until it was easily bypassed. you can buy a wireless access point and plug it in to the network. There are also free-based type wireless connections available as well. etc. As for antennas. This occurs when you have attempted to use a wireless network connection that is a fee-based type. WEP stands for Wired Equivalence Privacy.7 Access Points Access points are often combined with other network functions. a log-on screen will appear for most computers and laptops. campuses. The router is an example of an access point of how multiple computers can be connected together in the same network both including the use of wires and wireless technology. radio signals can be received and transmitted by an antenna and a router. you will need Virtual Private Networking (VPN) software on both the laptop and the company’s internal servers. you will have a hotspot in your home and will have radio signal within a 100 feet radius. It is very likely that you will discover a separate access point that just plugs into a wired Local Area Network (LAN). meaning you must use your credit card and pay to be a member of that certain internet connection.6 Wi-Fi Security Some Hotspots require WEP key to connect that is the connection is considered to be private or secure. In order to securely access a company’s internal network. With the 64-bit encryption out of the way. So in order for a user to gain access to the internet under WEP.

Below are two different kinds of routers used to connect multiple computers on the same connection? Figure21: different kinds of routers The physical designs of access points various from one brand to the other. 30 . laptops and palm pilots to receive this wireless connection. Others have those normal flat looking routers like the one on the left.11g can be received or transmitted from antennas and routers.11 Wi-Fi networking. all access points consist of a radio that transmits and receive signals and data between network stations and an Ethernet port that connects to a wired network (normal connection). The standard 802.11b.11a. and 802. In order for computers. data structure. cell phones and palm pilots. Some look like devices that were intended to be placed in a standing position jut like the router on the right. Meaning a Wi-Fi card must be installed either externally or internally to the computer. Some have internal antennas and others have short vertical antennas permanently affixed to the router just like the ones shown here. through laptops. Regardless of its size and shape.11g radio signal is considered to be fastest and most reliable when it comes to quality compared to the other two standards. laptop or palm pilots. 802. and the network structure are the three essential elements that form the wireless internet standard 802.8 Function of the Working Parts The radio signal. Linksys’s wireless router have different physical forms. Here you can see one of Net Gear’s router and on the right. they must be properly equipped. which are known as access points. 2. computers. Radio signals of 802.

Think of this WEP code as a password to enter a private server on the internet. Radio waves and access points work together which makes Wi-Fi connection possible. People now use the 128- bit WEP encryption due to the lack of security found in the 64-bit encryption. They have could enter your personal computer data and implant viruses and worms into your computer. If a secure connection exists. it is very prone to hackers. Wi-Fi cards come in three different types just like how there are three different Wi-Fi standards. a Wi-Fi connection can either be open or secure. If a user is given a log on screen. The name of the term regarding the location where one can access the internet wirelessly is called a “hotspot”. which transmit and receive radio waves. when first connecting to wireless internet. That is why people are being urged use firewall as a protection from these notorious hackers. Speaking of security. the user may now access the internet without any cords used. a user must input a WEP code in order to access the internet. Although there are areas where there are free-typed base as well. There are fee-typed and free-typed based wireless connections in Wi-Fi. Once a successful connection has been made from the access point to the Wi-Fi card. 31 .11 series. Wireless connection may sound reliable at times. it is most likely going to be a fee-typed base connection. the 802. Access points that consist of antennas and routers are the main source.

CHAPTER-3 Specifications and Analysis 3. according to their specific function.g. which is used by the PHY circuitry to select the appropriate antenna and to reach steady state offset correction and synchronization with the received packet timing. RTS. PLCP HEADER: 32 .11 frames are composed by the following components Preamble: This is PHY dependent and it includes Sync: An 80 bit sequence of alternating zeros and ones. All 802. CTS and ACK) Management Frame : Which are frames that are transmitted? The same way as data frames to ] Exchange management Information. but are not forwarded to upper Layers Each of these types is as well subdivided into different subtypes.1 The following discussion will gives some important frame formats: There are three main types of frames Data Frames : Which are used for data transmission? Control Frames : Which are used to control access to the Medium (e.

For 1 Mbit/s: 0000_0000_1000_0000_0000_0000_1000_0000. Address 4 and Frame Body are only present in certain frame types. The PHY layer shall provide the transmitted value. the PHY layer currently supports two data rates defined by the patterns For 1 Mbit/s: 000 For 2 Mbit/s: 001 DCLA Field: The DCLA field is required to allow the receiver to stabilize the dc level after the SYNC. 33 . LENGTH FIELD: The length field is an unsigned 16 it integer that indicates the number of octets to be transmitted in the PSDU. The fields are Address 2. the length of the DCLA field is 32 bit and the pattern depends on speed of transmission. SFD and DR Fields. The PHY layer shall provide the transmitted value. The leftmost bit shall be transmitted first. This field has 3 bits.Data Rate Field (DR): The DR Field indicates to the PHY the data rate that shall be used for the transmission or reception of the remaining fields. address 3. For 2 Mbit/s: 0010_0010_0010_0010_0010_0010_0010_0010. CRC FIELD: In this we use 16 bit CRC with the polynomial General MAC Frame format: The MAC Frame Format comprises a set of fields that occur in a fixed order in all frames. Sequence Control.

the revision level will be incremented only when a fundamental incompatibility exists between a new revision and the prior edition of the standard. For this version it is “00”.Frame Control Field: The Frame Control Field consists of the following subfields: Protocol version: This field consists of ‘2’bits in length and is invariant in size and placement across all revisions of this standard. 34 . Type and Subtype Fields: The type field is 2 bits in length and the subtype field is 4 bits in length. The Type and Subtype fields together identify the function of the frame.

Type0 Type description subtype value Subtype description b3b2 b7 b6 b5 b4 00 management 0000 Association request 00 management 0001 Association response 00 management 0010 Re association request 00 Management 0011 Re association response 00 Management 0100 Probe request 00 Management 0101 Probe response 00 Management 0110-0111 reserved 00 management 1000 Beacon 00 management 1001 Announcement traffic indication message(ATIM) 00 Management 1010 Disassociation 00 Management 1011 Authentication 00 Management 1100 De authentication 00 Management 1101-1111 Reserved 01 Control 0000-1001 Reserved 01 Control 1010 Power save(PS)-poll 01 Control 1011 REQUEST TO SEND 01 Control 1100 Clear to send 01 Control 1101 Acknowledgement 01 Control 1110 Contention-free CF end 01 Control 1111 CF-End+ CF Ack 10 Data 0000 Data 10 Data 0001 Data + CF.ACK 10 Data 0010 Data + CF-Poll 10 Data 0011 Data+ CF-ACK+CF-Poll 10 Data 0100 Null function (no data) 10 Data 0101 CF-ACK (no data) 10 Data 0100 CF-POLL 10 Data 0111 CF-ACK+CF-POLL 10 Data 1000 reserved 11 reserved 1111 reserved Table 2: Valid type and subtype fields: 35 .

with the 2 most significant bits both are set to 1. It is set to 0 on all other frames. The ‘TODS’ field is set to 0 in all other frames. the Duration ID field carries the association identity of the station that transmitted the fame in the 14 least significant bits. the value of AID is in the range 1-2007.TO DS: The ‘TO DS’ field is 1 bit length and is set to 1 in data type frames destined for the DS. This includes all data type frames sent by STAs associated with an Access Point. This bit is used whether the frame is addressed or not. subtype authentication. And it also used for changing state either from power save to active (or) vice versa More data: This bit is also used for power management and the access point to indicate that there are more frames buffered to this station uses it. Duration ID: The Duration ID is 16 bits length. if it is set to 1 when the frame is addressed to the Access Point FROM DS: This bit is 1 bit length and is set to 1 in data type frames exiting the distribution system. Retry: This bit is 1 bit length and is set to 1 in any data or management type frame that is a retransmission of earlier frame.It is set to 1 if the frame body field contains information that has been processed by the WEP algorithm. The WEP field is set to 0 in all other frames. More fragments: This bit is set to 1.A receiving station uses this indication to aid in the process of eliminating duplicate frames. WEP: The WEP field is 1 bit length . 36 . The WEP field is only set to 1 within frames of type data and frames of type management. if more fragments belonging to the same frame following this current fragment. it is set to 0 in all other frames . The contents of this field are as follows In Control type frames of subtype power Save –poll.

If FROMDS is set this is the address of the AP. Each MSDU transmitted by a STA is assigned a sequence number. starting at 0 and incremented by 1 for each MSDU or MMPDU.If not this is the address of the End station. .So both the original source/destination addresses are missing. Address2: It is always transmitter address. the sequence number and the fragment number. The sequence number is constant in all retransmissions of an MSDU. frame is being transmitted from one AP to other AP. missing addresses on a frame FROMDS set to 1. if not it is the address of station. ( A Station which is physically transmitting the packet).e.Address field: A frame contains up to 4 addresses depending on “TODS “and “FROMDS” fields. 37 .\ Fragment number Sequence number B0 4bits B3 B4 12bits B15 The sequence number field consists of 12 bits indicating the sequence number of MSDU or MMPDU. Here TODS is set to ‘1’ and FROM DS is set to ‘1’. Address4: If wireless distribution system is used. Address1: Always receiver address (i. Sequence numbers are assigned from a single modulo 4096 counter. Address3 In most cases the remaining. the station on the BSS who is the immediate receiver of the packet) If TODS is set this is the address of the AP. Sequence control: The sequence control field is 16 bits in length and consists of two subfields. then address3 field is a original address If TODS is set to 1 then address 3 is the destination address.

The result is the Check summed frame to be transmitted. FCS FIELD: The CRC field is a 32 bit containing a 32 bit CRC. The fragment number remains constant in all retransmissions of the fragment. To calculate this CRC Peterson and Brown a simple shift register method to compute and and verify the checksums in hardware. To compute the checksum for some frame with m bits. When the receiver gets the check summed frame. G(x). The FCS is calculated using the following standard generator polynomial Of degree 32 With this CRC the sender and receiver must agree upon a generator polynomial. if there is a remainder there has been a transmission error. Fragment number field is 4 bit field indicating the number of each fragment of an MSDU or MMPDU.append r zero bits to the low order end of the frame . Corresponding to xr M(x) using modulo 2 subtractions. 38 . The algorithm for computing the checksum is as follows: 1.subtract the remainder (which is always r or fewer bits) from the bit string 3. The idea is to append a checksum to the end of the frame in such a way that the polynomial represented by the cheksummed frame is divisible by G(x). The FCS is calculated over all the fields of the MAC header and the frame body field. The fragment number is set to zero in the first or only fragment of an MSDU or MMPDU. Both the high and low order bits of the generator must be 1. corresponding to the polynomial M(x) the frame must be longer than the generator polynomial. it tries dividing it by G(x). Using modulo 2 division . Divide the bit string corresponding to G(x) into the bit string corresponding to x r M(x). These are referred as calculation fields. Let ‘r’ be the degree of G(x) . so it now contains ‘m+r’ bits and corresponds to the polynomial xr M(x). 2.

39 . 3.3. Duration time: Time required sending Data/management + one CTS + One ACK+ 3 SIFS. 3. TA: Address of STA.2 Format of individual Frame types: 3.3 Acknowledgement Frame: The RA of the ACK frame is copied form the address 2 field of the immediately previous directed data management frames.2.1 Request to Send Frame Format: RA: The RA of the RTS frame format is the address of STA on the wireless medium that is intended immediate receptionist of the next data (or) management frame.2. Duration value: Duration field of immediately previous RTS – time required to transmit CTS frame and its SIFS interval.2.2 Clear To Send Format (CTS): RA: RA is address of the “CTS” from is copied from transmitter address (TA) field of the immediately previous RTS frame to which CTS is a response.

 CRC and HEC generation for payload and header respectively. MAC layer performs the following transmit functions  Generation of various MAC frames.  Serializer the data using byte to bit converter.  MAC transmitter controller state machine implementation.3 Overview of MAC layer: MAC layer acts as an intermediate stage between Data link layer and Physical Layer. 40 .  FIFO buffer interface for transmitter. If the more fragment bit was set to 0 in the frame control field of the immediately previous directed data or management frame. the duration value is the value obtained from the duration field of the immediately previous data or management frame.  Generation of 16 bit HEC for Header and 32 bit CRC for payload data. 3. Its primary responsibility is to provide a reliable mechanism for exchanging transacting packets on the communication channel through physical layer(RF layer). minus the time in microseconds required to transmit the ACK frame and its SIFS interval. the duration value is set to 0 if the more fragment bit was set to 1 in the frame control field of the immediately previous directed data or management frame.


FIFO module and data length counter module.4 Block Diagram Explanation: The transmitter block is divided into five parts i. the data are entered at high rate but it is retrieved at slower rate. sysclk and Byteclk on their rising edge and when the FIFO is enable the input data is retrieved. These modules are discussed as shown below 3.1 FIFO Module: Sys clk Sys rst Data ln FIFO data Addr FIFO full Control empty Byt clk FIFO RDena FIFO Ena Figure23: FIFO module FIFO module is shown in above figure. the first incoming data goes out first. 42 . It contains the data to be transmitted. It acts on two clocks i. The Full and Empty signals shows the state of the FIFO.e. Here. It acts as the synchronizing tool i.e.e.3.4.

then the end of conversation that is EOC goes high. 43 .1 Serialize Module: Clk S bit Sysrst Srena Serilizer Eoc Srld data FIGURE25: serialize module Figure shows serialize module. Various data selected at the multiplexer are serially obtained .5 Data processing Block: It is divided into three modules occurs at every rising edge of the clock and when the serial enable is acts at every rising edge of the simply accepts a Max Number and counts the data being transmitted .e. it is basically the parallel input and serial out put device.when the number of data is equal to the Max Number then the data count over signal is turned high . 3. The output bit is designated as S bit .2 Data length counter module: Byt clk Sysrst Dtalencnt Dtacntover Dtaena Max no Figure24: Data length counter module Data length counter module acts as counter . HEC and CRC and they are discussed in details as shown below 3. Serializer.3.4.when all the out put bits are over.5.

3.5. the HEC is calculated when the HRC CalEna is high and when the Tx Ena is high then the HEC data is transmitted along with PLCP Header Bits. 3.3 CRC module: Clk Sysclk CRC out Sysrst CRC CRCOver Txena Sbit CRCCalEna Figure27: CRC module 44 .this module produces the Head Error Check bits.2 HEC Module: Clk Bytclk Sysrst HECOut HEC TxEna SBit HECover HECCalEna Figure26: HEC module Figure shows HEC Module .5. It is the 16-bit error check bit.

then the CRC is calculated.1 THE HIGH-LEVEL DESCRIPTION The designer would first understand the architectural description. The he would consider design constraints such as timing. The designer would partition the design into high – level blocks. area.6. Figure shows CRC module the CRC is 32bit field contain the 32 bit cyclic Redundancy check. and power. This module helps in error free transmission of the data with proper reliability. then the CRC data is given out and when the CRC ClEna is high. testability. 3. When the TxEna signal is high.6 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM 3. CRCOver is high when the transmission of the data is over.level blocks Design Constraints Designer’s mind Gate-level Standard cell representation library (technology dependent) Meets no design constraints yes Optimized Gate level Representation Figure28: Data flow diagram 45 . Architectural description Partitioning into high.

3 Design flow of xilinx ise 9.2i 46 .1d : For VHDL Simulation XILINX ISE 9.6.2 How tools behave Tools Used Operating system : Windows XP MODEL SIM 6.3.2 i: Figure29: design flow of Xilinx ise 9.2i : Project Implementation Spartan-3 : FPGA for hardware realization 3.6.

CHAPTER-4 SIMULATION RESULTS 4.1 Data length counter Byt clk Sysrst Dtacntover Dtalencnt Dtaena Max no 47 .

48 . whenever Txen is high the data will be converted serially from parallel form.4. and here this was used as byte to bit converter.2 Parallel to serial converter This module is used for converting Parallel Data in to serially to get Speed Synchronization. in this module I have taken four inputs named as bitclk to make synchronization.

3 Cyclic Redundancy Checker Module 49 .4.

4.4 TOPMODULE 50 .

2i .00 / 2.23 Copyright (c) 1995-2003 Xilinx.00 s --> Reading design: wifi.00 s --> Parameter xsthdpdir set to .67 s | Elapsed : 0.00 / 1./xst CPU : 0.4.5 Data Frame 4. --> Parameter TMPDIR set to __projnav CPU : 0.00 / 1.6 Synthesis Results for Top Module : Release 8. Inc.xst G.00 / 2.prj TABLE OF CONTENTS 1) Synthesis Options Summary 51 . All rights reserved.67 s | Elapsed : 0.

1) HDL Synthesis Report 5) Advanced HDL Synthesis 6) Low Level Synthesis 7) Final Report 7.1) Device utilization summary 7.xcf Ignore Synthesis Constraint File : NO Verilog Include Directory : ---.LSO file is empty. default list of libraries is used 52 .2) TIMING REPORT ================================================================== ======= * Synthesis Options Summary * ================================================================== ======= ---.Target Parameters Output File Name : wifi Output Format : NGC Target Device : xc3s50-4-pq208 ================================================================== ======= WARNING:Xst:1885 .Source Parameters Input File Name : wifi. 2) HDL Compilation 3) HDL Analysis 4) HDL Synthesis 4.prj Input Format : mixed Synthesis Constraint File : C:\Xilinx\ISEexamples\template.

inferred 73 D-type flip-flop(s). Summary: inferred 1 Counter(s). inferred 1 Comparator(s). Found 3-bit up counter for signal <Cnt>. Found 4-bit register for signal <cnt>. Found 8-bit 8-to-1 multiplexer for signal <$n0002> created at line 57. Synthesizing Unit <PLCPHeaderReg>.v. inferred 8 Multiplexer(s). Found 4-bit comparator less for signal <$n0007> created at line 46. Found 8-bit register for signal <PLCPHeaderReg>. Unit <PLCPHeaderReg> synthesized. Found 8-bit register for signal <SyncByte>.================================================================== ======= * HDL Synthesis * ================================================================== ======= Synthesizing Unit <SyncGen>.v. Summary: inferred 13 D-type flip-flop(s). Found 1-bit register for signal <PLCPHeaderOver>. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/PLCPHeader. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/SyncGen. Found 64-bit register for signal <Register1>. Found 1-bit register for signal <SyncOver>. Found 4-bit adder for signal <$n0013> created at line 48. inferred 1 Adder/Subtracter(s). 53 . Unit <SyncGen> synthesized.

Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/FrameCntrl.v. Unit <SeqCntrl> synthesized. Found 1-bit register for signal <FrameCntrlOver>.v. Found 3-bit register for signal <Cnt>. Found 1-bit register for signal <SeqCntrlOver>. Found 3-bit register for signal <Cnt>.Synthesizing Unit <FrameCntrl>. Synthesizing Unit <DID>. Found 8-bit register for signal <FrameCntrlReg>. Summary: inferred 28 D-type flip-flop(s). 54 . Unit <DID> synthesized. Found 6-bit register for signal <FrameType>. Found 1-bit register for signal <DurIDOver>. Using one-hot encoding for signal <Cnt>. Found 3-bit register for signal <Cnt>. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/SeqCntrl. Found 16-bit register for signal <Register1>. Found 16-bit register for signal <Register1>. Found 16-bit register for signal <Register1>. Found 8-bit register for signal <SeqCntrlReg>. Summary: inferred 34 D-type flip-flop(s). Using one-hot encoding for signal <Cnt>. Using one-hot encoding for signal <Cnt>. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/DurID. Found 8-bit register for signal <DurIDReg>. Unit <FrameCntrl> synthesized. Summary: inferred 28 D-type flip-flop(s).v. Synthesizing Unit <SeqCntrl>.

Signal <Temp<7:0>> is never used or assigned.v. Tied to value 000000000000000000000000.Synthesizing Unit <AddrReg4>. Found finite state machine <FSM_0> for signal <i>.v. Unit <AddrReg1> synthesized. WARNING:Xst:647 . Found 7-bit register for signal <Cnt>. Found 7-bit register for signal <Cnt>.v.State 0100 is never reached in FSM <i>. Found 48-bit register for signal <Register1>. Found 1-bit register for signal <AddrOver1>. INFO:Xst:1799 . Synthesizing Unit <AddrReg1>. WARNING:Xst:1780 . Synthesizing Unit <DWtoByte>. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- | States |3 | 55 . Unit <AddrReg4> synthesized. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/AddrReg1. Using one-hot encoding for signal <Cnt>. WARNING:Xst:653 .Input <DW<31:8>> is never used. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/AddrReg4. Found 48-bit register for signal <Register4>. Summary: inferred 64 D-type flip-flop(s). Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/DWtoByte. Found 8-bit register for signal <AddrReg1>. Using one-hot encoding for signal <Cnt>. Found 8-bit register for signal <AddrReg4>. Found 1-bit register for signal <AddrOver4>.Signal <Temp<31:8>> is used but never assigned. Summary: inferred 64 D-type flip-flop(s).

Unit <DWtoByte> synthesized.v Found finite state machine <FSM_1> for signal <ps>. Synthesizing Unit <StateMachine>. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- | States | 13 | | Transitions | 32 | | Inputs | 16 | | Outputs | 13 | | Clock | ByteClk (falling_edge) | | Reset | Rst (negative) | | Reset type | asynchronous | | Reset State | idle | | Power Up State | idle | | Encoding | automatic | | Implementation | LUT | 56 . | Transitions |3 | | Inputs |0 | | Outputs |3 | | Clock | Byte Clk (rising edge) | | Clock enable | Enable (positive) | | Reset | Rst (negative) | | Reset type | asynchronous | | Reset State | 0001 | | Encoding | automatic | | Implementation | LUT | ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Found 1-bit register for signal <Eoc>. Found 8-bit register for signal <Byte>. Summary: inferred 1 Finite State Machine(s). Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/StateMachine. inferred 9 D-type flip-flop(s).

Unit <DataMux> synthesized. Synthesizing Unit <DataMux>.v. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- | States |8 | | Transitions |8 | | Inputs |0 | | Outputs |8 | | Clock | BitClk (rising_edge) | | Clock enable | SerialEna (positive) | | Reset | Rst (negative) | | Reset type | asynchronous | | Reset State | 00000001 | | Encoding | automatic | | Implementation | LUT | ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Found 1-bit register for signal <ByteClk>. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Summary: inferred 1 Finite State Machine(s). Summary: 57 . Synthesizing Unit <Serializer>. Summary: inferred 8 Multiplexer(s). Found 8 1-bit 2-to-1 multiplexers.Found 8-bit latch for signal <OutputByte>.v. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/Serializer. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/DataMux. Found finite state machine <FSM_2> for signal <i>. WARNING:Xst:737 . Found 1-bit register for signal <SOut>. Unit <StateMachine> synthesized.

Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w2>. Found 12-bit register for signal <Count>. Found 1-bit register for signal <Crc16Out>. Found 1-bit register for signal <HecOver>. Unit <Serializer> synthesized. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w3>. inferred 1 Adder/Subtracter(s). Found 32-bit register for signal <cnt>. Unit <DataLenCountet> synthesized. Found 1-bit 16-to-1 multiplexer for signal <$n0004> created at line 69. Found 32-bit comparator less for signal <$n0010> created at line 68. 58 . Found 32-bit adder for signal <$n0011> created at line 71. Synthesizing Unit <DataLenCountet>. Found 32-bit comparator greatequal for signal <$n0012> created at line 68. Found 12-bit comparator equal for signal <$n0006> created at line 36. Found 1-bit register for signal <DCntOver>. Summary: inferred 50 D-type flip-flop(s). Found 12-bit adder for signal <$n0009> created at line 40. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/crc16bit. Found 16-bit register for signal <Reg>. Synthesizing Unit <crc16bit>. inferred 2 D-type flip-flop(s). inferred 1 Finite State Machine(s).v. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w1>. inferred 1 Adder/Subtracter(s). Summary: inferred 13 D-type flip-flop(s).v. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/DataLenCountet. inferred 1 Comparator(s).

Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w5>. Found 32-bit register for signal <cnt>. inferred 1 Adder/Subtracter(s). Found 32-bit register for signal <Reg>. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w13>. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/crc32bit. inferred 1 Multiplexer(s). Found 32-bit adder for signal <$n0011> created at line 99. Summary: inferred 66 D-type flip-flop(s).v. inferred 2 Comparator(s). Found 32-bit comparator less for signal <$n0010> created at line 96. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w8>. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w7>. Found 1-bit 32-to-1 multiplexer for signal <$n0004> created at line 98. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w4>. inferred 1 Multiplexer(s). Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w2>. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w11>. Unit <crc16bit> synthesized. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w9>. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w10>. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w3>. Found 32-bit comparator greatequal for signal <$n0012> created at line 96. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w1>. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w12>. Found 1-bit register for signal <CrcOver>. Synthesizing Unit <crc32bit>. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w6>. Found 1-bit xor2 for signal <w14>. Found 1-bit register for signal <Crc32Out>. 59 . inferred 2 Comparator(s).

Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/wifi. Summary: inferred 1 Tristate(s). Unit <SMux> synthesized. ================================================================== ======= HDL Synthesis Report Macro Statistics # FSMs :3 # Registers : 95 8-bit register : 10 3-bit register :3 48-bit register :4 7-bit register :4 1-bit register : 65 12-bit register :1 32-bit register :2 4-bit register :1 64-bit register :1 16-bit register :3 6-bit register :1 60 . Unit <wifi> synthesized. Found 1-bit tristate buffer for signal <TxD>.v.v.Unit <crc32bit> synthesized. Synthesizing Unit <SMux>. Related source file is C:/Xilinx/bin/Wifi/SMux. Synthesizing Unit <wifi>.

# Latches :1 8-bit latch :1 # Counters :1 3-bit up counter :1 # Multiplexers :4 1-bit 16-to-1 multiplexer :1 2-to-1 multiplexer :1 1-bit 32-to-1 multiplexer :1 8-bit 8-to-1 multiplexer :1 # Tristates :1 1-bit tristate buffer :1 # Adders/Subtractors :4 4-bit adder :1 12-bit adder :1 32-bit adder :2 # Comparators :6 4-bit comparator less :1 12-bit comparator equal :1 32-bit comparator less :2 32-bit comparator greatequal :2 # Xors : 17 1-bit xor2 : 17 ================================================================== ======= * Low Level Synthesis * 61 .

.nph' in environment C:/Xilinx...... Optimizing unit <DWtoByte> . Optimizing unit <Serializer> .. Optimizing unit <crc32bit> ..... Optimizing unit <DID> ... Optimizing unit <DataMux> .. Optimizing unit <crc16bit> ...... Optimizing unit <DataLenCountet> . Optimizing unit <PLCPHeaderReg> .. 62 . Optimizing unit <AddrReg1> .... Optimizing unit <AddrReg4> . Optimizing unit <SyncGen> ... Loading device for application Xst from file '3s50.. Optimizing unit <StateMachine> . Optimizing unit <SeqCntrl> ... Optimizing unit <FrameCntrl> ..================================================================== ======= Optimizing unit <wifi> ..

================================================================== ======= * Final Report * ================================================================== ======= Final Results RTL Top Level Output File Name : wifi. Building and optimizing final netlist . actual ratio is 27.ngr Top Level Output File Name : wifi Output Format : NGC Optimization Goal : Area Keep Hierarchy : NO Design Statistics # IOs : 358 Macro Statistics : # Registers : 96 # 1-bit register : 65 # 12-bit register :1 # 16-bit register :3 # 3-bit register :4 # 32-bit register :2 # 4-bit register :1 # 48-bit register :4 # 6-bit register :1 # 64-bit register :1 # 7-bit register :4 # 8-bit register : 10 63 .xcf' XCF parsing done..Mapping all equations. Found area constraint ratio of 100 (+ 5) on block wifi.... Annotating constraints using XCF file 'C:\Xilinx\ISEexamples\template.

# Multiplexers :4 # 1-bit 16-to-1 multiplexer: 1 # 1-bit 32-to-1 multiplexer: 1 # 2-to-1 multiplexer :1 # 8-bit 8-to-1 multiplexer : 1 # Tristates :1 # 1-bit tristate buffer :1 # Adders/Subtractors :3 # 12-bit adder :1 # 32-bit adder :2 # Comparators :6 # 12-bit comparator equal : 1 # 32-bit comparator greatequal: 2 # 32-bit comparator less :2 # 4-bit comparator less :1 Cell Usage : # BELS : 569 # GND :1 # LUT1 : 91 # LUT2 : 91 # LUT3 : 72 # LUT4 : 86 # MUXCY : 131 # MUXF5 : 13 # MUXF6 :6 # MUXF7 :3 # MUXF8 :1 # VCC :1 # XORCY : 73 # FlipFlops/Latches : 217 # FDC : 18 # FDC_1 : 12 # FDCE : 29 64 .

# FDCE_1 : 64 # FDE : 40 # FDE_1 :4 # FDP_1 :1 # FDPE :1 # FDPE_1 : 48 # Clock Buffers :2 # BUFGP :2 # IO Buffers : 22 # IBUF : 21 # OBUFT :1 ================================================================== ======= Device utilization summary: --------------------------- Selected Device : 3s50pq208-4 Number of Slices: 208 out of 768 27% Number of Slice Flip Flops: 217 out of 1536 14% Number of 4 input LUTs: 340 out of 1536 22% Number of bonded IOBs: 22 out of 124 17% Number of GCLKs: 2 out of 8 25% ================================================================== ======= TIMING REPORT NOTE: THESE TIMING NUMBERS ARE ONLY A SYNTHESIS ESTIMATE. 65 . FOR ACCURATE TIMING INFORMATION PLEASE REFER TO THE TRACE REPORT GENERATED AFTER PLACE-and-ROUTE.

515ns Maximum combinational path delay: No path found CPU : 40.00 s Total memory usage is 84948 kilobytes 66 .416ns (Maximum Frequency: 74.891ns Maximum output required time after clock: 10.51 s | Elapsed : 40.30 / 42.00 / 42.538MHz) Minimum input arrival time before clock: 5.Clock Information: ------------------ -----------------------------------+------------------------+-------+ Clock Signal | Clock buffer(FF name) | Load | -----------------------------------+------------------------+-------+ stop_ByteClk:Q | NONE | 85 | BitClk | BUFGP | 126 | SystemClk | BUFGP |6 | -----------------------------------+------------------------+-------+ Timing Summary: --------------- Speed Grade: -4 Minimum period: 13.

7 RTL Schematic view 67 .4.

4.8 Internal view: Placement and routing Constraints file: wifi.pcf 68 .

Loading device database for application Par from file "wifi_map.3 Phase 3.1 (Checksum:989c8b) REAL time: 3 secs Phase 3.5 (Checksum:26259fc) REAL time: 3 secs 69 .1 Phase 1. Device utilization summary: Number of External IOBs 24 out of 124 19% Number of LOCed External IOBs 0 out of 24 0% Number of SLICELs 209 out of 768 27% Number of SLICEMs 6 out of 384 1% Number of BUFGMUXs 2 out of 8 25% Overall effort level (-ol): Standard (set by user) Placer effort level (-pl): Standard (set by user) Placer cost table entry (-t): 1 Router effort level (-rl): Standard (set by user) Phase 1.ncd".5 Phase 4. package pq208. version 2. speed -4 Loading device for application Par from file '3s50.26 2003-06-19.nph' in environment C:/Xilinx.3 (Checksum:1c9c37d) REAL time: 3 secs Phase 4. "wifi" is an NCD.38. Device speed data version: PREVIEW 1. device xc3s50.

... Total REAL time to PAR completion: 6 secs Total CPU time to PAR completion: 4 secs Peak Memory Usage: 52 MB 70 ..18 (Checksum:42c1d79) REAL time: 4 secs Writing design to file wifi.8 (Checksum:9ba27a) REAL time: 3 secs Phase 6.5 Phase 6. REAL time: 5 secs Phase 3: 373 unrouted......5 (Checksum:39386fa) REAL time: 3 secs Phase 7. REAL time: 5 secs Phase 4: 0 unrouted...8 ....ncd..18 Phase 7.Phase 5. REAL time: 5 secs Total REAL time to Router completion: 5 secs Total CPU time to Router completion: 3 secs All signals are completely routed. Phase 5. Total REAL time to Placer completion: 4 secs Total CPU time to Placer completion: 2 secs Phase 1: 1353 unrouted. REAL time: 4 secs Phase 2: 1215 unrouted....

2i Map G. Writing design to file wifi.23 Xilinx Mapping Report File for Design 'wifi' Design Information ------------------ Command Line : C:/Xilinx/bin/nt/map.No errors found.ngd wifi.ncd wifi.No errors found.$Revision: 1.16 $ Mapped Date : Tue May 28 03:29:25 2008 Design Summary -------------- Number of errors: 0 Number of warnings: 0 Logic Utilization: Number of Slice Flip Flops: 211 out of 1.536 22% Number used as logic: 264 Number used as a route-thru: 74 Number of bonded IOBs: 24 out of 124 19% IOB Flip Flops: 6 71 .536 17% Logic Distribution: Number of occupied Slices: 215 out of 768 27% Number of Slices containing only related logic: 215 out of 215 100% Number of Slices containing unrelated logic: 0 out of 215 0% *See NOTES below for an explanation of the effects of unrelated logic Total Number 4 input LUTs: 338 out of 1. Routing: Completed .exe -intstyle ise -p xc3s50-pq208-4 -cm area -pr b -k 4 -c 100 -tx off -o wifi_map. Mapping report Release 8.Placement: Completed . PAR done.536 13% Number of 4 input LUTs: 264 out of 1.pcf Target Device : x3s50 Target Package : pq208 Target Speed : -4 Mapper Version : spartan3 -.ncd.

but where competing cable systems run at very high speeds. PDA. Members of a network no longer rely on a central routing hub to distribute data . As wi-fi is limited to wlan. which are private. by providing plastic money.010 CHAPTER -5 The Future of Wi-Fi 5. homes. WiFi achieves greater than 10MBit/Sec throughput for a 72 . Each connected cell phone. One of the most highly anticipated technologies. or laptop pitches in a little routing power. The advantages include cheaper service and wider coverage areas. we can expect complete wireless network in coming years. Military applications and WiFi hot spots. This will likely make integration of Wi-Fi with mobile phones even more attractive as they can increase usability. WiFi is designed for local area networks.instead.The extension of wan and man can be possible by combination of 802.Number of GCLKs: 2 out of 8 25% Total equivalent gate count for design: 4. in any of the low-end motels that offer "free" Wi-Fi. forming a spontaneous. Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity (802. Devices which can cross network standards seamlessly will become available soon. local (short range). creating an ad hoc network. The devices are fairly simple and similar.11 family of standards) for LAN. and as part of the 4G standard.11 create a complete wireless solution for delivering high speed Internet access to businesses.16a and this global communication is possible. the information hops from one user's gadget to another until it gets where it's going. but expect greater integration of Wi-Fi with many other devices as chipset prices fall and battery technology improves. temporary wireless cooperative.16.wecan eliminate black money.11 &802. mesh networking turns nearly any wireless device into a router.1 Future enhancement: Wi-Fi hotspots can be found almost anywhere. Plus. The combination of 802. proponents claim mesh can send data at speeds above 6 Mbps .about 15 times faster than DSL.

5. Currently WiFi carries more user data than any other wireless technology.2 Advantages:  Mobility  Ease of Installation  Flexibility  Cost  Reliability  Security  Use unlicensed part of the radio spectrum  Roaming  Speed 5.11 (Wi-Fi) umbrella have leapfrogged towards cellular and other efforts edging towards broad band wireless (such as 802.user in many circumstances.3 limitations:  Interference  Degradation in performance  High power consumption  Limited range 73 . Evolution is to go further. faster and at lower power consumption(2). Upstart wireless LAN (WLAN) technologies under the 802. Infact.16/WiMAX) and have led to the first wide spread. Wi-Fi is runaway success around the globe(5). commercially successful broadband wireless access technology.

11x or WiFi wireless LAN technology has been used in BWA applications along with a host of proprietary based solutions. CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION: Satisfying the growing demand for BWA in underserved markets has been a continuing challenge for service providers. In reviewing the standard.16a and 802. and envision the combination of 802. The complex and fully developed standard would be required to address both the physical layer environment (outdoor versus indoor RF transmissions) and the Quality of Service (QoS) needs demanded by the BWA and last mile access market.11 creating a complete wireless solution for delivering high speed Internet access to businesses.11 efforts for Wireless LAN. and WiFi hot spots. the distributed WiMAX and wi-fi network architecture can be significantly lighter and easier to install than traditional cellular based network designs and can substantially reduce capital and operational expenses. homes. the wildly successful 802. operators will be able to deploy at greater speed and with reduced spend. and fiber.16 standards development and the IEEE 802. it was evident that the overall design and feature set available was not well suited for outdoor BWA applications. By leveraging standard IP network equipment. Many WiMAX company members are active in both the IEEE 802. When the WLAN technology was examined closely. It could be done. due to the absence of a truly global standard. A standard that would enable companies to build systems that will effectively reach underserved business and residential markets in a manner that supports infrastructure build outs comparable to cable. 74 .DSL.but with limited capacity in terms of bandwidth and subscribers. the technical details and features that differentiate . For years. range and a host of other issues made it clear this approach while a great fit for indoor WLAN was a poor fit for outdoor BWA. it is being done.

6. automatic teller machine ATDM-. first in first out 75 . Direct sequence spread spectrum FDM-. destination address DS-. contention free DA -. burned in addressing BWA--broad band wireless access CRC-.Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance CSMA/CD-. collision detection CTS-.Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection CD-. data link layer DSL-. cyclic redundancy code CSMA/CA-. Digital subscriber line DSSS -. acknowledgment AP -. Asynchronous time division multiplexing\ BSS-.1 ACRONYMS: ACK-. Frequency division multiplex FIFO-. clear to send CF -. distribution system DLL-. bridge protocol data unit BIA-. basic service set BS -. access point ATIM-. announcement traffic indication message ATM-. Base station BPDU-.

PLCP SDU PS -. Hexa decimal IEEE -.HEC-. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing OFDMA -. Open System Interconnection OFDM -. MAC service data unit NLOS-. Internet Protocol IOB-. Point-to-point P2MP -. transmit enable 76 . physical layer convergence protocol PLCP_PDU-. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IP-. Non line of sight OSI-. Point-to-multi-point PHY -. medium access control MSDU -. request to send RX-. System network architecture SSAP -. power save (mode) QOS -. source address SFD-. start frame delimiter SNA-. source service access point SAP-. read only memory SA -. Local area network LUT-. look up table MAN -. logical link control LAN-.physical layer convergence protocol and protocol data unit PSDU-. receiver address RTS-. Quality of service RF -. Radio frequency RA -. Input output block LLC-. Metropolitan area network MAC-. Physical layer PLCP -. service access point TXE-. random acess memory ROM-. receive or receiver RAM-. Orthogonal frequency division-multiple access P2P -.

Wireless wide area networks WMAN -. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access WEP -. transmitter address VOIP -. Third Generation Partnership Project 77 . wired equivalent privacy WWAN -.TA-. Wireless fidelity. Wireless Internet service provider 3GPP -. Voice over Internet Protocol WI-FI-. WIMAX -. when referring to any type of 802. Wireless metropolitan area network WISPS-.11 network.

com 7) 8) 9) 6) 78 . CHAPTER 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Computer networks ……………………… Andrews Tenanunbaum 2) Data communications……………………… Forouzan 3) VHDL …………………………… ………Nawabi 4) Digital Signal Processing ………………… SKMitra 5) www.

Design Specification Behavioral Description RTL description (VHDL) APPENDIX 1 VLSI Design Flow: Functional Verifying &testing Logic Synthesis Gate level Logic Verification& testing Flour Planning Automatic Planning & Routing 79 Physical Layout .

The specifications specify the expected function and behavior of the design using textual description and graphic element. 2. 4. Design Specification: The first step in high level design flow is the design specification process. This process involves specifying the behavior expected of the final design. Functional Verifying & Testing: 80 . A standard VHDL simulator can be used to read the RTL description and verify the correctness of the design. the RTL description can be written in Gate level. RTL Description (VHDL): Once the algorithm is scrutinized. 3. the code is written keeping in mind the functionality & its ability to be synchronized. FIGURE: Design flow of VLSI 1. Data flow or behavioral levels. Behavioral Description: Behavioral description is created to analyze the functionality and algorithm and then framed and its performance and compliance to standard is verified.

Logic Verification &Testing: The VHDL synthesis tool report syntax & synthesis errors. 9. Logic Synthesis: Once the code is validated to implement the design process VHDL synthesis tool are used. Logic synthesis tool convert the given RTL code in to Optimized Gate level net list. Automatic Placing and Routing: Place and route tools are used to take the design net list and implement the design to the target technology device. and then executes the compiled format using test vectors. This may be file of input (or) the file output stimulus design using waveform editor the respective output waveform are to be observed to test the functionality of the design. 7. VHDL is a language for 81 . Like the name implies. where VHSIC stands for Very High Speed Integrated Circuit. Gate level: A gate level net list is the description of the design (circuit) in terms of the Gates and connections between them. If it is error free the next step is to map the design. Physical Layout: In this each component or primitive from the net list are placed on the target device according to the design or architecture. Gate level is an input to automatic place and route tool. The goal of the VHDL synthesis step is to create a design that implements the required functionality and constraints provided. If it founds mismatches between RTL Simulation results & output net list simulation results. APPENDIX-2 INTRODUCTION TO VHDL 1. It gives errors & warnings. The VHDL simulator reads VHDL description compiles it in to an internal format. VHDL DESCRIPTION: VHDL stands for VHSIC Hardware Description Language. After analyzing the results of the simulation stimulus for the design has to be added. after compilation if any syntax errors are there they has to be removed and recompiled. 6. 8. 5. Flour Planning.

describing the behavior of digital hardware. VHDL is just another way of describing what
outputs of a digital circuit are desired when it is given certain inputs. The critical difference
between VHDL and these other languages are that it can be readily interpreted by software,
enabling the computer to accomplish your design work for you.
As the size and complexity of digital systems increase, more computers aided design
tools are introduced into the hardware design process. The early paper-and-pencil design
methods have given way to sophisticated design entry, verification, and automatic hardware
generation tools. The newest addition to this design methodology is the hardware description
languages (HDL). Although the concept of HLDs is not new, their widespread use in digital
system design is no more than a decade old. Based on HDLs, new digital system CAD tools
have been developed and are now being utilized by hardware designers.

2. VHDL History:
In 1980 the US government developed the Very High Speed Integrated Circuit
(VHSIC) project to enhance the electronic design process, technology, and procurement,
spawning development of many advanced integrated circuit (IC) process technologies. This
was followed by the arrival of VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL).

3. Use OF VHDL
There are many reasons why it makes good design sense to use VHDL:
i Portability:
Technology changes so quickly in the digital industry that discrete digital devices
require constant rework in order to remain current. VHDL is designed to be device-
independent, meaning that if you describe your circuit in VHDL, as opposed to designing it
with discrete devices, changing hardware becomes a (relatively) trivial process.
ii Flexibility:


Most working engineers can recall a situation where they felt frustrated with their
customer, supervisor, or team members because the design specification that they were
working with was constantly changing. Sometimes these changes can't be helped. Design
work is usually focused on creating small, easily maintainable components and then
integrating these components into a larger device. On larger projects different teams of
engineers will each design separate parts of the project at the same time. This can mean that if
one component in the project changes, all of the components must change, even those being
worked on by other engineering teams. Suppose you were told to design a simple counter that
set an output bit after it had counted to 100. However, the software engineer working on this
project discovered that the entire design could be radically simplified if your counter could
count down from 300 instead of up to 100. If you had implemented your design in discrete
circuits, you'd have to start over from scratch. But, if you'd designed using VHDL, all you'd
have to do is change your code.

VHDL Features:
General features:
VHDL can be used for design documentation, high level design, simulation,
synthesis, and testing of hardware and as a driver for a physical design tool.
In VHDL the transfer statements, descriptions of components, and instantiations of
gates or logical units can all be executed such that in the end they appear to have been executed

Support for design hierarchy:
In VHDL the operation of a system can be specified based on its functionality, or it
can be specified structurally in terms of its smaller subcomponents.
Library support:
User and system defined primitives and descriptions reside in the library system.
VHDL provides a mechanism for accessing various libraries. Moreover different designers can
access these libraries.
Sequential statement:


VHDL provides mechanism for executing sequential statements. These statements
provide an easy method. For modeling hardware components based on their functionality.
Type declaration and usage:
VHDL is not limited to just bit or Boolean types, but it also supports integer, floating-
point, enumerated types and user-defined types. In addition, VHDL also allows array-type
declarations and composite-type definitions.
Use of subprograms:
VHDL allows the use of functions and procedures which can be used in type
conversions, logic unit definitions, operator redefinitions, new operation definitions, and other
Timing control:
VHDL allows the designer to schedule values to signals and delay the actual
assignment of values until a later time. It also allows the use of any number of explicitly defined
clock signals. It provides features for edge detection, delay specification, setup and hold time
specification, pulse width checking, and setting various time constraints.
Structural specification:
VHDL allows the designer to describe a generic 1-bit design and use it when
describing multi bit regular structures in one or more dimensions.

Advantages of VHDL:
VHDL offers the following advantages for digital design:

VHDL is an EKE standard. Just like any standard (such as graphics X- window
standard, bus communication interface standard, high-level programming languages, and so on),
it reduces confusion and makes interfaces between tools, companies, and products easier. Any
development to the standard would have better chances of lasting longer and have less chance of
becoming obsolete due to incompatibility with others.


Government support:
VHDL is a result of the VHSIC program; hence, it is clear that the US government
supports the VHDL standard for electronic procurement. The Department of Defense (DOD)
requires contractors to supply VHDL for all Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)
Industry support:
With the advent of more powerful and efficient VHDL tools has come the growing
support of the electronic industry. Companies use VHDL tools not only with regard to defense
contracts, but also for their commercial designs.
The same VHDL code can be simulated and used in many design tools and at different
stages of the design process. This reduces dependency on a set of design tools whose limited
capability may not be competitive in later markets. The VHDL standard also transforms design
data much easier than a design database of a proprietary design tool.
Modeling capability:
VHDL was developed to model all levels of designs, from electronic boxes to
transistors. VHDL can accommodate behavioral constructs and mathematical routines that
describe complex models, such as queuing networks and analog circuits. It allows use of
multiple architectures and associates with the same design during various stages of the design
process. VHDL can describe low-level transistors up to very large systems.
Certain common designs can be described, verified, and modified slightly in VHDL
for future use.
This eliminates reading and marking changes to schematic pages, which is time
consuming and subject to error. For example, a parameterized multiplier VHDL code can be
reused easily by changing the width parameter so that the same VHDL code can do either 16 by
16 or 12 by 8 multiplications.
Technology and foundry independence:
The functionality and behavior of the design can be described with VHDL and
verified, making it foundry and technology independent. This frees the designer to proceed
without having to wait for the foundry and technology to be selected.



After the VHDL code is translated into an internal form. resulting in optimizing timing and/or chip size. translating it into a form (Boolean equations and synthesis tool specific). The combining of comments and the code that actually dictates what the design should do reduces the ambiguity between specification and implementation. For example. is a process of translation and optimization. and then optimizing in terms of propagation delay and/or area. It amounts to a revolution comparable to that introduced by the automatic semi-custom layout synthesis tools of the last few years. shortens the design cycle. . New design methodology: Using VHDL and synthesis creates a new methodology that increases the design productivity. power. on the other hand. and lowers costs. 86 . Synthesis. in the domain of digital design. Logic synthesis. the optimization process can be performed based on constraints such as speed. layout synthesis is a process of taking a design netlist and translating it into a form of data that facilitates placement and routing. is the process of taking a form of input (VHDL). area.

87 .

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