(a) Cash: The central bank may expand or contract cash in commercial banks by purchasing or selling government
securities. Moreover, the credit creation capacity depends on the rate of increase or decrease in CRR by the central

(b) CRR: Refers to reserve ratio of cash that need to be kept with the central bank by commercial banks. The main
purpose of keeping this reserve is to fulfill the transactions needs of depositors and to ensure safety and liquidity
of commercial banks. In case the ratio falls, the credit creation would be more and vice versa.

(c) Leakages: Imply the outflow of cash. The credit creation process may suffer from leakages of cash. The different
types of leakages are discussed as follows:

(i) Reserves: Takes place generally when the economy is moving towards recession. In such a case, banks may
decide to maintain reserves instead of utilizing funds for lending. Therefore, in such situations, credit created by
commercial banks would be small as a large amount of cash is resented.

(ii) Currency Drains: Imply that the public does not deposit all the cash with it. The customers may hold the cash
with them which affects the credit creation by banks. Thus, the capacity of banks to create credit reduces.

(d) Availability of Borrowers: Affects the credit banks. The credit is created by lending money in form of loans to
the borrowers. There will be no credit creation if there are no borrowers.

(e) Availability of Securities: Refers to securities against which banks grant loan. Thus, availability of securities is
necessary for granting loan otherwise credit creation will not occur.

(f) Business Conditions: Imply that credit creation is influenced by cyclical nature of an economy. For example,
credit creation would be small when the economy enters into the depression phase. This is because in depression
phase, businessmen do not prefer to invest in new projects. In the other hand, in prosperity phase, businessmen
approach banks for loans, which lead to credit creation.