BGA – TOURING LECTURE – NOVEMBRE 2010

ISSMGE

Concept and Parameters related
to ground improvement
illustrated by Case Histories

by

Serge VARAKSIN
Chairman T.C. Ground Improvement (TC 211)

1

State of the Art Report

17TH International Conference on
Soil Mechanics & Geotechnical Engineering

State of the Art Report
Construction Processes
Procédés de Construction
Jian Chu
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Serge Varaksin
Menard, France

Ulrich Klotz
Zublin International GmbH, Germany

Patrick Mengé
Dredging International n.v., DEME, Belgium

Alexandria, Egypt
5-9 October 2009

NOTA : TC 17 meeting ground improvement – 07/10/2009
Website : www.bbri.be/go/tc17

BGA Touring lectures 2010

Category Method Principle
A1. Dynamic compaction Densification of granular soil by dropping a heavy weight from air onto ground.
A. Ground
A2. Vibrocompaction Densification of granular soil using a vibratory probe inserted into ground.
improvement
A3. Explosive compaction Shock waves and vibrations are generated by blasting to cause granular soil ground
without
to settle through liquefaction or compaction.
admixtures in
non-cohesive A4. Electric pulse compaction Densification of granular soil using the shock waves and energy generated by electric
soils or fill pulse under ultra-high voltage.
materials A5. Surface compaction (including rapid Compaction of fill or ground at the surface or shallow depth using a variety of
impact compaction). compaction machines.
B1. Replacement/displacement (including Remove bad soil by excavation or displacement and replace it by good soil or rocks.
load reduction using light weight materials) Some light weight materials may be used as backfill to reduce the load or earth
pressure.
B. Ground B2. Preloading using fill (including the use of Fill is applied and removed to pre-consolidate compressible soil so that its
improvement vertical drains) compressibility will be much reduced when future loads are applied.
without B3. Preloading using vacuum (including Vacuum pressure of up to 90 kPa is used to pre-consolidate compressible soil so that
admixtures in combined fill and vacuum) its compressibility will be much reduced when future loads are applied.
cohesive soils B4. Dynamic consolidation with enhanced Similar to dynamic compaction except vertical or horizontal drains (or together with
drainage (including the use of vacuum) vacuum) are used to dissipate pore pressures generated in soil during compaction.
B5. Electro-osmosis or electro-kinetic DC current causes water in soil or solutions to flow from anodes to cathodes which
consolidation are installed in soil.
B6. Thermal stabilisation using heating or Change the physical or mechanical properties of soil permanently or temporarily by
freezing heating or freezing the soil.
B7. Hydro-blasting compaction Collapsible soil (loess) is compacted by a combined wetting and deep explosion
action along a borehole.

BGA Touring lectures 2010

stones or demolition debris. or inclusions C4. rigid or semi-rigid bodies or columns which are either premade or formed foundation. such as formation of sand piles using blasting and the use of bamboo. C2. Geotextile confined columns Sand is fed into a closed bottom geotextile lined cylindrical hole to form a column. C5. Sand compaction piles Sand is fed into ground through a casing pipe and compacted by either vibration. or static excitation to form columns. improvement C3. C6. BGA Touring lectures 2010 . with admixtures dynamic impact. fine-grained soil and back filled with densely compacted gravel or sand to form columns. Geosynthetic reinforced column or pile Use of piles. Microbial methods Use of microbial materials to modify soil to increase its strength or reduce its permeability. C1. gravel. Dynamic replacement Aggregates are driven into soil by high energy dynamic impact to form columns. The C. Rigid inclusions (or composite Use of piles. rigid or semi-rigid columns/inclusions and geosynthetic girds to enhance supported embankment the stability and reduce the settlement of embankments. timber and other natural products. also see Table 5) in-situ to strengthen soft ground. Vibro replacement or stone columns Hole jetted into soft. C7. Ground backfill can be either sand. C8 Other methods Unconventional methods.

slopes. Compensation grouting Medium to high viscosity particulate suspensions is injected into the ground between a subsurface excavation and a structure in order to negate or reduce settlement of the structure due to ongoing excavation. E2. Biological methods using vegetation Use of the roots of vegetation for stability of slopes. foundations. E1. embankments. with grouting D3. Ground D2. Compaction grouting Very stiff. D6. g D. Chemical grouting Solutions of two or more chemicals react in soil pores to form a gel or a solid improvement precipitate to either increase the strength or reduce the permeability of soil or ground. mortar-like grout is injected into discrete soil zones and remains in a homogenous mass so as to densify loose soil or lift settled ground. or other binders in-situ using a type admixtures deep mixing) mixing machine or before placement D4. or reinforcement retaining walls. Geosynthetics or mechanically stabilised Use of the tensile strength of various steel or geosynthetic materials to enhance the E. Mixing methods (including premixing or Treat the weak soil by mixing it with cement. BGA Touring lectures 2010 . Jet grouting High speed jets at depth erode the soil and inject grout to form columns or panels D5. Earth earth (MSE) shear strength of soil and stability of roads. Ground anchors or soil nails Use of the tensile strength of embedded nails or anchors to enhance the stability of slopes or retaining walls. lime. E3.

Laboratory Engineering Properties Why Soil improvement ? •To increase bearing capacity and stability (avoid failure) •To reduce post construction settlements • To reduce liquefaction risk (sismic area) Advantages / classical solutions • avoid deep foundation (price reduction also on structure work like slab on pile) • avoid soil replacement • save time •Avoid to change site •Save money ! BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

Soil Improvement Techniques Without added With added materials materials 1 Drainage 4 Dynamic Cohesive soil 2 VAcuum replacement Peat . fill 4 Vibroflottation BGA Touring lectures 2010 . clay … 5 Stone columns 6 CMC 7 Jet Grouting Soil with 8 Cement Mixing friction 3 Dynamic consolidation Sand .

Parameters For Concept -Soil caracteristics -Site environment -cohesive or non cohesive -Close to existing structure .Water content.Organic materials -Soil thickness -Structure to support -Time available to build -Isolated or uniform load -Deformability BGA Touring lectures 2010 .blocks ? . water table position -Height constraints .

Preloading with vertical drains high fines contents soils σ=σ’+u BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

Radial and Vertical consolidation BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

PVC Flat drain circular drain vertical drain + geotextile BGA Touring lectures 2010 . Vertical drains: material High fines contents soils 5 cm .

Vertical Drains BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

CV. Vertical drains CONCEPT PARAMETERS -Stable subsoil for surcharge 1 – Depth -Soil can be penetrated 2 – Drainage path -Time available is short 3 – Cohesion -Some residual settlement is allowed 4 – Consolidation parameters (oedometer. t. CC. CR. Cα. CPT) eO. CPT dissipation test BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

Vacuum Consolidation (high fines contents soils) VACUUM (J.M. COGNON PATENT) BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

CR. t. Cα. Vacuum Consolidation CONCEPT PARAMETERS -Soil is too soft for surcharge 1– Depth 2– Drainage path -Time does not allow for step loading 3– Condition of impervious soil -Surcharge soil not available 4– Watertable near surface 5. Absence of pervious continuous layer -Available area does not allow for berns 6– Cohesion 7. CC. CPT) eO. CV. Consolidation parameters (oedometer. CPT dissipation test 8– Theoretical depression value 9– Field coefficient vacuum 10 – Reach consolidation to effective pressure in every layer 11 – Target approach BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

Hamburg BGA Touring lectures 2010 .Case history – EADS Airbus Plant.

Hamburg General overview of Airbus site BGA Touring lectures 2010 . Case history – EADS Airbus Plant.

5 month and to + 9. Basic design and alternate concept of Moebius–Menard Temporary sheet pile wall – in 5 month – dyke construction in 3 years Settlement ≥ 2.7 – 1.00 in 16 month Columns GCC Settlement 0.7 – 1.5 m Settlement ≥ 2.5 m Dyke construction to +6.0 – 5.0 – 5.5 month and to + 9.00 in 16 month Dyke construction to +6.84 m Settlement 0.5 in 8.84 m Columns GCC BGA Touring lectures 2010 .5 in 8.

Subsoil characteristics BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

Hamburg How to move on the mud ! BGA Touring lectures 2010 .Case history – EADS Airbus Plant.

Hamburg BGA Touring lectures 2010 .Case history – EADS Airbus Plant.

Hamburg BGA Touring lectures 2010 .Case history – EADS Airbus Plant.

Š New reclamation area: 234 ha enclosed in the Port Port of Brisbane Expansion Seawall. BGA Touring lectures 2010 . PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B PROJECT OVERVIEW Š Located at the mouth of the Brisbane river. Š Seawall construction completed in 2005. Sydney 1000 km Š Part of the new reclaimed area to be ready in 5years.

PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B Š GEOTECHNICAL LONG SECTION BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

20 28 Su / σ’v [-] 0.235 Cα/(1+e0) [-] 0.235 0.2 BGA Touring lectures 2010 . PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B GEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS Upper Upper Lower Dredged Parameter Unit Holocene Holocene Holocene Material Sand Clay Clay Cc/(1+e0) [-] 0.9 Ch [m²/y] 1 10 10 1.8 Su [kPa] 4 .3 0.25 0.0076 γ [kN/m3] 14 19 16 16 Cv [m²/y] 1 10 10 0.3 0.001 0.01 0.0059 0.008 0.18 0.

PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B

GEOLOGICAL SOIL PROFILE

BGA Touring lectures 2010

PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B

DESIGN CRITERIA & ASSUMPTIONS

Service Load:
Zone 1: 36kPa
Zone 2: 25kPa
VC4
Zone 3: 15kPa
Zone 4: 5kPa ROAD CORRIDOR

VC2A VC3A VC5 VC6
Residual Settlement (20y):
Zone 1 to 3: 150mm VC2B VC3B
Zone 4: 300mm
VC8

Vacuum pumping operation: VC1
18 months VC7

Vacuum depressure:
75.0 kPa

BGA Touring lectures 2010

PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B

DESK STUDY – NUMERICAL ANALYSIS USING
EXCEL SPREADSHEET SETTLEMENT
CALC.XLC

Calculation of primary and secondary settlement;
ŠSecondary settlement to commence after primary
settlement;
ŠChange in vertical stress is constant over the
depth of the stratum;
ŠBuoyancy effect on the fill below the groundwater
level due to settlement
ŠFill to be removed instantaneous at the end of
preloading period;
ŠDesign load immediately applied at end of pre-
loading period;

BGA Touring lectures 2010

ŠUp to 30 soil layers. PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B DESK STUDY… ŠUp to 15 surcharge steps. FD767. MD88-3. ŠEffect of smear due to mandrel insertion ŠGraphical output Settlement / Fill thickness chart BGA Touring lectures 2010 . ŠDifferent types of drains available: MCD 34. ŠCalculationof shear strength increase during consolidation of cohesive soils.

e2 = 1 + eo log⎜⎜ σ 'o ⎟⎟ H ⎝ ⎠ t=1d e3 t=To Δe t=To+20y Void Ratio Secondary Consolidation (Long term Creep) ⎛ 20 years ⎞ Δe = Cα e log⎜ ⎟ ⎜ T ⎟ ⎝ p ⎠ BGA Touring lectures 2010 . PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B Initial Service Consolidation ANALYSIS METHOD Stress Load Load σ’o σ’o+Δσ’f σ’o+Δσ’pxU% Δlogσ’ ŠSecondary Settlement eo Primary Program uses a method based on Consolidation (Pore Pressure Bjerrum’s concept to calculate e1 Dissipation) instantaneous and delayed ΔH primary Cc ⎛ σ 'o + Δσ final ' ⎞ consolidation (Bjerrum. 1967).

PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE Š 1ST 2ND SURCHARGE SURCHARGE PLACEMENT PLACEMENT Š VACUUM SEALING TRENCH BY MEMBRANE HDPE 1mm Š VACUUM Š UNITS BENTONITE Š VERTICAL TRANSMISSION PROTECTION FILL Š UNITS PIPES INSTALLATION HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION PIPES INSTALLATION Š PERMEABL E LAYER SOIL BENTONITE CUT-OFF WALL VERTICAL MEMBRANE Impermeable Strata BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B TYPICAL SBW CONSTRUCTION – LONG SECTION Wheeled frame Inner frame Full roll of liner BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

overlapping Trench excavation works under bentonite slurry BGA Touring lectures 2010 . PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B Backfilling works Two membrane rolls .

PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

PORT OF BRISBANE – PADDOCK S3B BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

5 σ’1= 80kPa σ’2 = 80kPa σ’3 = 80kPa σ’2 = 40kPa Kf (failure line) Stress (q’) (q) σ’3 = 40kPa Deviatoric Stress Active Zone εh < 0 Surcharge Ko (εh = 0) Deviation Passive Zone εh > 0 Vacuum Consolidation Mean Stress (p’) BGA Touring lectures 2010 . Stress path for Vacuum Process Vacuum Surcharge σ’1= 80kPa p’ = σ’1 . Ko = 1 p’ = 2/3 σ’1 Isotropic Ko = 0.

Case history : Kimhae (Korea) .1998 BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

fill 4 Vibroflottation BGA Touring lectures 2010 . Soil Improvement Techniques Without added With added materials materials 1 Drainage 4 Dynamic Cohesive soil 2 VAcuum replacement Peat . clay … 5 Stone columns 6 CMC 7 Jet Grouting Soil with 8 Cement Mixing friction 3 Dynamic consolidation Sand .

B.C. (???) 1 90% (SBC) C(menard) = 0. FR.4-0.B. = Self Bearing Coefficient 30% (SBC) S.C.9-1 (SILICA SAND) -Grain size 4 δ LOAD = 0.D. Paramaters for Concept CONCEPT PARAMETERS FILL FILL+UNIFORM LOAD FILL+ LOAD SBCσ’z SBCσ’z SBCσ’z .9-1 -Shear wave velocity 80% (SBC) 2 C(hydraulic) = 0. = S(t) S( ∞ ) ¥ BGA Touring lectures 2010 . (m) (m) t (m) -N (about 10 years) DC : h(m) = C δ E -R.55 -Seismic parameters 3 60% (SBC) δ SBC = 0.Age if fill saturated or not GWT GWT GWT 2 -PL 4 80 6 % -Selfbearing level 50 8 % -∅ σ’ 1 1 0 30% z -EP or EM SB σ’z 2 FILL Depth FILL Depth FILL Depth -QC.6 (SILICA SAND) 50% (SBC) S (%) S.

40 m) BGA Touring lectures 2010 . Case History Nice airport runway consolidation Granular soil Very high energy (250 t .

000 m² BGA Touring lectures 2010 .600. KAUST PROJECT Concept and application of ground improvement for a 2.

Typical Master Plan BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

Discovering the Habitants BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

Areas to be treated

AREAS TO BE TREATED

•AL KHODARI (1.800.000 m2)
•BIN LADIN (720.000 m2)

SCHEDULE

• 8 month

BGA Touring lectures 2010

Dynamic Consolidation

Shock waves during dynamic
consolidation – upper part of
figure after R.D. Woods (1968).

BGA Touring lectures 2010

Specifications

•Isolated footings up to 150 tons

•Bearing capacity 200 kPa

•Maximum footing settlement 25 mm

•Maximum differential settlement 1/500

•Footing location unknown at works stage

BGA Touring lectures 2010

L. Engineered fill + 4.2 Compressible layer from loose 0 to 9 meters sand to very soft sabkah BGA Touring lectures 2010 . Concept 150 TONS Depth of footing = 0.0 σz = 200 kn/m² 2 meters arching layer + 2.8m Below G.5 Working platform (gravelly sand) + 1.

or very recent hydraulic fills and δ = 0.64 0. young fills. BGA Touring lectures 2010 .75 0.89 0.9 for metastable soils.4 – 0. δ is a correction factor. and f2 is the improvement ratio at the maximum depth of influence that can be achieved. z is the depth in meters. δ = 0. D is the depth of influence of dynamic consolidation. The value may be taken as f1 = 0.0 0. NGL is the natural ground level. Table Values of coefficient C in the equation Double Drop Free Mechanical Hydraulic Rig drop hydraulic method drop winch winch winch C 1. Its value is given in Table.6 for sands.5 The equation has been revised recently by Varaksin and Racinais (2009) as: f −f f (z ) = 2 2 1 (z − NGL)2 + f1 D Where: f(z) is the improvement ratio at elevation (z). f1 is the maximum improvement ratio observed at ground surface and it is dimensionless. (D) = C δ WH where: C is the type of drop.008E and E is the energy in tons-meter/m2.

50 Replacement) + surcharge BSL (variable) BGA Touring lectures 2010 .80 WPL Replacement) Working Platform NGL GWT HDR (High Energy Soil Conditions Dynamic > 4.80 Preloading FPL DR (Dynamic Design > 2. Selection of technique 0.

SABKAH SM + ML 35-48 28-56 0-2 0-2 1.2 35-60 4 . Specifications ELEVATION TYPICAL SITE CROSS SECTION OF UPPER (meters) +5 DEPOSITS +4 SITE ≅ 1.5 km +3 LAGOON FILLED BY SABKAH +3 +2 +1 0 RED c e -1 -2 SEA e c 4 -3 CORAL -4 BARRIER 2 -5 -6 -7 -8 4 -9 -10 Qc PL EP LAYER USC w % % fines N FR % BARS BARS BARS 1 .9 avr-17 2 .5-1.8 4-12 28-85 BGA Touring lectures 2010 .4-1.2 2. .1-4 18-35 3 . 12-37 3-18 15-80 0.LOOSE SILTY SAND SM .CORAL . 15-28 3-9 12-45 0.LOOSE TO MED DENSE SAND SM . 5.5-1. 26-35 . 6-12 .2-4 0.1-7.

Variation in soil profile over 30 meters BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

Typical surface conditions BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

6 DC SI = 1.I : energy specific improvement factor 0.7 •180 PMT tests 1.A.T.5 PLi I × 100 30% •S.2 I = 6.72 Average pre-treatment values 0.S.4 DR I = 3.5 E DOMAIN 0.56 0 100 200 300 400 500 Energy (kJ/m3) BGA Touring lectures 2010 .8 PLF •I = improvement factor I = 5.2 Average values between phases 50% I=3 Average post-treatment values 0 SI = 0.6 •60 grainsize tests 10% I=8 SI = 4.1 LEGEND 40% DOMAIN SI = 0.U.4 PARAMETERS 1.25 •PL – Po = pressuremeter limit pressure 20% 1 SI = 2. – Saudi Arabia PL-Po (MPa) BASIS 1.3 •kJ/m3 = Energy per m3 (E) KAUST KAUST •% = % passing n°200 sieve 0. Analysis of improvement ANALYSIS OF (PL-Po) IMPROVEMENT AS FUNCTION OF ENERGY AND FINES K.

901 0. t' f = t1 + tf One can thus conclude that. where The Table allows to compare the gain in consolidation time.009 0. and thus t’f = U1t1 + (1-U1)tf This new consolidation process with the final at a time t’f.659 0.615 0.337 0. BGA Touring lectures 2010 .083 0.725 0.735 1. consolidation being : then t’f = U1t1 + (1-U1)tf t’f with impact tf without impact The optimal effectiveness occurs around du Δσ(1− U1 ) U1 = 60%.848 if du=U1Δσ. at different C'v (t'1 −t1 ) Cv T1 TV = 0.669 1.037 0. what is for practical purpose insufficient.9 or T = 0.148 0. H² H² U1 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% With t1/tf 0.231 0. It can be assumed that those impacts du For the considered case. generate a pore pressure at least equal to du = UΔσ the pore pressure generated by the embankement load.632 0.602 0.474 0.807 0.848 = + degrees of consolidation. theoretically du + Δσ(1− U1 ) du + Δσ(1− U1 ) the consolidation time is reduced by 20% to 50%.00 ⎡ du ⎤ t’1/tf 0.00 C' V = C V ⎢1 + ⎥ ⎢⎣ Δσ(1 − U1) ⎥⎦ Supposing primary consolidation completed The following equation allows to compare the respective times of U = 0.

Dynamic surcharge BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

VIBROFLOTS Amplitude 28 – 48mm BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

PORT BOTANY EXPANSION PROJECT GROUND COMPACTION WORKS Š PORT BOTANY EXPANSION PROJECT GROUND COMPACTION EXTENSION PORT WORKS EXISTING PORT BGA Touring lectures 2010 60 .

PORT BOTANY EXPANSION PROJECT GROUND COMPACTION WORKS EARLY WORKS 600 M NEW TERMINAL AREA TRENCH FOUNDATIONS / COUNTERFOURT BACKFILL 1300 M BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

PORT BOTANY EXPANSION PROJECT GENERAL ARRAGEMENT COUNTERFORTS INCLUDING RECLAMATION BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

000 1.000 OFFSHORE VIBROCOMPACTION COUNTERFOURT BACKFILL 92. PORT BOTANY EXPANSION PROJECT RESUME / QUANTITIES PHASE AREA (M2) VOLUME (M3) TECHNIQUE EARLY WORKS 90.330.250.000 8.000.000 DYNAMIC COMPACTION TOTAL 650.000 DC / VC BGA Touring lectures 2010 .000 5.000 800.000 ONSHORE TANDEM VIBRO COMPACTION NEW TERMINAL AREA 404.000 DYNAMIC COMPACTION / VIBRO COMPACTION TRENCH FOUNDATIONS 64.000 650.

0M GRID / 3 PHASES – 10 BLOWS BGA Touring lectures 2010 . PORT BOTANY EXPANSION PROJECT DYNAMIC COMPACTION POUNDER WEIGHT 25 TON / 23 METERS HIGH DROP 5.0M X 5.

0M / 40 SEC EACH AIR FOR COMPACTION BGA Touring lectures 2010 . PORT BOTANY EXPANSION PROJECT Š LOAD OUT WHARF – VIBRO COMPACTION V48 V48 REQUIRES WATER & UPLIFT STEPS 1.

PORT BOTANY EXPANSION PROJECT VIEW OF LOAD OUT WHARF – DC / VC WORKING BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

PORT BOTANY EXPANSION PROJECT BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

PORT BOTANY EXPANSION PROJECT BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

Enforced settlement: After VC – 47cm After DC – 27cm Total – 74 cm (~ 10% of treatment depth) Compaction was less effective in this layer! stiff clay BGA Touring lectures 2010 .PORT BOTANY EXPANSION PROJECT RESULTS 1.5m requires surface roller compaction). 2. the combination of VC and DC satisfied the qc = 15 MPa (upper 0. Except for the upper 50cm.

clay … 5 Stone columns 6 CMC 7 Jet Grouting 8 Cement Mixing Granular soil 3 Dynamic consolidation Sand . Soil Improvement Techniques Without added With added materials materials 1 Drainage 4 Dynamic Cohesive soil 2 VAcuum replacement Peat . fill 4 Vibroflottation BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

column and -Arching layer available arching layers. Dynamic Replacement CONCEPT PARAMETERS -Very soft to stiff soils -C. EP. µ of soil. Ey of soil. column and arching -Unsaturated soft clays layers. ∅. grid -Thickness of less than 6 meters -or PL. grid BGA Touring lectures 2010 . μ.

bottom feed with air tank BGA Touring lectures 2010 . Stone Columns – Bottom Feed Vibrator penetration Material feeding Vibration of material during extraction Principle of the technology .

Stone Columns – Bottom Feed Stone Columns bottom feed to 22 m depth BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

∅. µ of soil. EP. grid BGA Touring lectures 2010 . column and arching -Thickness up to 25 meters layers. grid -Arching layer available -or PL. Stone Columns CONCEPT PARAMETERS -Soft to stiff clays -C. column and arching layers. Ey of soil. μ.

CMC – Execution Š Fleet of specilized equipment „ Displacement auger => quasi no spoil „ High torque and pull down Š Fully integrated grout flow control Grout flow Soft soil BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

ƒ Compression tests on material ƒ Checking of good grout resistance ƒ Data recording system during execution ƒ Recording of drilling parameters => Checking of anchorage. CMC – Typical Testing ƒ Load testing on isolated CMC ƒ Checking of individual capacity. ƒ Checking of adequate soil parameters taken into account. ƒ Recording of grouting parameters => No necking BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

D (non porous medium) -Kv. γ. ϕ -Ey. γ. Kh if consolidation is considered BGA Touring lectures 2010 . ∅’. μ. RIGID INCLUSIONS .PARAMETERS SOIL INCLUSION -C’. μ. Ey.

CMC Principle ƒ Create a composite material Soil + Rigid Inclusion (CMC) with: ƒ Increased bearing capacity ƒ Increased elastic modulus ƒ Transfer the load from structure to CMC network with a transition layer Transition Stress layer concentration Residual stress Arch effect between the CMC CMC columns BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

CMC .Basic behavior under uniform load ƒ Negative skin friction allows to develop a good arching effect Settlement Stress in the column Negative skin friction Neutral point Soil Positive skin friction Column Depth BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

CMC Design .Principle Axisymetric FEM calculation with one CMC and the soil => eq. Stiffness Global axisymetric calculation by modelising Complex Soil + CMC with the improved ground by improved characteristics material having an improved stiffness BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

3/ Thus maximum shear force taken by the includion (similar to a pile to which a displacement is applied). CMC Design – Specific case of non vertical loading ƒ Calculation principle 1/ Estimation of the vertical stress in the column (% of the embankment load). 4/ Modeling of the CMC as nails working in compression + imposed shear force under TALREN software (or equivalent). R i δ Ti BGA Touring lectures 2010 . 2/ Thus maximum momentum so that M / N ≤ D / 8 (no traction in the mortar).

no pile cap. thus no increase under seismic analysis. CMC Design – Benefits for the structure ƒ Structure shall be designed as if soil was of good quality ƒ Specialist contractor provides structural designer with bearing capacity. etc… ƒ No connection between foundation and structure ƒ Structure is less complex to be designed. k. ƒ No stiff connection. ƒ Structure very simple to be built: footings and slab on grade. thus benefit in terms of cost and speed of execution BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

New Developement .r achieve a given replacement ratio c rp a BGA Touring lectures 2010 .Principle ƒ Aim of CMC CompactionDensify granular material to decrease Elast P ic liquefaction potential Plast Pf 0 ic ƒ Method of densification σc ƒ Injected mortar used to displace and ρf compact the soil around the injection point ƒ Successive injection according to a regular grid induce a global compaction of the soil ƒ Mesh and diameter designed so as to 2.CMC Compaction .

CMC Compaction . New Developement .Design ƒ Principle: Execution and testing procedure ƒ Seismic parameters (seism PGA. Magnitude) => qc soil profile to be achieved (Seed and Idriss methodology) ƒ Estimation of Replacement ratio to achieve required qc ƒ Execution of Works and testing by CPT ƒ Additional grouting if necessary Execution of Compaction Grouting as per preanalysis (replacement ratio => mesh and diameter) Execution of CPT testing Until CPT results are satisfactory Results OK Results not OK Execution of additional Compaction Grouting in the problematic layers BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

workability. New Developement .Execution ƒ Same type of equipment as for CMC ƒ Soil displacement rig and Pump. ƒ Key points ƒ Quality of grout (grain size distribution.CMC Compaction . consistancy) ƒ Injection speed and successive phases ƒ Final Testing = CPT BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

New Developement .CMC Compaction – Fos LNG Terminal BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

DCM : Deep Cement Mixing CONCEPT BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

Future Caisson Stability Analysis BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

As built conditions BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

Proposed solution Layer I Layer II   15% rock (φ = 45°) +            85% clay (Cu = 50  kPa) BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

View of pounder construction BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

View of pounder ready to work BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

General SFT up BGA Touring lectures 2010 .

3m Cu=50kPa Cu=50kPa Column Dia=2.4m Column Dia=2.3m φ=48 degree φ=48 degree φ=48 degree Ar=22% Ar=22% Ar=22% C=0kPa C=0kPa C=0kPa 1. After compaction actual results Original rock surface before compaction 0.4m Cu=250kPa BGA Touring lectures 2010 .4m Column Dia=2.2m φ=40 degree φ=40 degree 1.

BGA – TOURING LECTURE – NOVEMBRE 2010 ISSMGE 95 .

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