Appendix C

Brain Response of Behavior

Part I

Note: Parts II and III follow below, complete all three.

Run Multimedias 2.3 and 2.4

o Go to the Web site www.prenhall.com/morris.
o Click text: Psychology: An Introduction (12th ed.)
o Click “2” on the select a chapter tool bar.
o Click Live!Psych on the left hand menu.
o Select 2.3 and 2.4.

Write a 350- to 700-word response to the following: Explain the communication process of
neurons in the brain. List some common neurotransmitters and describe their effect on behavior.

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Neurons function is to propel and obtain messages or information. The sending

neurons are referred to as the presynaptic neuron whilst the receiving neuron is referred

to as the postsynaptic neuron. A message sent from the presynaptic neuron travels

throughout the axon, occasionally encapsulated by myelin, which supplies insulation for

the axon in addition to escalating the velocity of the message, information, or inclination.

Throughout the axon, the message or information reaches the terminal buttons, which

discharge neurotransmitters housed in synaptic vesicles. Neurotransmitters, which serve

as chemical messengers, are discharged into the space between the neurons referred to as

the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitters cross the synaptic space and shortly merge with

receptors of the receiving or postsynaptic neuron. The neurotransmitter and the receptors

should have similar shape and dimensions for the message to be transmitted. Once the

message has been transmitted, neurotransmitters disengage from the receptor. From at

this point, the neurotransmitter could be reabsorbed into the axon terminals, recycled to

make new neurotransmitters, or disposed from the body. .

Acetylcholine: Controls arousal, attention, memory, motivation, and movement.

Excess: Leads to spasms and tremors.

Lack of: Leads to paralysis or torpor.

Dopamine: Controls behaviors, emotions, and nerve impulses. There are two

primary dopamine receptors, stimulatory and inhibitory.

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Excess: Leads to mental disorders, such as Schizophrenia,

characterized by abnormal thoughts, images, and

actions.

Lack of: Causes involuntary muscle spasms.

Serotonin: Regulates sleep, dreaming, mood, eating, pain, and aggressive

behavior.

Lack of: Leads to high anxiety and impulsive behavior, often

resulting in depression.

Endorphins: Resistance to pain, usually during strenuous activity.

Sources:
Maisto, A. A., Morris, C. G. (2005). Psychology An Introduction. New Jersey: Pearson Education,
Inc.

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Part II

Refer to Ch. 2 (pp. 58-78) In Psychology: An Introduction.

Write a 350- to 700-word response identifying the major regions of the brain and what functions of
behavior the systems of each region control.

There are three main sections to the brain, the central core, the limbic system, and

the cerebrum. Starting with the central core, this is where the spinal cord enters the skull.

In the central core are the medulla, pons, cerebellum, midbrain, thalamus, and

hypothalamus. The medulla is adjacent to the spinal cord and normalizes inhalation,

respiration, heart rate and blood pressure. Pons, positioned close to the medulla,

manufacture and discharge chemicals to aid control and preserve the sleep-wake cycle.

The cerebellum is situated at the top and back of the brain stem. The cerebellum adjusts

reflexes and balance as well at synchronizing activities. Injury to the cerebellum will

cause dilemmas with movement and balance. The midbrain is positioned above the

cerebellum. The midbrain lends a hand in audible range, vision, and hurt. The thalamus

serves as the sensory relay center where it relays and translates incoming messages from

most sense receptors. Directly below the thalamus is the hypothalamus, which manages

poignant conduct and stimulus.

The limbic system is to be found between the central core and the cerebral

hemispheres and plays a key position in modifying stress and incorporating the motion of

the nervous system. In the limbic system is the hippocampus, which assists in the

configuration of innovative recollections. Damage to this fraction of the brain will leave

the individual incapable of recalling events after the harm. The amygdale is as well

positioned in the limbic system. Collectively, these two parts of the brain administer

sentiments, primarily emotions correlated to self-preservation.

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The cerebrum is the biggest component of the brain connected with elevated brain

function, such as contemplation and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four

sections, referred to as lobes, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe.

The occipital lobe’s occupation is to collect and process visual information. The temporal

lobe is linked with observation and identification of language, balance and equilibrium,

emotion, motivation, smelling senses, and hearing senses. The parietal lobe is allied with

progression and acknowledgment aptitudes. The frontal lobe harmonizes messages from

additional lobes in addition to being connected with analysis, development, parts of

speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving. The manifestation of the cerebral

cortex is highly furrowed, which makes the brain more competent by escalating the

surface area, which in turn enhances the number of neurons within the brain. Discovering

Psychology (2001) each hemisphere includes four lobes, which have its specific function:
 Frontal lobe-behavioral activities such as decision making, setting goals, and

planning
 Parietal lobe-supports concentration and language understanding, visual, sensory

and spatial orientation
 Occipital lobe- process visual information received to temporal and parietal

lobes.
 Temporal lobe-identifies visual and auditory information, assists in language

comprehension, smell and balance processes.

Sources:

Maisto, A. A., Morris, C. G. (2005). Psychology An Introduction. New Jersey: Pearson

Education, Inc.

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Part III

Consider the following chain of events. Describe in 350-700 words the sensory process that takes
place as the scenario unfolds.

Sensory processing is the aptitude to deduce the information the brain has

acknowledged. The depiction above is a representation of the sensory system which as a

part of the nervous system being in the action of processing sensory information. The

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accessible fields are the auditory, visual, and tactile systems that collect peripheral stimuli

from the milieu, which are exchanged by sensory neurons into inner electrical

inclinations. Within the sensory processes are involved sensory receptor, neural pathway,

and the part of the brain. All information comes to us through human senses. As Morris

and Maisto (2002) affirm, although each sense has its own structure, there are

fundamental principles that are relevant to all. A number of peripheral procedures such

as visions, resonances, and contact manufacture sensory signals that provide as stimuli to

the receptor cell of a sense organ. Signals, which are good to be recognized, are

.additional sent in conjunction with the sensory nerves to the part of the brain called

cerebral cortex. An extraordinary association between receptor cells and neural pathways

concentrated on for a specific sense is the foundation of how the brain differentiates

between diverse kinds of sensations. This can be recognized only when signals get to the

cerebral cortex.

The web site for Sensory Systems (2002) presents an awesome delineates of the main

sensory systems listed beneath:
 Auditory System’s sense organ is the ear. Through the outer and middle ear, the

sound is transmitted to the inner ear where nerve impulses are created and

“transmitted via the acoustovestibular nerve to the dorsal and ventral cochlear

nuclei in the medulla” (Sensory Systems, 2002, para. 1). Then the signal passes

some other parts of the ear and reaching the thalamus, is transmitted to the

auditory cortex situated in the temporal cortex.

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 Visual System is the sensory system with the eye as a sensory organ. External

stimuli such as lights enter the eye through the pupil, and then through the lens

it moves to retina situated at the back of the eye. The retina contains the

sensory cells, rods, and cones. Via the optic nerves the impulse reaches the

optic chiasm, where the optic tract is shaped which in turn projects to the

geniculate nucleus. From the geniculate nucleus, the neurons are sent to the

visual cortex situated in the occipital lobe.
 Tactile System or the Skin senses is obtained trough touching processes such as

shaking hands, hugging, and many others. “The nerve fibers from all these

receptors travel to the brain by two routes. Some information goes through the

medulla and the thalamus and from there to the sensory cortex in the parietal

lobe of the brain—which is presumably where our experiences of touch arise”

(Morris & Maisto, 2002, p. 121).

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References

Discovering Psychology (2001). The Human Brain. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from

http://www.learner.org/discoveringpsychology/brain/central.html

Sensory Systems (2002). Retrieved April 25, 2010 from

http://pathology.mc.duke.edu/neuropath/nawr/sensory.html

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