IRL5052

Governance and Policy Making:
The International Context
Dr. Isabelle Calleja Ragonesi
Stud. Emilia Munteanu

IOM Romania,
Problems associated with delivering their product
focusing on relations with state and non-state players and deficiencies of organizational structures

Introduction

International Organizations are intergovernmental bodies with an important role in international relations.
IOM is one of the leading inter-governmental organizations in the field of migration, they promotes humane
and orderly management of migration for the benefit of all. IOM’s structure is highly decentralized and this
has enabled them to acquire the capacity to deliver an ever-increasing number and diversity of projects at the
request of its Member States.

My interview with Catalin Bercaru, Project Assistant/Communication for International Organization for
Migration, Office in Romania was enlightening and very much focused of the practicality of the product
delivering process.

IOM Romanian office develops projects targeting the illegal immigrants living in Romania, the Romanian
citizens that plan a long term leave abroad, and the local authorities to better assist the migrants. Further on,
I will focus my presentation on ADMin4ALL, which is an initiative aiming to increase the capabilities of local
administrations and other service providers at the local level.

Relationship with the state is essential for an IO. IOM is in close collaboration with political actors and local
authorities and the NGO network, but also with the donors. They have become significantly more involved in
humanitarian issues and they came with their own agenda.

Both from the literature and from the interview I could extract few challenges, like bureaucracy, lack or
misinterpretation of the law, untrained public officers and funding conditionality.

“Everything comes down to the human factor that is reflected in more ways, either in a policy, or in the
interpretation of the law or even in the empathy towards the person in front of you.” - Catalin Bercaru,
Spokesperson of the IOM Romanian Office.

1

International Organizations An international organizations can be defined as ‘an institutional agreement between members of an international system in order to achieve objectives according to systemic conditions. regulating migration. Early in the nineteenth century. This is a new concept in the evolution of global policy and governance. and the role of international organizations within their respective positions. Couple of these organizations. social and cultural development. Thus. migration health and the gender dimension of migration. reflecting attributes. facilitating migration. it depends on who you ask as to how what role international organizations serve. The different international relations theories approach international organizations from their own set assumptions about how the international system works. So. from peacemaking to trade regulations. The reason for my choice is not only because IOM is one of the leading inter-governmental organizations in the field of migration. mail service. international organizations serve a specific role in international affairs. 1966). have so much status that they can compete with big government states. Cross-cutting activities include the promotion of international migration law. whereas someone else who views the international relations theory as something different. It does so by providing services and advice both to governments and migrants. maritime. for a theory that advocates power and security. International Organization for Migration For my example I chose the International Organization for Migration to better understand the complex and dynamic relationships between them and the local governments. like UN bodies or World Bank. Based on how they view the world. Further on. in fact. and supra-national entities. it can be seen that. IOM works in the four broad areas of migration management: migration and development. could also in turn have a different perception on international organizations. 2 . Romanian Office. the first organizations were created to deal with technical regulations at an international level. policy debate and guidance. but also because they make a point in being flexible and open to adapt to the current context. so they are actively involved in the right of freedom of movement of persons. protection of migrants’ rights. the local NGOs. IOM promotes humane and orderly management of migration for the benefit of all. aspirations and concerns of its members’ (Hanrieder. They understand that it is a strong link between migration and economic. the state’s sovereignty in strengthened by the collaboration. in my interview with the International Organization for Migration. international organizations may be seen as functioning a particular way given this behavioral characteristic. for example. as well as their level of effectiveness in the international political system. and addressing forced migration. like labor. Nowadays. International Organizations are in fact intergovernmental bodies with an important role in international relations. more than 5000 IOs have diverse purposes.

I have interviewed Catalin Bercaru. In each base country. In addition to that. Organizational structure IOM is an extended organization. there is a Country Office and sub- offices with the role of implementing the projects according to the specific migration needs. because it operates at an international level. Further on we shall see if this turns into a competition or a collaboration.” As he says. there is an overlap of knowledge in management between the two parts. its growth over time forced it to change structure and adapt. NGOs and other multilateral bodies. This review came as a necessity to keep up with the current economical context and the migratory phenomena. “At a time when the impact of the economic and financial crisis is being strongly felt all around the world. 5 Country Offices that are more hands on in the migratory realities of that country and other 4 Country Offices that are more involved in the fundraising area. based in Tanzania. Office in Romania. we can propose a diversity of policies and actions that have a concrete application for a certain issue regarding the complex field of migration. “The IOM is the ONU organization for migration. it would appear prudent for IOM to reflect on steps that could be taken to ensure that its organizational structures are so geared as to enable it to continue to fulfil its mandate 3 . has a wider view upon this phenomena.For getting more information directly from the source. The existing structure described above is a result of a review of the organizational structure made in 2009 by the Structure Review Team (SRT). there is the African Capacity Building Centre (ACBC). An overview in bullet points may give a glimpse of their broad operation:  166 member states  8 observer states  400 field locations  2500 active projects  10. which provides Africa with a wide technical assistance for migration and border management.000 field operational staff IOM’s structure is highly decentralized and this has enabled them to acquire the capacity to deliver an ever- increasing number and diversity of projects at the request of its Member States. the Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC). IOM has also its own data process center in Berlin. The governments have a certain expertise in managing the migration situation and our organization. Therefore. Project Assistant/Communication for International Organization for Migration. … We are here to give assistance to the local government to implement migration policies. 2 Administrative Centers that provide technological support and administrative services. His inside of the organization is very important for understanding the way it works. 2 Special Liaison Offices that collaborate with supra-national actors. IOM’s Field structure is composed of 9 Regional Offices that create strategy plans and give assistance to their state government.

also. while the existing ones have changed either growing or declining in importance.” 4 . SRT observes that many new IOM functions have emerged over the years. The way the distribution of work / power is established between the different members is a first sign. 2009) The task of evaluating IOM’s organizational set up was to propose a new framework that would facilitate a better coordination within the organization and the use of resources in order to have a more coherent action plan. I would say that IOM organizational structure is very much related to what Max Weber describes as the Bureaucracy Model. “Well. Strengthening this idea.” (Review of the Organizational Structure of IOM. 1998). He says that bureaucracy is “a specific administrative structure. Bercaru states that bureaucracy is a big provocation for the organization. In their analysis.by offering the most effective and efficient service to its Member States and migrants. which is based on a legal and rule-oriented authority” (Scott. all the bureaucratic procedures have to be made based on a certain layout of our organization… Sometimes is quite a hassle to reconcile all the stakeholders in order to finish the activity in a timely manner. and to maintain its place as the global inter-governmental organization in the field of migration.

IOM Romanian office develops projects targeting the illegal immigrants living in Romania. whereby staff and office costs associated with implementing a project are charged to projects through a time allocation concept. public institutions or Migrants. refugee assistance. Other activities we promote strive to facilitate the integration of migrants in Romania by empowering local organizations and public authorities. if they voluntary choose so. Product delivering system IOM has a complex and very well organized system of production and deliverance. Bercaru offers more details on the tasks at hand. whether they come from NGOs. Also. One of the interesting inventions is the projectization.112 third-country nationals registered in Bucharest. IOM Romania carries out a series of activities for the illegal migrants. this projectizatin is a system for evaluating performance of work. As Bercaru is saying. 5 . we work with public institutions. and the local authorities to better assist the migrants. “IOM is an agency that works a lot at the grassroots level. “In this moment. toward the end beneficiary and in policy making and advocacy. women and children. there has to be a proper system in place to deliver the products and to ensure a good collaboration with the stakeholders. men. to present the migrants’ rights and obligations. migrants' health and authorities capacity-building. together are around half of the total number of migrants in Romania. but big part of our job is working with people.IOM Romania IOM was established in Romania in 1992 to respond to the information and counseling needs of Romanian citizens regarding emigration formalities. the average of asylum requests was around 1500. with 470 places. having a rule-oriented organization. migrant integration. There are 21. Every activity in IOM is assigned a distinct project code. Like Weber was describing the bureaucracy structure. In the last few years. IOM Romania has implemented various national and international cooperation programmes in the field of counter-trafficking in human beings.” For such a wide spread of activities. on the other hand for their return home. a well-organized delivering system is very important. transparent and efficient manner. Bucharest has a reception and registration centre for asylum seekers and the largest accommodation centre for asylum seekers and refugees in Romania. voluntary return. We get involve in policy making.” Working simultaneous in both directions. Every project is managed by a project manager to ensure that projects are monitored in a responsible. This is something similar to activity-based costing. on one hand facilitating their integration in Romania. the Romanian citizens that plan a long term leave abroad. migration facilities. But in the meantime.

Over the last two decades. “The ADMin4ALL program deals with the local authorities. The first stage concerns the definition of the state as a primary tool of decision in international relations. In Romania. and they presume a special intervention. Also we try to encourage other emotional characteristics. Catalin Bercaru. especially in the first part of their residence in Romania. even if it is from another culture. like empathy. … For them this is something new. this process is something new both for the migrants and for the public officers. This is mainly due to the fact that modern international system has three main architectural features.” In the next few paragraphs. The recent economic crisis has revealed the weaknesses and shortages of cooperation in the global economy and only the diplomatic consensus has led to the adoption of urgent solutions. I will show how the relationships with the local and supra-national actors develop and particularly. The migrants are a special category of people. describing to them what are their responsibilities and rights. having in its core the United Nations. This will be done through a series of trainings and peer mentoring activities for the local authorities and both governmental and non- governmental service providers. and in particular their front-line staff. in dealing with the multiple dimensions of long-term socio-economic inclusion of migrants and refugees at local level. but also at a human level. The third stage consists of the architecture of multilateral system. The second stage refers to the agreements between states.ADMin4ALL ADMin4ALL or Supporting Active Inclusion of Disadvantaged Migrants in Europe is an initiative that takes place in Italy. So. dealing with migrants. Poland and Romania and that aims to enhance the capacity of local governments to develop sustainable strategies for the successful social and economic integration of vulnerable migrants. 6 . the representative cities are Bucharest and Cluj Napoca. how they apply to this specific program. The main objective of this project is to increase the capabilities of local administrations and other service providers at the local level. it is new at a procedural level. Relationship with third parties. respect toward the person in front of you. the international community has increasingly become so interconnected and interdependent due to the rapid progress in technology and the development of economic integration processes. what is the pace of the society. The challenge of international organizations and their role in the global economy is very connected to the global economic governance approach. IO’s place in the bigger picture Relationships of collaboration are imbedded in the structure of the IOs. built in overlapping phases over time. They don’t know how to breath this country. provides us with a bit more flavor the local situation. IOM Romania spokesperson. Austria.

power. No. we can assume that the politics of diplomacy is built. No. Samuel Barkin. dialogue. Since the relationships are such an important part in the life of IOs. research. We can see clear in the IOM’s strategic focus that five out of twelve points are relating to assisting and empowering the state government. for example the migrants? Relationship with state government A big question deriving from the intervention of an International Organization in a country is related to the states sovereignty.12 To support the efforts of States in the area of labor migration.11 To assist States in the development and delivery of programmes. After analyzing the sovereignty. technical cooperation and operational assistance to States. 7 . carried out and mutually used by all the actors. It is in close collaboration with political actors and local authorities and the NGO network. human rights and institutions. No.“… IOM is not floating in the air. Here are the extras of the strategic focus plan: No. the response is clear: State’s sovereignty is intact. intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders. in a manner consistent with international law. in particular short term movements. No. In his book. Samuel. but. development. and other types of circular migration. studies and technical expertise on combating migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons.” says Bercaru in the interview.8 To assist States to facilitate the integration of migrants in their new environment and to engage diasporas. in particular women and children. But. Now. trade.” (Barkin. including as development partners. then the question arises: After all this investment. this is not so.3 To offer expert advice. International Organization: Theories and Institutions). The conclusion is simple: “Are IOs fundamentally changing the way in which international relations work? Yes. design and implementation of migration-related programmes aimed at maximizing migration's benefits. develops a system of analysis in order to evaluate the International Organization and their impact in the international political arena. from this idea one can believe that the states identity is losing importance in the face of such an important multilayered actor like an IOs.4 To contribute to the economic and social development of States through research. in order to build national capacities and facilitate international. 2006. how are all the interests managed? Are they hierarchized based on the ranking on the global arena? And what priority holds the interest of the end beneficiary. regional and bilateral cooperation on migration matters.

It is also increasingly the focus of Regional Consultative Processes in all regions of the world. Other problems come from the interpretation of the legal framework. which is a part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. From Bercaru’s interview we can extract the main challenges relating with the local entities. Talking about their relationship with the General Inspectorate for Migration.” Relationship with civil society & intermediary organizations In May 2016 IOM Romania. the solution came as a result of IOM’s relationship with the local authorities to create a mentoring partnership. trade and the environment. which IOM assists by hosting its Support Unit. comes in support of the national state. some of the NGOs came up with the solution of alternative classes. in partnership with AIDROM and three other organisations. as even Bercaru is saying “Sometimes we reach an agreement. sometimes no. but we always come and sit at the table of negotiation.Collaboration with the state is essential for an IO. the product arrives to them through the filter of the government’s structure. For example. Bercaru continues: “This relationship has been welded in twenty years. but also for the success of the UN system. including those dealing with human rights. Using Bercaru’s own words “Our organization. “Some challenges are also coming from the legal perspective…. Migration now features increasingly on the UN agenda.” What is mostly interesting about multilayered collaboration is that the organization can use one relationship to fix another challenging relationship. launched the project “INTERACT – Integrated services for migrants. for the situation of officer’s lack of experience and tolerance.” The interesting part is that relationships are working even in this situation.” So. It is at the centre of the concerns of the Global Forum on Migration and Development. which aims at promoting a one-stop-shop approach in the delivery of information and services for migrants in cooperation with public institutions and with the private sector. Also. reaching to some very complex work formulas. Therefore. with IOM 8 . but we still go in the right direction ahead. The relationship is not all honey and milk. … We have come to build. responding to the Romanian language courses problem. and in the work programmes of a large number of multilateral forums. in the last 15 years of collaboration with the General Inspectorate for Migration. Not all the problems can be fixed. there are ups and downs. a work system that relies a lot on institutional trust. like any other IO. even if the end beneficiaries are the migrants. social and multicultural dialogue”. the relationship with the other sister organization is essential not only for the good unfolding of IOM’s services. Relationship with supra-national organizations IOM is a subsidiary organization of the UN body. by the local authorities… Then is the issue of the people.

These suggestions are usually rejected.” All along I was analyzing the relationships at different levels of national-international cooperation. At the same time. of transit and of destination. then why are they opposing the organizations’ expertize. Using the example of the emergency transit center. and then we are obligated to say that we can achieve that specific thing but also we can add extra value to that. “ Relationship with donors Bercaru’s declaration at the end of the interview was surprising: “In the moment we win the project. is the need for IOM to be equipped and organized to enable it to contribute comprehensively and effectively to international endeavors in the field of migration. If it does not do so. In the meantime. even if there is a common management. Patterns of migratory movement have diversified so much that most countries of the world are simultaneously countries of origin. as the representative of IOM Romania is describing how they work together with UNHCR and the state government.providing upon request a wide range of support services. Bercaru. The General Inspectorate for Migration offers the legal frame for the appropriate unfolding of the activities. human rights and the environment. including development. just to find out that actually the biggest problems are coming from the donors. For example. including the medical tests and all the necessary papers. Organizational change In order to be successful an organization has to respond to developments and stimuli in its environment and has to adapt to these. one that interacts closely with a number of other policy domains. I wonder if we should not talk also about the sovereignty of the IO in front of the donor just as much. trade. donors have become significantly more involved in humanitarian issues (Macrae et al. Based on our experience so far. it will fail and maybe threatened to become less relevant or to die. therefore. Beyond all the internal justifications for structural reform. 2002) Since we discuss the state sovereignty facing the intervention of the IO. But if the point is to keep donors convinced that their money is being well spent. “In the framework of this program. Migration has consequently become a major international issue. IOM handles the transportation from and to the center. the activities are very clearly defined. UNHCR deals with the day to day life inside the center and all the issues that come with that. the donor wants a specific thing. security. we propose to provide within the same project. Migration has undergone considerable change in scope and volume over the last 10 years. some activities that bring more benefits to the beneficiaries. the biggest constrain comes from the initial request that the donor had. the Organization has grown exponentially in terms of its 9 .

outreach.” Theories of international organization suggest two primary ways in which IOs can improve cooperation among states: by improving the efficiency of cooperation among states that recognize cooperative interests and by making the perceived interests of states more cooperative (Barkin. Can you imagine. Internal processes may explain the related agency. lack or misinterpretation of the law. or in the interpretation of the law or even in the empathy towards the person in front of you. in the example of IOM Romania. … This institutional prestige can be used to take things to a higher level. not to discard the importance of the inter-organizational cooperation and not because the relationship challenges are not fundamental. and there are a lot of translations on top of that. Barnett and Finnemore. so everyone has an equal opportunity to give their input. their escape is found in the use of their status in order to joggle the relationships and cut the red tape. or better said. “… one of the biggest challenges is that our work is doubled if not tripled. that every budget has to be made in two or three styles. Spokesperson of the IOM Romanian Office.” The solution. Only glimpses can be recognized through the interview I had with their representative. untrained public officers and donors agenda. for example. who in Rules for the World (2004) understand an IO as a bureaucracy. In IOM’s case. 2006). It is interesting to see this adaptation process. in the same time. He talks about the complicated bureaucracy that has to be made in order to please all the different stakeholders. “This situation can facilitate a much flexible relationship when it comes to bureaucracy. either in a policy. Conclusion “Everything comes down to the human factor that is reflected in more ways. I believe that they implement change by working on the government’s interest at the local level. Whether is the willingness to negotiate and move forward or the openness facing a new thing. But. 10 . have in common the human factor. budget and staff numbers. As a conclusion I wanted to use this quote. All the challenges mentioned above. but the organizational structure has not kept pace with this growth. like bureaucracy. because we have to respect the rules of the IOM headquarters and also the national rules. explain that an IO is an authority in its own right because of the missions it pursues and because of the ways it pursues them. personal attitude is the key factor in every step of delivering the product. the Review of the Organizational Structure made in 2009 at the request of the Director General of IOM is proof that they also work to improve the cooperation between the state members. but more even to underline the complexity of this multilayered system in which an IO is functioning.” This is an excerpt from the interview with Catalin Bercaru. membership. at least this is my conclusion for Bercaru’s interview. In Beyond the Nation-State (1964) Ernst Haas explains this by the internal and external leadership of an IO’s secretary-general as someone controlling the bureaucratic apparatus and acting as an international politician representing the interests of the IO.

 Barkin. ALNAP  International Organization for Migration.iom.References  Structure Review Team & International Organization for Migration. “Organisational change in the humanitarian sector”. pp. P. T.ro/attachments/article/540/admin4all_scoping_study.research report. no. 2006. http://www. J. 4.pdf  Laegaard. for highlighting the situation in the 12 municipalities and staff training needs” http://oim. Palgrave Macmillan  Paul Clarke. “International Organization. Theories and Institutions”. 2011. & Bindslev. Canadian Journal of Political Science. official website. & Ramalingam. “Organizational Theory”.S 2006.S. vol. 2008. 44. B. “ADMIN4ALL .int/ 11 . 2009.V. M. 980-981. Ventus Publishing ApS  Paul. J. "Realist Constructivism: Rethinking International Relations Theory". & Barkin. J.

we come in their support. They don’t know how to breath this country. Here are completed also the medical reports for the refugees that transit Romania through the transit centers. We transmit them competencies and abilities to work with migrants. Likewise. on the other hand for their return home. The governments have a certain expertise in managing the migration situation and our organization. What are the services that IOM facilitates at this moment in Romania? In this moment. Our organization is an international organization.Interview with Catalin Bercaru. to present the migrants’ rights and obligations. both migrants and local authorities. We are here to give assistance to the local government to implement migration policies. via Skype 1. ADMin4ALL is a program that targets the public authorities in cities with a significant number of migrants. 2. The migrants are a special category of people. Practically. Therefore. IOM Romania carries out a series of activities for the illegal migrants. Also. For example. explaining to both parties what are their rights and responsibilities. which means that it is a support for national governments. So. Project Assistant/Communication for International Organization for Migration. this process is something new both for the migrants and for the public officers. New Zeeland or Australia. To be more precise. because it operates at an international level. The ADMin4ALL program deals with the local authorities. we work with public institutions. Other activities we promote strive to facilitate the integration of migrants in Romania by empowering local organizations and public authorities. what is the pace of the society. Office in Romania. it is new at a procedural level. The center is managed by IOM. if they voluntary choose so. on one hand facilitating their integration in Romania. There are some organizations that didn’t work with migrants at all. The emergency transit center is the first one in the world. 02.14. IOM Romania has a medical department that promotes activities for prevention and supporting public health. especially in the first part of their residence in Romania. like the one in Timisoara. dealing with migrants. whether it is a local city hall or a social service office. now there is one more in Slovenia. Who is IOM? The IOM is the ONU organization for migration. they come to the transit center where they go through a series of procedures.2017. if a refugee family living in a camp in Turkey is to be relocated in USA. and they presume a special intervention. has a wider view upon this phenomena. but there are facilitated also medical tests for the Romanian Migrants that want to go for long term in Canada. For them this is something new. Romanian government and UNHCR. describing to them what are their responsibilities and rights. Also we try to encourage other 12 . but also at a human level. we can propose a diversity of policies and actions that have a concrete application for a certain issue regarding the complex field of migration. including medical controls. we translate to them what local institutions have to do for the migrants and what migrants have to do to integrate better.

It is in close collaboration with political actors and local authorities and the NGO network. What is your collaboration with the government looks like? Our organization. 4. if so they choose voluntary. the migrant was not even in Romania. Other problems come from the interpretation of the legal framework. because. but the interpretation of the Health Department is that the person has to pay also from back. six months back. The situation does not have to be only like this. In our case. IOM is an agency that works a lot at the grassroots level. For example. let’s say. or an issue that can be improved. in February. but not explicitly. we work a lot with the General Inspectorate for Migration (IGI). 3. 13 . is very difficult to adjust to that level. when they are in need of help. The IOs. like empathy. As we come in assisting the migrants. a lot of what we implement would be impossible without the support of the government. respect toward the person in front of you. IOM is not floating in the air.emotional characteristics. public institutions or Migrants. For this situation. they themselves come towards the state government. The advantage is that these courses are much more flexible and better adjusted to the educational level of migrant. actually to the specialized structure within the government. when they see a problem. The course starts in September and continues for one year without breaks. like any other IO. need driven. We have come to build. they come and ask for assistance. We get involve in policy making. How is the collaboration with the local authorities. in the last 15 years of collaboration with the General Inspectorate for Migration. This is of course totally illogical. These states. at least in Bucharest. there are programs through which the migrants are informed and guided how to integrate in the Romanian society. a work system that relies a lot on institutional trust. for a person that arrives in Romania. comes in support of the national state. they are few NGOs that develop Romanian languages classes in parallel. one of the problems is that the Romanian language courses in Bucharest are done only in one school. which is a part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. there is a program through which. reaching to some very complex work formulas. prior to the date of the application. what challenges have you encountered so far? Some challenges are also coming from the legal perspective. This relationship has been welded in twenty years. but big part of our job is working with people. Therefore. Therefore. In parallel. whether they come from NGOs. even if it is from another culture. by the local authorities. The law states. it is very difficult to make public health insurance for the refugees. the migrants that reside illegally in Romania. For instance. As I was saying. receive help to return home.

than the situation gets even more complicated. 6. 7. do not even recognize the official documents. UNHCR deals with the day to day life inside the center and all the issues that come with that. The General Inspectorate for Migration offers the legal frame for the appropriate unfolding of the activities. Sometimes we reach an agreement. In relationship with IGI. 5. So. How is the relationship with the supra-national partners? I will use as an example the emergency transit center which is administrated by IOM Romania. when we were working punctual on certain project with the implication of one or two people. that every 14 . This means that when a problem rises. this program cannot unroll without a relationship of total collaboration. and how do you deal with them? Well. with more complex and deep subjects. Therefore. we gather. IOM handles the transportation from and to the center. but we still go in the right direction ahead. UNHCR and the General Inspectorate for Migration. one of the biggest challenges is that our work is doubled if not tripled. the General Inspectorate for Migration. because both of us know the situation at the grassroots and we try to find a solution. In the framework of this program. What challenges rise inside the organization structures.Then is the issue of the people. including the medical tests and all the necessary papers. sometimes no. because they are new for them. either in a policy. both challenges can be overcome. Can you imagine. the officers that have never encounter a situation like this. Now. but we always come and sit at the table of negotiation. Even so. as you can imagine. there are ups and downs. all the bureaucratic procedures have to be made based on a certain layout of our organization. in small cities. there are so much more projects. but the process depends on the openness of each and every person and if the institutions are willing to solve the situation or not. the activities are very clearly defined. how did it grow since twenty years ago? Comparing with the beginning. Some of the officers. or in the interpretation of the law or even in the empathy towards the person in front of you. for example. even if there is a common management. The relationship is not all honey and milk. having to deal with the foreigners. and if the migrant has a different culture background. talk and negotiate. the discussions were much more targeted on “what to do” and “how can we do better”. because we have to respect the rules of the IOM headquarters and also the national rules. Everything comes down to the human factor that is reflected in more ways.

there is a lot of red tape. our organization. So. 15 . Our organization is totally self-sustainable and survives from the projects.budget has to be made in two or three styles. 8. but also with the foreign affairs minister. being the local branch of an international organization. the greatest constrain comes from whatever it is desired by the one that gives the money. Along the years. finances and budgets. has certain privileges and benefits. In order to deliver a product. In the same time. at the level that you know is best. and then we are obligated to say that we can achieve that specific thing but also we can add extra value to that. but we also have stateliness when we sit at the negotiation table with the Association of Filipinos. we gain quite an expertise. this and this for the same budget. being projects with European financing. apply for the project. the biggest constrain comes from the initial request that the donor had. And then. So. and there are a lot of translations on top of that. In that case. All the other challenges are elements that carry a lot of work but are manageable. the NGOs that are willing to do the activities. In the moment we win the project. Therefore. we can do this. some activities that bring more benefits to the beneficiaries. we come and say. the donor wants a specific thing. the donor says that we should do this and this for the migrants. we propose to provide within the same project. Sometimes is quite a hassle to reconcile all the stakeholders in order to finish the activity in a timely manner. For example. These suggestions are usually rejected. Based on our experience so far. supra-national entities or the end beneficiary? I will bring in the discussion something that is very important. under the administration of the General Inspectorate for Migration. which direction is the biggest challenge coming from: local authorities. This institutional prestige can be used to take things to a higher level. This situation can facilitate a much flexible relationship when it comes to bureaucracy.