Fores;;;ology

Management
ELSEVIER Forest Ecology and Management 72 ( 1995) 13-20

Natural production of wild edible mushrooms in the southwestern
rural territory of Mexico City, Mexico
Marisela C. Zamora-Martinez*, Cecilia Nieto de Pascual-Pola
Centro National de Investigacidn Disciplinaria en Conservacidn y Mejoramiento de Ecosistemas Forestales, Institute National
de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias, Ave. Progreso No. 5, Coyoachn, 041 IO Mkxico, D. F., Mkxico
Accepted14July 1994

Abstract

Wild edible mushroomsare important as dietary products in the rural communities of Mexico, and provide
additional income during the rainy season.The present study wascarried out during the summersof 1990and
1991 in two Christmastree stand plots near the town of Topilejo, in Distrito Federal, Mexico, to determine the
natural production of wild edible mushrooms.The relationshipsbetweenproduction, dasometricand soil charac-
teristics were established;the best emergencecame under open canopy.

Keywords: Mushrooms;
Wild ediblemushrooms;
Fungi;Naturalproduction

1. Introduction blanco de ocote’) are very appreciated in na-
tional and international markets.
Non-woody forest resources have been used There are a few quantitative studies about the
since the pre-Hispanic period, one of the most productivity of fiuctiferous bodies in situ and
appreciated being fungi as they are complemen- their relationships with their tree stands. San-
tary of rural diets of people who live near or in chez ( 1982) calculated the production of R.
forests. They also provide additional income brwipes in a Pinus spp. plantation; Vi&u-real and
during the production period. These natural Guzmdn ( 1985, 1986a,b) made a serial assess-
products fulfil ornamental, medical, ceremonial, ment in the forests of Cofre de Perote, Veracruz,
insecticide, handicraft and fuel purposes. Mexico. Bandala et al. ( 1991) continued their
In several states of the central part of Mexico experiments in mixed evergreen cloudy forests.
(Puebla, Hidalgo, Estado de Mexico and Dis- Moreno ( 1990) examined production of fungi in
trito Federal), interest is focused on these prod- two vegetation conditions in the Estado de Mex-
ucts due to their real and potential value. For ex- ico. Alvarado et al. ( 1992) did the same in
ample, in a small rural area near Mexico City, Puebla.
Reygadas ( 1991) identified 52 species,with 97 The present study had the following objec-
popular names; of these, Russula brevipes tives: ( 1) to make a quantitative assessmentof
(‘trompa’) and Tricholoma magnivelare (‘hong0 the natural productivity of wild edible mush-
rooms in a 2 year period; (2) to determine the
* Corresponding
author. stational distribution of wild edible mushrooms;
0378-l127/95/$09.500 1995ElsevierScience B.V. All rights reserved
SSDIO378-1127(94)03450-8

to the East and rullensis and grasslands (Muhlenbergia spp. It is the orographic dostrobus forests as well as mixed forests of Abies limit south of the Valley of Mexico Basin.. Zamora-Martinez. Pinus maximartinezii and Pinus 2. 1). 1. Quercus spp.C. east. Mexico City (Nieto de Pascual.T(199. Study area cembroides. Pi- mountain chain that surrounds Distrito Federal nus patula. at 3700 m. The climate is subhumid. C. which is the Vegetation consists of Pinus montezumae. Alnus jorullensis spp.5) 13-20 (3 ) to identify the environmental factors that af. fect wild edible mushroom production. mild-cold with av- Mexico City belongs to Distrito Federal. Pinus ayacahyuite and Pinus pseu- at the Southwest (Fig. jo- South.I4 M. and erage temperature between 10 and 12‘C. The sampling lots are in the Arroyo El Zorrillo Basin in a former Christmas tree plantation of Abies religiosa. and to the North. Location of the Arroyo El Zorrillo Basin within the Distrito Federal. “ARROYO EL ZORRILLO’ BASIN DISTRITO FEDERAL Pine forest Plr foreat Broedfeclf fore Id Grassland Of Fig. The 1250 mm annual precipitation. a smaller extent. . Nieto de Pascual-Poia / Forest Ecology and Managernertt 7.) to West. To the rehgiosa. and is located in the Central part of Mexico. it neighbors Morelos State. study area lies in Sierra de1Ajusco. 1987). Estado de Mexico State.

rainfall. brevipes with collection. a fact that might re- Mushroom biomass was related with dasome. tomic taxonomy key (Singer. mass per collection ( 1. Fungal spe- cies biomass was estimated through the fresh 4. Methods 4. gemmata are outstanding in relation to biomass . 13. fleshy individuals ( 12.1. from May to October during the rainy sea. 1991) and with According to Villarreal and Guzman ( 1985.30 m high). Zamora-Martinez. large and of fleshy consistency. October). while tified fungal specieswas calculated from the to. was the most abundant specieswith total weight tional Forest Herbarium) aspart of the scientific of 25. Cifuentes et al. phenology of the observed speciescor- Herbario de la Escuela National de Ciencias responds to the following categories: 21%to early Biol6gicas de1 Instituto Politecnico National short (June-July). Guzman.98 kg ha-‘. 27. tied taxa have terrestrial habits. in spite of being of this production was estimated in regard to av.83 kg ha. Amanita rubescens and Amanita aff. and dbh at 1. the eco. The latter has vigorous and large The total production per hectare of each iden. montezumae and identified in the two sampling plots. through a dicho. suggestsa former forest land use. alutaceae was the only Sampling was performed at one session per species collected in one plot. Also. Thirteen new species were collected midity content. the former is smaller and less fleshy. followed by R. habits and 3% have lignicole habits. The total number of the collected species are The collected fungi were determined macros.5) 13-20 15 3.8% to the short half-season (July- ium at the Politechnological National Institute) September). 1991) . within which R. Boletus aestivalis recorded the highest bio- through re-collection of the edible fungal species. Results Basidiomycete production assessmentwas es. most through dasometric measuring (total height.2. 1984. 72% of the identi- week.b).2 kg). C. 1962. 19. C.6% to the late short (Septem- and the Herbario de la Facultad de Ciencias de ber-October ) . Russula aff. precipitation. ceptibly lower than in 1990. a fact that tal amount and the weight from the fructiferous implies higher carpophore production to yield bodies from the 800 m* sample. M. 1978. they belong to a P. Basidiocarp diversity timated in two experimental sampling plots (20 x 20 m2) where Christmas trees 1. 10% to the late long (August-Oc- la Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico tober ). the support of the herbarium samples from the 1986a. The identified fungi were During the 1990 season Lactarius deliciosus given to the Herbario National Forestal (Na. 24% humicole son until the last fructiferous bodies emerge. where trees are 22 m on average. in the nutrient cycle due to their decomposing lection of edible fungal speciesand of soil ( 1 kg properties. re-col. reported for the study area (Guispert et al. sult from annual variations in temperature and tric measurements. tonomous University of Mexico). during most of the rainy season (Table 2 ) . aff. alu- annual average temperature and total taceae.6% to early long (July- (Biological Sciences National School Herbar. edaphic characteristics (hu. 1979. nomic value of the fiuctiferous bodies emerging.‘. 4. equivalent to 40% of all the wild edible species topically and microscopically. high biomass values. They stand. a fact that belong to 13 families and 20 genus (Table 1). pH and organic matter).12 m high Twenty-nine different species were collected were planted. O-30 cm deep). Around 52% of the taxa can be collected (Science School Herbarium at the National Au. Moser. Nieto de Pascual-Pola /Forest Ecology and Management 72 (199. erage price in the national market present at the The production for the 1991 season was per- time when the study was conducted..15cm in diameter). 27. Basidiocarp production weight of the fiuctiferous bodies with the aid of a granatarious balance. Reygadas.. from these. Thus. of the fungi found must have an important role canopy cover. with during this period too.

X Cortinariaceae Hebeloma fastibile (Pers. alutacea (Pers. X Russuia aff. ) ex Pers. values (Table’ 3 ). Zamora-Martinez.C.3 kg ha-‘. ex Fr. ) Sing. X Helvella lacunosa Afz. ) Romagnesi (Sensu Lange. X Collybia cot&ens (Pers. ) Fr. ) Pets. x Laccaria laccata (Stop. ha. X Pezizales Helvellaceae Helvella crispa Stop. ) Kumm. ) Gill. ex Fr. Grev. queletii Fr. ex Fr. X Suillus brevipes (Peck) 0. which means that I3 kg of carpophores was low. ex Fr. ex Fr. 16 M. X Russula brevipes Peck X Russula aff. ex Fr. ) S.) Kumm. ex Fr. X Amanita fulva (Schaeff. X Lyophyllum decastes (Fr. ex Fr. ) Schroet. ) Vittadini X Bolbitiaceae Agrocybe verbacti (Fr. X Macropodia sp.’ of edible wild mushrooms per month can The estimated average production for the 2 be collected. X Amanita rubescens (Pets. Kuhn & Romagnesi)a X Boletaceae Bole&s aestivalis Paulet ex Fr. ) Sing.’ X Ramariajlava (Fr. X Helvella elastica Fr. ) B. ex Fr. ) Fr. X Russulaceae Lactarius deliciosus ( L. ex Hook. This is a good utility that might . in general terms. gemmata (Fr. Kuntze X Coprinaceae Psathyrella spadicea (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Murr. ex Schw. & Br. ) Schulze? X Laccaria amethystina (Bolt. ) Gray X Lactarius scrobiculatus (Stop. ex Fr. C. ) Q&let X Lycoperdaceae Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. X Amanita aff.” X “Not ever recorded as mycorrhizal. X Tricholomataceae Clitocybe sp. X Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. Gray X Amanita vaginata (Bull. ex Fr.F. the number years was 64. ex Fr. X Hohenbuhefia petaloides (Bull. X Aphyllophorales Clavariaceae Ciavuiina rugosa (Fr. Nieto de Pascual-Pola /Forest Ecology and Management 72 (1995) 13-20 Table 1 Edible wild fungi species collected from two Christmas tree stands Species Terricole Humicole Lignicole Agaricales Amanitaceae Amanita caesarea (Stop.

which var- 6 kg day-‘. ha-’ ( 1984 season). X Psathyrella spadicea X X X Ramaria Java X Russula aff. situation. continuous cropland . such as Hohenbuhe. The observed differences keting of fungi. X X Collybia confluens X X X Hebeloma fastibile X X Helvella crispa X X X Helvella elastica X X Helvella lacunosa X X X Hohenbuhelia petaloides X Laccaria amethystina X X Laccaria laccata X Lactarius deliciosus X X Lactarius scrobiculatus X X Lycoperdon perlatum X Lyophyllum decastes X X X Macropodia sp. queletii X X Suillus brevipes X X X Tricholoma ustaloides X X come from the great species variety (Table I ) lia petaloides. C. a condition that over-prices the might come from the well-preserved vegetation product. gave apparently. in the local popular cuisine. Nieto de Pascual-Pola /Forest Ecology and Management 72 (1995) 13-20 17 Table 2 Phenology of the edible wild mushrooms in two Christmas tree stands Species June July August September October Agrocybe verbacti X X X Amanita caesarea X Amanita fulva X X X Amanita aff.3 ha during an 8. M.C. gemmata X X Amanita rubescens X X Amanita vaginata X X Boletus aestivalis X X X X Clavulina rugosa X X Clitocybe sp. Agrocybe verbacti and Laccaria and their high commercial value. For example. thus not thoroughly exploited.b) and of Bandala et al. a collector covers over Cofre de Perote in the Mexican state of Vera- 11. these prices give an estimated income per collec. while the study area in edible wild mushroom speciesthat are unknown Distrito Federal is subject to human activity.there is a long ( 1990 season) with a top production of 747 kg chain of intermediaries from collection to mar. respectively. there are a good number of in the case of Veracruz. a great effort must be made to obtain ( 1991) who worked in a pine-fir forest at the reasonable profit. This fact is favorable for preserv- Morchella elata and Lyophyllum decastes reach ing the diversity of this natural resource as it is US$l 1 and US$5 per kilogram. higher values. alutacea X Russula brevipes X X X X Russula aff. 1986a. amethystina. However. studied area with the results of Villarreal and Even if these data might suggesta stimulating Guzman (1985.12 h period to pick around cruz. Comparison of the estimated edible wild tor during the season in the study area of mushroom production per hectare from the US$ 1000 (Reygadas. 1991) . Thus. such as sheep grazing. Zamora-Martinez. ied from 453 (1983 season) to 135 kg ha-’ As in every productive process.

after which it de- Annual yield of edible wild mushrooms from the two Christ.in addition to the climatic differences with that obtained in different forests from the between these two regions (Santa Catarina and central part of Mexico (Moreno. 2). might explain the Santa Catarina de1 Monte in the Mexican state estimated great production of fructiferous bod- of Estado de Mexico during one rainy season. 1990)) since in Sierra de1Ajusco) .5 0.18 M.69. 0 0.3 Maximum fungal production coincides with a Hebeloma fastibile 2.1 composing function over other microorganisms.12 m2. a fact that stimulates the macro- Russula brevipes 19. 0. These data resulted from two soil sam- Clitocybe sp.’ in kg ha-’ . creases rapidly to a low of 11. ing up-swing of the soil organic matter decom- Lactarius deliciosus 26 0 position rates. 1986). biomass increases rapidly until it reaches its top Finally. Clavulina rugosa 0 0. Total 16. Lactarius scrobiculatus 0 0. Nieto de Pascual-Pola / Fores& Ecology and Management 72 (1995) 13-20 Table 3 value in July (58.3 mycete production as featuring elements of this Boletus aestivalis 16. Species 1990 1991 In general terms. C. Helvella crispa 0.3 7 Helvella elastica 0. acid (pH Amanita jiilva 0. it is interesting to point out that the .3 process.3 trees (P. Pritchett. the data show average cover of 6.1 such as bacteria and actinomycetes (Gaucher.7 0 velopment of the fructiferous bodies. soil extraction and wild cause the trees are young and lower than 2 m edible mushrooms collection itself. 2)) it is evident that come of greater fructification. compared this case. dark. RamariaJIava 0 0. alutacea 0 1. be- opening for forage oats. Zamora-Martinez. bulk density 0. 1990). since they Suillus brevipes 0. however.5 the heaviest rainy months (Fig.13 cm.5 5.2 0.1 RussuIa aff. values values in which the relative humidity rises with a result- in kg ha. varying texture from Tricholoma ustaloides 0. high organic Laccaria amethystina 0 0. This.05%. since they belong to a ( 1990) reported 35.7). C.1 1971.2 matter percentage and acid pH are properties that Amanita a& gemmata 0 0. too. these fungi actually developed under an open canopy. montezumae) present in the sampling Russula aff. queletti 1 0.94 kg ha-’ in mas tree stands .38 mm) during Helvella lacunosa 1.6 0.3 kg ha.1 In regard to the dasometric values of the adult Laccaria laccata 0 0.6 9.2 plots. October. the young When reviewing production of fungi in regard trees have a more intense mycorrhizal activity of to rainfall and monthly average temperature from the roots of adult trees.6 slight decrement in rainfall ( 14. and total nitrogen Lycoperdon perlatum 0.2 Sandy-loam texture.6 0.12 m ).1 0 Agrocybe verbacti 0 0.9 m and average dbh 43. organic matter 7. which stimulates the out- the two sampled plots (Fig.8 Macropodia sp.3 The soil in both plots is classified as andosol Amanita vaginata 0.2 0.3 ples collected at O-30 cm deep. their dasometric components the successional process in the symbiotic rela- were important too.4 average total height 22. 1.3 52.6 0. low density. the increase in the number of equivalent equivalent fructiferous bodies occurs in most rainy months.9 generally emerge when rainfall precipitation is Psathyrella spadicea 0.8 30.3 stimulate the development of fungi and their de- Amanita rubescens 0 2.2 0.8 0.2 I of volcanic origin.’ ) . From a global viewpoint.in ies in the study area (64.1 0 midity conditions remain favorable for the de- Amanita caesarea 0.7 kg ha-’ in a pine forest at 2 year plantation.49 kg ha-’ ). Lyophyllum decastes 4.2 0. tionship between mycelium and root. hu- Collybia co&ens 0.1 0.3 loam to sandy-loam.37%.5 over 100 mm (Moreno. Moreno (average height. Hohenbuhelia petaloides 0 0.

Distrito Federal.. IV Congreso National de Micologla: 69. between the 50 and 350 kg ha-’ estimated inter... Total fungal production in relation to average monthly temperature and rainfall precipitation ( 1990. during the rainy season. Mexico. Nava. Bol.M. 1984.. tive for global forest exploitation.’ is Marcio A. Mexico. Mic. Mexico City. National de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias. cation and made valuable suggestions. G. Nieto de Pascual-Pola /Forest Ecology and Management 72 (199-F) 13-20 19 Temn. M. Villegas. Unpublished. Nahuz and David Zavala Zavala.R. 0. TEMPERATURE 0 PRODUCTION STAND A m PRODUCTION STAND B Fig. Zamora-Martinez. F. V. Manzola-Cruz. Mexico. Perez-Ramirez. M. D. Bandala. Spain. Ediciones Omega. J. Also. Mexico.G. since 29 mestibles silvestres en San Juan Tetla. and Tapia. MC. 199 1. thanks are due to musa. ersidad National Aut6noma de Mexico. 24 pp. Guia de colecta y conservation de ma- the great majority of these species are cromicertos. Murrieta. edible mushroom production of 64.3 kg ha. Production de 10s hongos comestibles en ios bosques de Veracruz. Campo Experimental Coyoacln. PRECIPITATION -+. the Instituto National de Investigaciones Fores. B. 1979. Instituto The collection of wild edible mushrooms re. Agropecuaria. Gaucher. Tlax- The collection of wild edible mushrooms must cala. since pello. L..G. The wild edible mushroom diversity in Topi. M. pp. References 4.. and Zamora-Martinez.R.. who kindly reviewed this paper before its publi- val by Wasterlund and Ingeliig ( 1981) asthe po. L.. G. Sot. Pue. Guzman. Guzmkt. and Ca- grams based upon their ecologic conditions.. Acknowledgements Guispert. .J.C. 2. be made carefully under forest management pro. Tratado de pedologia agricola. Li- (catalog number 1. B. G. ports complementary profits to the rural families Mexico City. Reunion Cientifica Forestal y different taxa were identified in 800 m2. Identification de 10s hongos comestibles tales y Agropecuarias for its support for this study venenosos. and acts as an alterna. Facultad de Ciencias. and Cifuentes. 19: 253-273. alucinantes y destructores de la madera.M. In: Memoria de la IIIa. tentially attainable production in a good year for the emergence of fructiferous bodies. lC 250 J F M A M J J A S 0 N D” MONTHS . 197 1. Barcelona.27). 1992.. Estudio comparative de1 saber traditional de 10s hongos en dos The authors wish to express their gratitude to comunidades de la Sierra de1 Ajusco. Evaluation de la production de hongos co- lejo. 4 13 pp. is high.. Conclusions Alvarado. Ciclo 1992.. 182-l 9 1. Mex. Mexico City.3. C. G. Univ- mycorrhizal.199 1).. 452 pp. 199 1.J. Cifuentes. Mexico.

F. 9 15 pp. 1982. 9-l 3 pp.. and Guzman. Mexico City.F. 86 pp.C. greso National de Micologia. Mex. 11: 271-280. 1986. 198 1. Mexico. nidades forestales de la Sierra de1 Ajusco. Nieto de Pascual-Pola /Forest Ecology and Management 72 (1995) 13-20 Moreno. de1 Monte. In: Memorias de1 ler. Mexico. Mexico. Con- . Facultad de Ciencias. 144 pp. Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico. 1985. 3: 269- comestibles (Russula brevipes) en una plantation de pi... con. M. Z. Biotica.C. 1990. Fruit body production cias. of larger fungi in some young Swedish forest with special Sanchez. G. Rev.20 A4. Tesis. 1978. 294. 1986b. For. A. Xal- nente de la productividad de1 bosque en Santa Catarina apa. Tesis. I.. III. 199 pp. Villarreal. 2: 259-277. R. UK. Mexico.. 1987. hongos comestibles silvestres en 10s bosques de Mexico Reygadas. Manage. Mexico. and IngelBg. and Guzman. Mic. Limusa. G. G. London. Germany. L. Ecol. 26-30 October 1982. Publisher.. Production de 10s 634 pp. Analisis estructural de las comu. Production de 10s de Mexico. P. 1962. Sociedad Mexicana de Micologia. Zamora-Martinez.. 1: 51-90. Mex. Ver. propiedades.. T. Los hongos comestibles: un compo. R. D. L..L. Sec- Moser. The Agaricales in modern taxonomy.. and Guzman. Suelos forestales. Keys to Agaricus and Boleti. Montecillos Chapingo. gos comestibles silvestres en 10sbosques de Mexico I. L. Evaluation de la produccidn de hongos reference to logging waste. Tesis. Weinheim. Rev.. Wasterlund. 1991. Mexico City... 535 pp. Mexico City. Mexico. hongos comestibles silvestres en 10sbosques de Mexico II. C. Universidad National Autonoma Villarreal. Estudio etnomicologico de la Sub. Production de 10s hon- Nieto de Pascual. nos en Michoacan. servacion y mejoramiento..G. Pritchett. 1986a. C..C. Roger Phillips ond Edition. Singer. Villarreal. Facultad de Cien. W. cuenca Arroyo El Zorrillo. Colegio de Postgraduados. Mic. Mexico.