(Draft of January 20, 2004)


Particle size analysis of powders using test sieves is, and has been, the
standard for many years. The sieving procedure was formalized in 1925
with the establishment of ASTME-11. The ASTM standards cover the
manufacture of test sieves and the procedure for conducting a manual sieve

The manual method of test sieving is still practiced today, but mechanical
shakers have become common and new shakers are even relatively quiet.
Other methods of particle size analysis have been developed and are
common for submicron analysis where sieves are difficult to use.

Quality control programs such as ISO 9000 have required the development
of methods to calibrate and certify test sieve procedures. As practiced for
decades, the sieve procedure can be outlined as follows:
1. Weigh a sample and record the starting sample weight.
2. Weigh and record the weight of each sieve and the bottom pan
in a Astack.@
3. Place the sample on the top sieve of a stack of sieves and cover
the top sieve
with a flat cover.
4. Shake the stack (keeping it vertical) for a specified length of
time at a predetermined speed.
5. When the shaking is complete, reweigh and record the weight of
each sieve
and the bottom pan.
6. Calculate the weight of sample on each sieve and the pan.
7. Calculate the percent of sample on each sieve and the pan.

The total sample recovery for this manual method is typically 95 to 98
percent. For more detailed information see Chapter 19, section 20 of Perry=s
seventh edition. Also see the American Society for Testing and Materials
AGuidelines for Establishing Sieve Analysis Procedures (STP 447 B).

Sieving for Fluidized Bed Reactor Design:

One application of using particle/powder descriptions is to predict the
behavior of a gas-solids fluidized bed reactor. Fundamental parameters
such as size and size distribution, shape, and density of particles influence

They are all well defined in the literature.15 minutes and can be done in shifts. It is not however theoretically related to the surface/volume and volume means. Common approximations are used for dsv and dv where the former is 0. . you should document and fully describe the sieving procedure. Manual shaking should be for 10 . Note: Table 19-6. Table 1 is attached and is from the a Gas Fluidized Bed Technology training notebook prepared by Derek Geldart (also see his 1986 John Wiley book).explicitly and implicitly the behavior of fluidized beds.75). there are many ways (>12) of defining its size. Experimental Procedure: Assume that you are considering the fluidized bed combustion of ground coal. these four particle descriptions are the most common: sieve size. as a team you are requested to determine the Sauter Diameter for a sample of ground coal. We have prepared a “stack” of 3" sieves for your use. which is attached. d p(ave).87 times the Sauter Diameter and the latter is 1. volume diameter. and surface diameter. Assume that any material that ends up on the pan will not be used for the process. A common and useful particle parameter is the Sauter Diameter which can be calculate from the sieve results as shown in Table 1.77. In fluidized bed reactor design. The ratio of the surface volume diameter to the volume diameter is defined as sphericity. Therefore. Most correlations that are used to predict parameters such as the minimum fluidization velocity require at least an average particle diameter. For a particle of any size other than a sphere. though not easily. The fluidized bed design the calculation method gives Aproper@ weight to the influence of smaller particles and fines. you must know the average particle diameter. is from Perry=s handbook and describes sieve specifications. Note that the approximations above yield a ratio of 0. In order to design the reactor=s gas distributor (only one of many design decisions that require dp). which is very close to the measured value for ground coal (0. Since abnormal size distributions pose additional design problems. you should also determine and evaluate the particle size distribution. The sphericity of powders has been defined and can also be measured.13 times the Sauter Diameter. surface/volume diameter. In the spirit of ISO.