INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS IN THE SOUTHERN REGION OF THE STATE OF RIO DE

JANEIRO, BRAZIL: AN ANALYSIS FROM THE UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY-
GOVERNMENT PERSPECTIVE

Marcelo Amaral, D.Sc. *, Jéssica Souza Maia, B.Sc., Maria Clara Martins de Souza, B.Sc.
Triple Helix Research Group (THERG-Brazil), Institute of Human and Social Science, Fluminense
Federal University, Brazil
* marceloamaral@id.uff.br

WCSA 7th WORLD CONFERENCE
5th and 6th January 2017, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Theme: Social and Economic Development

Abstract (500 words):

Created in the Fordism-Keynesian paradigm, organizations of goods and services mass production
have undergone significant changes since the end of the twentieth century, leading to a non-linear
trend of innovation. The technology and knowledge are essential parts of the process, and it was
enabled through university-industry-government linkages. This restructuring movement of local
economies has been focused on the inclusion of new ventures in the supply chain, stimulating
competitiveness, as an example. New organizational models, either for production or for of knowledge
generation and transmission are created, such as business incubators, technological parks, and clusters.

This research has studied the metal-mechanical and automotive clusters of Paraíba Valley Region
(PVR), the southern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This region was the cradle of country
industrialization in the twentieth century and has one of the highest GDP/capita of Brazil. This cluster
is integrated by several companies, as CSN (biggest steel plant of Latin America), Votorantim Metals,
Saint-Gobain; four automotive plants (PSA Peugeot Citroën, MAN trucks, Hyundai Heavy Industries,
Nissan) and its satellite suppliers (Michelin, Schweitzer, Guardian, Galvasud); national and
multinational tycoons as Xerox, AMBEV (AB Inbev), Light, Du Pont; and more than 100 small and
medium business.

This work is an applied research with a qualitative approach, where authors performed a literature
review, a secondary data gathering, and generation of primary data. The field research was based on
interviews complemented by a questionnaire addressed to the actors that represent the cluster´s
history. The questionnaire applied in 2015 verifies the actors´ perceptions and their roles about the
development process in PVR, using qualitative methods, which produce detailed information on a
much smaller group of people and cases. In the interviews, it was revealed which are the biggest
difficulties to leverage the economic sectors and the region.

The paper was organized into four parts. Part one presents a literature review of regional economic
development; clusters and local productive arrangements; and Triple Helix approach. The second part
presents a historical view of the PVR region: its social and economic development. It will also present
some socioeconomic information about the clusters. The third part introduces the case study, the
results of interviews with the constituent actors of governance, the main difficulties to overcome and
incentive actions to local growth. In sequence, a graphical version of Triple Helix approach
configuration is proposed to explain the relationships between the actors. Finally, proposals for
improvements and solutions to face issues and the final considerations will be presented.

It is possible to conclude that the introduction of innovation management is an urgent need in PVR,
through science and technology research led by Academy. Technology innovation can be a support to
overcome the bottlenecks of companies and chain production. This enhancement can be achieved
through the introduction of new technologies, especially about production processes. However, it is

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